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Linguistics 1 Language Change Week 5 Lectures Change Parts 1 & 2, Video “In Search of the First Language”

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Presentation on theme: "Linguistics 1 Language Change Week 5 Lectures Change Parts 1 & 2, Video “In Search of the First Language”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Linguistics 1 Language Change Week 5 Lectures Change Parts 1 & 2, Video “In Search of the First Language”

2 Topics for Language Change 1.Why languages are diverseWhy languages are diverse 2.Aspects of language that can or cannot changeAspects of language that can or cannot change 3.Two important changes in English since Old EnglishTwo important changes in English since Old English 4.What it means for languages to be “related”What it means for languages to be “related” 5.The Comparative Method: requirement of regular sound correspondencesThe Comparative Method: requirement of regular sound correspondences 6.Mass Comparison: probability of relatedness based on number of resemblancesMass Comparison: probability of relatedness based on number of resemblances 7.How far back we can establish relationship: the Nostratic HypothesisHow far back we can establish relationship: the Nostratic Hypothesis 2

3 Why doesn’t everyone in Western Europe speak Latin? A.They still speak the languages that Roman soldiers encountered. B.Roman soldiers were speaking different languages. C.They used to, but over time Latin changed in different ways in separate places. D.God was angered at the Romans and wanted to disrupt their ability to communicate. 3 List of topics List of topics

4 For each feature select whether it would TRUE or FALSE for every language. A.True B.False 1.Vowels are differentiated by changing tongue shape. 2.Nouns are combined with modifiers to create larger Noun Phrases. 3.Front vowels are distinguished by rounding or not rounding the lips. 4.Nouns are classified as being of masculine or feminine gender. 5.Verbs are altered in form to show that the subject is 1 st, 2 nd, or 3 rd person. 6.A linguistic distinction exists to distinguish speaker, hearer, and some third party who is neither speaker or hearer. 7.Multi-part objects are generally designated by single words rather than phrases. 8.Terms for relatives are differentiated depending on whether they on one’s father’s side or on one’s mother’s side. 4 List of topics List of topics

5 Early Middle English Vowel Shortening (12th Century) A long vowel became short when it was followed by either two consonants or two unstressed syllables. hdan, hdde hīde(n), hidde hide, hid sūþ, sūþe¨rne south, southerne south, southern s þ, s þĕrnĕ 5 List of topics List of topics

6 The Great English Vowel Shift (15th Century) ā\ā\ HIGH MID LOW ē ī ɔ̄ ō ū Late Middle English Long Vowel System ayaw bake [bek]  ME bāke keep [kip]  ME kēpe ME wīse  wise [wayz] stone [ston]  ME stone/stane [ st ɔ̄ n ] (OE stān) goose [gus]  ME goos ME hūse  house [haws] (Both written with “ a ” in Old English.) 6 List of topics List of topics

7 Vowel Changes (1) (Data for discussion. This is not an interactive polling slide.) A-G show some Old English words that have been lost from the language. If they had survived… ①What would be the likely Modern English spelling? ②What would be the likely Modern English pronunciation? List of topics List of topics 7

8 Vowel Changes (2) (Data for discussion. This is not an interactive polling slide.) The table shows paired Old English words in their basic form and a derived form. ①What are the word pairs today? ②How is the BASIC FORM pronounced? ③What accounts for the modern vowel pronunciations? List of topics List of topics 8

9 What explains the difference in English and French pronunciation? A.English and French changed in different ways from their shared ancestor B.French underwent changes that English did not undergo C.English underwent changes that French did not undergo D.English and French use the same letters to represent different sounds English rite [rayt] obscene [əsin] grave [grev] profound [profawnd] French rite [rit] obscène [ɔbsɛn] grave [grav] profound [prɔfõ] 9 List of topics List of topics

10 What explains the vowel differences in the English word forms? A.The words entered English at different times B.The one on the left is original, the one on the right has changed C.The one on the right is original, the one on the left has changed D.The root has changed in both forms. E.The differences are random (non- systematic) Base forms divine [dıvayn] obscene [əsin] grave [grev] profound [profawnd] Forms with ity divinity [dıvınıti] obscenity [əbsɛnıti] grave [grævıti] profundity [profʌndıti] 10 List of topics List of topics

11 Which pair of languages is most closely related? (After polling, click the mouse or space bar to see evidence of relatedness.) A. B. C. D. E. 11 List of topics List of topics

12 Which variety of Chinese is the original? A.Taishanese B.Cantonese C.Mandarin D.Taiwanese E.A speaker of original is not pictured here 12 List of topics List of topics

13 Comparative Method (1): Which one from A-D does NOT represent one of the regular sound correspondences seen in the data table. A.h – s – s B.h – ch – c C.h – k – k D.h – š – k 13 List of topics List of topics

14 Comparative Method (2): When compared with other items in the table, item (7) must be rejected as showing a regular sound correspondence. Why? A.French s, Spanish s should correspond to English h B.None of the items 1-7 have “c” as the first letter in all the words C.English “circle” is borrowed from French D.This word would not have existed in the original “mother” language 14 List of topics List of topics

15 Mass comparison: Which is the most likely grouping of these languages? A.Farsi/Uzbek, Turkish/Hindi, Telugu/Tamil B.Farsi/Hindi, Uzbek/Telugu, Turkish/Tamil C.Farsi/Hindi, Uzbek/Turkish, Telugu/Tamil. 15 List of topics List of topics

16 In this video clip, Donald Ringe argues that there is a limit to how far back we can demonstrate that languages are related. What is his argument? A.Proving language relatedness requires written documentation B.Language changes caused by cultural changes obscure language relatedness C.Accumulated differences between languages over a long period of time obscures relatedness D.Proponents of the Nostratic hypothesis are just dreamers 16 List of topics List of topics

17 What is your “home” language, basically the lan- guage you grew up speaking with your parents? A.English B.Spanish C.Mandarin Chinese D.Cantonese E.Korean F.Vietnamese G.Farsi/Persian H.Arabic I.Hindi J.Tagalog 17 List of topics List of topics

18 Which language family does your home language belong to? A.Indo-European B.Afroasiatic C.Sino-Tibetan D.Austronesian E.None of the above F.I have no idea 18 List of topics List of topics

19 Some Language Families 19 List of topics List of topics

20 Some More Language Families 20 List of topics List of topics


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