Linguistic Training Frustration with quantitative approaches to measuring intercultural competence Interest in capturing “students’ words” Interest in teaching students to articulate their own outcomes
Qualitative approach – Assessing student outcomes What to measure? How to measure?
What to Measure? Creating Learning Outcomes "If you aim at nothing, you'll hit it every time. “ ~ Unknown Articulating goals – Learning Outcomes – provides direction, something to aim for. Providing Learning Outcomes grounds study abroad in LEARNING / academia. TCU’s Learning Outcomes:
TCU Learning Outcomes Increased understanding of international & cultural issues Increased flexibility Increased open-mindedness and curiosity Enhanced critical skills Enhanced sense of self in global community
How to Measure? Qualitatively Open-ended questions Table-topics at Celebration Photo Contest Rubrics
Take One Define Learning Outcomes Create Assessment
Reflective Model of Measuring Intercultural Competence Williams, Tracy Rundstrom. 2009. The reflective model of intercultural competency: a multidimensional, qualitative approach to study abroad assessment. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XVIII, 289 – 306.
Take Two Define Learning Outcomes Create Assessment Assess … Examine gaps … do what?
Facilitating Student Development Intercultural Competence does not occur simply as a result of being abroad. Students need: Direction Intentionality Feedback Reflection “A goal without a plan is just a wish” Antoine de Saint Exupery
Take 3 How to facilitate learning … ? Define Learning Outcomes Examine gaps Assess Facilitate Learning
Change Your LENS L ook objectively : Recognize that you are not viewing the encounter or event neutrally, but interpreting it through your expectations and judgments, which are often conditioned by your culture. Eliminate judgmental words, and describe the encounter or event objectively. E xamine your assumptions : Be open-minded and curious, and look carefully at the assumptions you’ve made to see what values, habits, beliefs, and other cultural influences have led you to view the encounter or event as you did. N ote other possibilities : Be flexible and use your knowledge of the culture to envision what other values, habits, and beliefs might be at work here, and how they might lead to a different conclusion. S ubstantiate with locals : Use your intercultural communication, critical thinking and people skills to ask locals or bicultural people if the new possibilities you’ve generated are accurate, or if there are other parts of the culture you’ve overlooked.
StepKolb Learning Ability Intercultural Competence Component Millennial Generation Characteristics Look Objectively Concrete Experience Observation Examine Your Assumptions Reflective Observation Cultural Self- Awareness Curiosity Openness Actively involved in their own learning Note Other Possibilities Abstract conceptualization Knowledge of cultural worldview frameworks Empathy Actively involved in their own learning Learn through trial and error Substantiate with Locals Active Experimentation Intercultural communication skills Curiosity Openness Learn through social interaction / engagement Action-oriented
Change Your LENS Williams, Tracy Rundstrom. 2013. Examine your LENS: A Tool for Interpreting Cultural Differences. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XXII, 148 – 165.
Still something missing … I wanted to create a pedagogy for developing intercultural competencies
Why a PRISM? Prisms: Uses facets, angles change the direction of a light wave producing a different wave output The PRISM Program Uses tools, resources, intervention Change the student’s understanding of the intercultural experience Producing a more nuanced understanding
Why a PRISM? I am not the “teacher” – the city, the locals are the “teacher” I am the facilitator – I provide the prism: Tool Modalities Opportunities
Theoretical and Practical Basis Creating the Pedagogy
A pedagogy to Provide options Modalities Degrees of implementation Provide resources Centralized source of ideas from others (toolbox) Sample syllabi Capitalize on millennial students and experiential learning research
Goals Curriculum intended to: Facilitate engagement in the host culture Promote reflection on cultural learning Document learning Student Outcomes Develop intercultural competencies Articulate their learning Recognize the transferability
PRISM The PRISM is an approach to engaging students in their own learning by giving them: PERSPECTIVES to consider RESOURCES to study opportunities to generate INSIGHTS opportunities to develop SKILLSETS opportunities to adopt MINDSETS
Perspectives Snipets of info: To introduce the topic To contextualize the topic To stimulate thinking / conversation on the topic Examples: Quotes Purpose / goal: To begin generating knowledge To serve as reminders
Resources More in-depth sources of info To explain and illustrate the topic To further develop understanding Examples: Readings Videos Purpose / goal To expand understanding / knowledge
Insights Thoughtful reflections or illustrations To show understanding of the element Examples: Reflection papers Classroom discussions Purpose / goal: For students to articulate themselves their understanding Students will generate INSIGHTS on the topics through illustrations or accounts. (Bloom’s taxonomy: Level 4: Analysis)
Skillsets Engaging and interactive activities To develop the competencies Examples: Assignments / activities Games Purpose / goal To implement / apply the learning through engagement, experience, kinetics Students will execute SKILLSETS through engagement activities. (Dave’s Psychomotor taxonomy: Level 2: Manipulation)
Mindsets Attitudes To incorporate the competencies into life To adopt a mindset Examples Quotes Mantras Purpose / goal To live the element, to make it a part of one’s attitudes and lifestyle, to embrace Students will demonstrate an ability to report / justify MINDSETS through discussions or testimonies. (Krathwohl’s Affective taxonomy: Level 2: Responding / Leveling 3: Valuing)
The Cycle Resources Perspectives Mindsets Insights Skillsets
Learning Outcome: Knowledge of Host Culture Demonstrates more sophisticated understanding of the complexity of elements of another culture (history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, or beliefs and practices) Perspectives When you travel, remember that a foreign country is not designed to make you comfortable. It is designed to make its own people comfortable. - Clifton Fadiman When we understand the needs that motivate our own and other's behavior, we have no enemies. - Marshall Rosenberg You don't get harmony when everybody sings the same note. - Doug Floyd When I am able to resist the temptation to judge others, I can see them as teachers. - Gerald Jampolsky Share our similarities, celebrate our differences. - M. Scott Peck A frog in a well does not know the great sea. - Japanese proverb Resources Ch. 2: Cultural Knowledge Culturegram for your country TED Talk by Rick StevesTED Talk by Rick Steves: The Value of Travel Insights Pre Abroad: What aspects of daily life do you expect to be different? Are you looking forward to this? Are you worried about this? While Abroad: Describe a habit of the locals that you find intriguing. Are there environmental, physical, cultural, or other reasons why they engage in those habits? Have you tried to emulate those habits, and what was that experience like? Post Abroad (Photo Contest): How did seeing a site, taking an excursion, or exploring the country helped you better understand a component of the culture? Skillsets “Iconic Image” Take a photo of an iconic image. Then do some research on it: What are the social, historical, environmental, and / or economic factors contributing to or resulting from it? Ask 1 or 2 locals: what makes this special to you? What do tourists not understand about this? Take another photo of the same icon, but this time see if you can incorporate something you learned. Write a 1 - 2 page paper summarizing your findings and evaluating the experience. What did you do, and what did you learn? Mindsets We go abroad not just to see different things, but to see things differently.
Learning Outcome: Opennes s & Flexibility Initiates and develops interactions with culturally different others and suspends judgment in valuing her/his interactions. Perspectives It is never too late to give up our prejudices. - Henry David Thoreau It’s good to do uncomfortable things. It’s weight training for life. - Anne Lamott Becoming is better than being.- Dweck I'm actually starting to like more and more people who have convictions that are unpopular. -Bono Remember, there are no mistakes, only lessons. - Cherie-Carter Scotts Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try again. Fail again. Fail better. - Samuel Beckett Resources Chapter 1: What is cultural learning and Chapter 2: Attitudes and cultural traits that promote cultural learning, from The Whole World Guide to Cultural Learning by Daniel Hess. A Single Lucid Moment by Robert W. Soderstrom Ch. 3: Mindfulness & Cross-Cultural Skills, from Cultural Intelligence by David C. Thomas and Kerr Inkson TED Talk by Chimamanda AdichieTED Talk by Chimamanda Adichie: The Danger of a Single Story Insights Pre-Abroad: Tell me a story about a time when things did not go the way you planned. How did you respond to the situation? What skills and characteristics did you learn / develop / hone? While Abroad: While interacting with the people, music, art, economy, natural environment and other aspects of your host culture, what previously held stereotypes - yours and theirs - do you find being challenged? Post-Abroad (photo contest): What did you do to stretch yourself? What new skills and characteristics did you develop? Skillsets “New Experience” Go to a ceremony, rite, celebration, event, or activity – can be religious, sports, cultural in nature. What did you find uncomfortable about the experience? What did you learn that surprised you? Mindsets Change Your LENS. – Tracy Rundstrom Williams
Insights Written journal Blogs Discussions with faculty
Example Insight Prompts What have you discovered is part of American culture, that you had not realized before? What did you think was just “normal” which is actually cultural? Share a saying, proverb, or motto from your host culture. How and when do they use it? What insight does it give you?
Example Insights: Photo Contest CategoryLearning Outcome Prompts (explain / describe how photo demonstrates category) Example Photos Inspirational Insights (Cultural Knowledge) How did seeing sites, taking excursions, and exploring the locale help you better understand the country’s people, history, religion, politics, or culture? Monuments, important sites Local Life (Flexibility) What was local life like? How did you adapt yourself to be comfortable with the locals? Student in homestay, student in local cultural activities, markets, events Finding your Footing (Skills ) What did you do to stretch yourself? What new skills and characteristics did you develop? New activities, new transportation, engaging with locals, taking trips This is Study Abroad (Growth) What made the experience amazing, transformational, authentic, and YOURS? Volunteering, Interning, Teaching, the New You
Skillsets Interactive assignment Game Course-related site-visits and activities Life abroad
Example Skillset Prompts Ask a few locals: What makes you proud to be where you are from? Take a photo of an iconic image. Ask a few locals: what makes this special to you? What do tourists not understand about this? What are the social, historical, environmental, and / or economic factors contributing to or resulting from this?
Example Skillset Prompts Ask someone about what they are proud of in Krakow: ______________________ What makes it special to the person? _____________________________________ ____________________________ What do tourists not understand about it? _____________________________________ _________________ (30 pts)
Mindsets Discuss / determine as group Social media Emails