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Tracy Rundstrom Williams, Ph.D. TCU Center for International Studies PRISM.

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Presentation on theme: "Tracy Rundstrom Williams, Ph.D. TCU Center for International Studies PRISM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tracy Rundstrom Williams, Ph.D. TCU Center for International Studies PRISM

2 Purpose  Synthesize, utilize ideas you’ve heard  Improve on what you already to  Through a mutidimensional pedagogy

3 Origins / Motivation

4 Linguistic Training  Frustration with quantitative approaches to measuring intercultural competence  Interest in capturing “students’ words”  Interest in teaching students to articulate their own outcomes

5 Qualitative approach – Assessing student outcomes  What to measure?  How to measure?

6 What to Measure? Creating Learning Outcomes  "If you aim at nothing, you'll hit it every time. “ ~ Unknown  Articulating goals – Learning Outcomes – provides direction, something to aim for.  Providing Learning Outcomes grounds study abroad in LEARNING / academia.  TCU’s Learning Outcomes:

7 TCU Learning Outcomes  Increased understanding of international & cultural issues  Increased flexibility  Increased open-mindedness and curiosity  Enhanced critical skills  Enhanced sense of self in global community

8 How to Measure? Qualitatively  Open-ended questions  Table-topics at Celebration  Photo Contest  Rubrics

9 Take One Define Learning Outcomes Create Assessment

10 Reflective Model of Measuring Intercultural Competence  Williams, Tracy Rundstrom. 2009. The reflective model of intercultural competency: a multidimensional, qualitative approach to study abroad assessment. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XVIII, 289 – 306.

11 Take Two Define Learning Outcomes Create Assessment Assess … Examine gaps … do what?

12 Facilitating Student Development  Intercultural Competence does not occur simply as a result of being abroad.  Students need:  Direction  Intentionality  Feedback  Reflection  “A goal without a plan is just a wish” Antoine de Saint Exupery

13 Take 3 How to facilitate learning … ? Define Learning Outcomes Examine gaps Assess Facilitate Learning

14 How to facilitate learning?

15 New Tools & Techniques How can we help students examine intercultural encounters  More in-depth?  With new eyes?

16 Considerations  Experiential Learning Theory  Millennial Students  Intercultural Competence components

17 Experiential Learning (Kolb 1984) Reflection Concrete Experience Abstract Conceptualization Active Experimentation

18 Intercultural Competence  AAC&U  Cultural Self-Awareness  Knowledge of Host Culture  Empathy  Intercultural Communication  Curiosity  Openness / Flexibility

19 Deardorff:

20 Change Your LENS  L ook objectively :  Recognize that you are not viewing the encounter or event neutrally, but interpreting it through your expectations and judgments, which are often conditioned by your culture. Eliminate judgmental words, and describe the encounter or event objectively.  E xamine your assumptions :  Be open-minded and curious, and look carefully at the assumptions you’ve made to see what values, habits, beliefs, and other cultural influences have led you to view the encounter or event as you did.  N ote other possibilities :  Be flexible and use your knowledge of the culture to envision what other values, habits, and beliefs might be at work here, and how they might lead to a different conclusion.  S ubstantiate with locals :  Use your intercultural communication, critical thinking and people skills to ask locals or bicultural people if the new possibilities you’ve generated are accurate, or if there are other parts of the culture you’ve overlooked.

21 StepKolb Learning Ability Intercultural Competence Component Millennial Generation Characteristics Look Objectively Concrete Experience Observation Examine Your Assumptions Reflective Observation Cultural Self- Awareness Curiosity Openness Actively involved in their own learning Note Other Possibilities Abstract conceptualization Knowledge of cultural worldview frameworks Empathy Actively involved in their own learning Learn through trial and error Substantiate with Locals Active Experimentation Intercultural communication skills Curiosity Openness Learn through social interaction / engagement Action-oriented

22 Change Your LENS  Williams, Tracy Rundstrom. 2013. Examine your LENS: A Tool for Interpreting Cultural Differences. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. XXII, 148 – 165.

23 Still something missing …  I wanted to create a pedagogy for developing intercultural competencies

24 The PRISM

25 Why a PRISM?  Prisms:  Uses facets, angles  change the direction of a light wave  producing a different wave output  The PRISM Program  Uses tools, resources, intervention  Change the student’s understanding of the intercultural experience  Producing a more nuanced understanding 

26 Why a PRISM?  I am not the “teacher” – the city, the locals are the “teacher”  I am the facilitator – I provide the prism:  Tool  Modalities  Opportunities

27 Theoretical and Practical Basis Creating the Pedagogy

28 Experiential Learning (Kolb 1984, ) Reflection Concrete Experience Abstract Conceptualization Active Experimentation

29 Behavioral Economics  Reminders of values regulate behavior  Ariely. 2008. Predictably Irrational  Oaths, written agreements, visual reminders

30 Intercultural Competence  AAC&U  Cultural Self-Awareness  Knowledge of Host Culture  Empathy  Intercultural Communication  Curiosity  Openness / Flexibility

31 Deardorff:

32 Target Audience  Study Abroad Professionals, Faculty:  Variety of academic backgrounds  Limited resources  Limited ability to require study abroad class / add on to student’s experience

33 The Solution

34 A pedagogy to  Provide options  Modalities  Degrees of implementation  Provide resources  Centralized source of ideas from others (toolbox)  Sample syllabi  Capitalize on millennial students and experiential learning research

35 Goals  Curriculum intended to:  Facilitate engagement in the host culture  Promote reflection on cultural learning  Document learning  Student Outcomes  Develop intercultural competencies  Articulate their learning  Recognize the transferability

36 The PRISM

37 PRISM  The PRISM is an approach to engaging students in their own learning by giving them:  PERSPECTIVES to consider  RESOURCES to study  opportunities to generate INSIGHTS  opportunities to develop SKILLSETS  opportunities to adopt MINDSETS

38 Perspectives  Snipets of info:  To introduce the topic  To contextualize the topic  To stimulate thinking / conversation on the topic  Examples:  Quotes  Purpose / goal:  To begin generating knowledge  To serve as reminders

39 Resources  More in-depth sources of info  To explain and illustrate the topic  To further develop understanding  Examples:  Readings  Videos  Purpose / goal  To expand understanding / knowledge

40 Insights  Thoughtful reflections or illustrations  To show understanding of the element  Examples:  Reflection papers  Classroom discussions  Purpose / goal:  For students to articulate themselves their understanding  Students will generate INSIGHTS on the topics through illustrations or accounts. (Bloom’s taxonomy: Level 4: Analysis)

41 Skillsets  Engaging and interactive activities  To develop the competencies  Examples:  Assignments / activities  Games  Purpose / goal  To implement / apply the learning through engagement, experience, kinetics  Students will execute SKILLSETS through engagement activities. (Dave’s Psychomotor taxonomy: Level 2: Manipulation)

42 Mindsets  Attitudes  To incorporate the competencies into life  To adopt a mindset  Examples  Quotes  Mantras  Purpose / goal  To live the element, to make it a part of one’s attitudes and lifestyle, to embrace  Students will demonstrate an ability to report / justify MINDSETS through discussions or testimonies. (Krathwohl’s Affective taxonomy: Level 2: Responding / Leveling 3: Valuing)

43 The Cycle Resources Perspectives Mindsets Insights Skillsets

44 Step 1: Develop Learning Outcomes

45 Learning Outcomes  Cultural Self-Awareness  Knowledge of Host Culture  Empathy  Intercultural Communication  Curiosity  Openness / Flexibility AAC&U Rubric Link

46 Step 2: Expand through PRISM

47 Learning Outcome: Knowledge of Host Culture Demonstrates more sophisticated understanding of the complexity of elements of another culture (history, values, politics, communication styles, economy, or beliefs and practices) Perspectives When you travel, remember that a foreign country is not designed to make you comfortable. It is designed to make its own people comfortable. - Clifton Fadiman When we understand the needs that motivate our own and other's behavior, we have no enemies. - Marshall Rosenberg You don't get harmony when everybody sings the same note. - Doug Floyd When I am able to resist the temptation to judge others, I can see them as teachers. - Gerald Jampolsky Share our similarities, celebrate our differences. - M. Scott Peck A frog in a well does not know the great sea. - Japanese proverb Resources Ch. 2: Cultural Knowledge Culturegram for your country TED Talk by Rick StevesTED Talk by Rick Steves: The Value of Travel Insights Pre Abroad: What aspects of daily life do you expect to be different? Are you looking forward to this? Are you worried about this? While Abroad: Describe a habit of the locals that you find intriguing. Are there environmental, physical, cultural, or other reasons why they engage in those habits? Have you tried to emulate those habits, and what was that experience like? Post Abroad (Photo Contest): How did seeing a site, taking an excursion, or exploring the country helped you better understand a component of the culture? Skillsets “Iconic Image” Take a photo of an iconic image. Then do some research on it: What are the social, historical, environmental, and / or economic factors contributing to or resulting from it? Ask 1 or 2 locals: what makes this special to you? What do tourists not understand about this? Take another photo of the same icon, but this time see if you can incorporate something you learned. Write a 1 - 2 page paper summarizing your findings and evaluating the experience. What did you do, and what did you learn? Mindsets We go abroad not just to see different things, but to see things differently.

48 Learning Outcome: Opennes s & Flexibility Initiates and develops interactions with culturally different others and suspends judgment in valuing her/his interactions. Perspectives It is never too late to give up our prejudices. - Henry David Thoreau It’s good to do uncomfortable things. It’s weight training for life. - Anne Lamott Becoming is better than being.- Dweck I'm actually starting to like more and more people who have convictions that are unpopular. -Bono Remember, there are no mistakes, only lessons. - Cherie-Carter Scotts Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try again. Fail again. Fail better. - Samuel Beckett Resources Chapter 1: What is cultural learning and Chapter 2: Attitudes and cultural traits that promote cultural learning, from The Whole World Guide to Cultural Learning by Daniel Hess. A Single Lucid Moment by Robert W. Soderstrom Ch. 3: Mindfulness & Cross-Cultural Skills, from Cultural Intelligence by David C. Thomas and Kerr Inkson TED Talk by Chimamanda AdichieTED Talk by Chimamanda Adichie: The Danger of a Single Story Insights Pre-Abroad: Tell me a story about a time when things did not go the way you planned. How did you respond to the situation? What skills and characteristics did you learn / develop / hone? While Abroad: While interacting with the people, music, art, economy, natural environment and other aspects of your host culture, what previously held stereotypes - yours and theirs - do you find being challenged? Post-Abroad (photo contest): What did you do to stretch yourself? What new skills and characteristics did you develop? Skillsets “New Experience” Go to a ceremony, rite, celebration, event, or activity – can be religious, sports, cultural in nature. What did you find uncomfortable about the experience? What did you learn that surprised you? Mindsets Change Your LENS. – Tracy Rundstrom Williams

49 Step 3: Implementation

50 Pre-departure  Marketing  Perspectives: http://studyabroad.tcu.edu/default.asp?pid= 162 http://studyabroad.tcu.edu/default.asp?pid= 162  Application  Insights: application essays  Orientation  Class

51 While Abroad  Blogging  Class  UNPR 20201 – required  8 weeks long  Face-to-face time at beginning and mid-term  Photo submissions

52 Post-Return  Photo Contest  Evaluations  Celebration  Class

53 Modalities

54 Perspectives  Share through social media  Send emails  Share in class

55 Example Perspectives

56 Resources  Readings  Chapters  Stories  Videos / TED talks

57 Insights  Written journal  Blogs  Discussions with faculty

58 Example Insight Prompts  What have you discovered is part of American culture, that you had not realized before? What did you think was just “normal” which is actually cultural?  Share a saying, proverb, or motto from your host culture. How and when do they use it? What insight does it give you?

59 Example Insights: Photo Contest CategoryLearning Outcome Prompts (explain / describe how photo demonstrates category) Example Photos Inspirational Insights (Cultural Knowledge) How did seeing sites, taking excursions, and exploring the locale help you better understand the country’s people, history, religion, politics, or culture? Monuments, important sites Local Life (Flexibility) What was local life like? How did you adapt yourself to be comfortable with the locals? Student in homestay, student in local cultural activities, markets, events Finding your Footing (Skills ) What did you do to stretch yourself? What new skills and characteristics did you develop? New activities, new transportation, engaging with locals, taking trips This is Study Abroad (Growth) What made the experience amazing, transformational, authentic, and YOURS? Volunteering, Interning, Teaching, the New You

60 Sample Photo Contest Submission

61

62 Skillsets  Interactive assignment  Game  Course-related site-visits and activities  Life abroad

63 Example Skillset Prompts  Ask a few locals: What makes you proud to be where you are from?  Take a photo of an iconic image. Ask a few locals: what makes this special to you? What do tourists not understand about this? What are the social, historical, environmental, and / or economic factors contributing to or resulting from this?

64 Example Skillset Prompts  Ask someone about what they are proud of in Krakow: ______________________ What makes it special to the person? _____________________________________ ____________________________ What do tourists not understand about it? _____________________________________ _________________ (30 pts)

65 Mindsets  Discuss / determine as group  Social media  Emails

66 Discussion

67 Your turn  What are your Learning Outcomes?  How would you use PRISM?  How would you design a rubric?

68 Learning Outcome: Perspectives Resources Insights Skillsets Mindsets

69 Rubric Learning ObjectiveCapstone (3)Milestone (2)Baseline (1) Student : Demonstrates Identifies Analyzes Applies …… Does with sophistication, complexity Does with some clarity Does simply, incompletely Resources : Taxonomy of Cognitive Learning (Bloom) Taxonomy of Affective Learning (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia) Taxonomy of Psycho-motor Learning (Simpson, Dave, Harrow ) http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html AAC&U VALUE rubrics http://www.aacu.org/value/rubrics/http://www.aacu.org/value/rubrics/

70 Future directions

71 Challenges  Growing study abroad population  Training faculty & staff to use model

72 New Directions  Web tools  Manual  Explanation of goals for reflective writing using AAC&U rubric

73 Conclusion

74  Developing a learning plan can help students achieve learning outcomes.  Providing a PRISM of formats for students to realize the learning outcome helps them develop the competencies.

75 Questions?  Dr. Tracy Rundstrom Williams, t.williams@tcu.edu  www.changeyourlens.org


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