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What is Culture? PART 2. Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, and Human Rights Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Stereotype Cultural Generalization.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Culture? PART 2. Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, and Human Rights Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Stereotype Cultural Generalization."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Culture? PART 2

2 Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, and Human Rights Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Stereotype Cultural Generalization

3 Cultural Practices Discussion on cultural practices that differ from traditional American and European practices ◦Free-write: ◦During discussion: ◦Maintain a cultural relativistic perspective ◦Focus on the cultural reasoning ◦Not on whether or not you approve

4 Foot Binding

5 Origins & History Early 10 th century ___________________ _____ – illegal in china Why? What has changed?

6 Foot Binding: Cultural Ties Social perception ◦__________ Marriage ◦______________ ◦_________________ ◦____________________

7 Female Genital Cutting

8 What is Female Genital Cutting? ________________________________ ◦Practiced in ____________________________ WHO recognizes ________________________

9 Female Genital Cutting FGC attendants in Indonesian elementary school classroom

10 Female Genital Cutting: Cultural Significance Tradition ◦____________________________ ◦__________________________ ◦_________________________________ ◦_____________________________ ◦____________________

11 Differing Views - FGC ◦Spiritual and Social Obligation ◦____________________________ ◦Economic Necessity ◦More ____________: _____________________ ◦Men ____________________________________ ◦__________________in a _________________ Society

12 Differing Views - FGC ◦Violation of ___________________ ◦Violation of ____________ ◦________________________ ◦A symptom of ____________________________ ◦A form of _______________________

13 Why perform Female Genital Cutting?

14 Rite of Passage: A Male Example Ritual Insemination - Etoro, Papua New Guinea ◦Male Rite of Passage ◦___________________________________ ◦Highly Regulated and Culturally Significant ◦______________________________ ◦_______________________________

15 Efforts: Eradication or Education? ___________________________ Emerged as a ________________ __________in several countries ______________________ ◦Focus on _____________ Transform the ________________ ◦Maintain _______________________

16 Efforts: Eradication or Education? Tostan in Senegal ◦1997 Community Empowerment Program ◦Not meant to ________________ ◦4-pronged educational platform: ◦1. ◦2. ◦3. ◦4.

17 Efforts: Eradication or Education? Tostan in Senegal ◦Community decision making ◦Traditional teaching methods: ____ _____________________________ ◦________________ceremony with multiple villages ◦Hold communities responsible ◦Focus on __________________ ◦Aim for ________________________

18 Human Rights Cultural Relativism: How does this concept then relate to the issue of a global system of human rights? What constitutes a violation of rights? ◦Line between cultural tradition & human rights Over time, cultures have changed attitudes about what practices are considered a violation of human rights. ◦Today, some actions, such as genocide, seem clearly to fall under a violation of human rights.

19 Human Rights & Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism may make it difficult to define clearly in every case and for agreement to be reached about what is truly a human rights violation. ◦Example: FCG Note: This does not mean that all behavior should be excused or tolerated just because it can be defined as a cultural custom

20 An agreed upon violation: Violence Against Women (Extreme) Example: Dowry Death & Bride Burning ◦_____________________________ ◦Research illustrates ________________ ◦___________________________ ◦Isolated incidences in the US

21 France & the Veil ◦Banning the ________________ ◦Preserve ___________________ ◦_______________worry about their rights ◦Opponents: _____________________ ◦Secular country

22 Human Rights & Anthropology Why is it important to have a dialog about human rights? How can anthropology contribute to this dialog?


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