4Features Timber frame structure Symmetry as courtyard style Rich artistic imageA. Decorative roofB. The use of foil structureC. The use of color
5Classification by structure 楼 lou (Multistory buildings)台 tai (terraces)亭 ting (pavilions)阁 ge (Two-story pavilions)塔 ta (Chinese pagodas)轩 xuan (Verandas with windows)榭 xie (Pavilions or houses on terraces)屋 wu (Rooms along roofed corridors)
12An Underground Palace --- Ming Tombs A Chinese imperial mausoleum usually consists of two parts, the divine road and the burial palace. The marble archway or paifang is the beginning of the divine road and of the whole Ming Tombs. This carved archway is the largest existent one in China. It bears patterns of clouds and dragons, which is a characteristic of imperial architecture.The divine road is a passage in front of the tombs to facilitate the sacrificial ceremonies. The two hexagon stone pillars are the sign of a divine road.Behind the engraved pillars are 24 stone animals. They are four horses, four legendary animals called qilin, four elephants, four camels, four legendary animals called xiezhi, and four lions. Behind the stone animals are 12 stone figures. Each of these life－like statues is carved out of a whole rock.Stone figures and animals along the divine road serve as guardians and waiters, and the animals are employed to rid evil spirits and symbolize peace.
15Religious Architecture Chinese Buddhist architectureTaoist architectureConfucianism and Chinese architecture
16Chinese Buddhist Architecture It consists of temple, pagoda and grotto. Localization starts right after Buddhist architecture was introduced into China with Buddhism during the Han dynasty, interpreting Chinese architectural aesthetics and culture.Chinese Buddhist architecture follows symmetric style strictly.Famous grottoes are Mogao Caves, Yungang Grottoes and Longmen Grottoes.
18Taoist ArchitectureIt applies two architectural styles - traditional style and Bagua style.In the former style, traditional symmetric architectural layout is applied. Main halls are set up on the central axis.The second is the Bagua style in which all structures surround the Danlu in the center. The center axis from the south to the north is very long and structures flank the axis. The style reflects Taoist philosophy that the human cosmos follows the natural cosmos to integrate energy, qi and spirit.
20Confucianism and Chinese architecture A value and ethical system based on "Loyality (忠)", "Filial Piety (孝)", "Chastity (节)", "Righteousness (义)".Put a strong emphasis on the relationship between ruler and subjects, father and son, husband and wife as well as the absolute authority of the ruler, father and husband.Rever 5 virtues such as Benevolence (仁), Righteousness (义), Rite (礼), Wisdom (智), Trust (信).
22Garden Architecture History The ancient Chinese gardens originated in the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, when monarchs began to build parks for their own leisure and pleasure.ClassificationImperial gardensPrivate gardensMonastic gardens
23Residential Architecture Traditional Chinese residences reflect the national culture, the sub-culture of a specific region and that of the ethnic group within it.
24seven major styles of traditional domestic architecture Beijing’s Hutong and Courtyardthe Si he yuan in northern China– Courtyard HouseShikumen - a type of tenement housing unique to ShanghaiYaodong in north ChinaSeal-like Compound (Yi Ke Yin)the earthen buildings (tu lou) of HakkasMiao-style house / the stilt house (Diaojiulou)
25Beijing 's Hutong and Courtyard A hutong is a unique form of community that exists only in China .It means a small street or a lane between two courtyards, or a community within the city consisting of hutong residences.People name each hutong by various means.A lot of smaller hutongs have been formed inside bigger hutongs
26SiheyuanSiheyuan is the traditional courtyard-style residence of Beijing. This architectural style is world-famous for its unsophisticatedness and elegance as well as its unique artistic attainment. It is called Siheyuan because the houses in it are constructed in such a way that zhengfang, xiangfang and daozuo are connected with walls and that the whole complex creates an enclosed square courtyard. It has been several hundred years since this kind of architectural form took shape.
27Li Yutang’s quotes: "in the dwelling there is a garden, in the garden there is a house, in the house there is a courtyard, in the courtyard there is a tree, on the tree there is the sky, in the sky there is the moon, what a fortunate life!”
29yaodong (窰洞)A yaodong (窰洞) is a dugout used as an abode or shelter in China. Yaodongs are common in north China, especially on the Loess Plateau. The history of yaodongs goes back to time immemorial, and continues today.
31Shikumen History of Shikumen The origin of shikumen buildings can be traced back to the 1860s when people from southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang ran into the foreign settlements in Shanghai due to the Taiping Heavenly Uprising.A valuable Architectural Legacy .It is a combination of Eastern and Western architectural styles featuring the traditional Eastern grey brick door lintels with a Western style of decorative engraving on the walls.
33Seal-like Compound (Yi Ke Yin) In southern China 's Kunming , Yunnan Province, there is a variation of Siheyuan. Here the courtyard compounds are called YikeYin, which is Chinese for “seal” because when viewed from above the layout resembles the familiar shape of the square seal to be seen on Chinese documents and paintings.
35Tulou (Earthen Building) Three types of Hakka dwellings:Phoenix house 五鳳樓Round house 土樓，圓屋Piang Fong 平房 (flat house)The buildings are usually formed in two or three circles. The kitchen and dining room will be found on the first floor. The second floor is used as warehousing, and the third and fourth floors contain bedrooms. The inner circle is 2-storied with 30 to 50 rooms which function as guesthouses. In the middle is a rectangular hall, a public place for several hundred inhabitants.
37Diaojiulou (House on Stilt) Diaojiaolou (literally means hanging attic) is a residential house with a dense architectural flavor of the ethnic minority in the southwestern Yunnan Province. The wooden building is built close to the mountain or above the river with an extended floor space. These houses are usually built on slopes with only support poles and no foundations, and are entirely made of wood without iron.
40Beam BridgeThe earliest reference to the beam bridge in the Chinese history is the Ju Bridge dating from the Shang Dynasty. From the Zhou Dynasty to the Qin and Han Dynasties, bridges with timber beams and stone piers were dominant.Famous bridges:the 362-span Anping Bridgethe 47-span Wan’an BridgeJiangdong Bridge in Zhangzhouthe Fengyu Bridge (all-weather bridge) built by the Dong people
41Arch BridgeThe joint of the beams and sides evolved gradually into isometric trilateral, and pent lateral arches, and finally into semicircular arch. The span, too, was gradually extended, from 2 or 3 m up to m (clear span).Famous bridges:Zhaozhou Bridge (Anji Bridge)Feng Bridge (the Maple Bridge)Baodai Bridge (the Precious Belt Bridge)
42Cable Suspension Bridge Cable suspension bridges vary in kind according to the materials of which the cables are made, rattan, bamboo, leather and iron chain.Famous bridges:Fanhe BridgeJihong BridgeLuding Iron-chain Bridge
43Floating BridgeTo cross the river, boats were linked together to form a floating bridge. It is also named qiaohang (the bridge boat) and zhouliang (the boat beam).The earliest reference to the floating bridge is shown in the Book of Songs. In the 12th century B.C, King Wen of the Zhou Dynasty ordered a bridge to be built on the Wei River.Pujing Floating Bridge in the Tang Dynasty
44Feng shui and Chinese architecture HistoryThe principles of feng shuiYin and YangThe bagua - directions and elementsSchools of feng shui :The Form schoolThe Compass schoolThe Black Sect schoolFlying Star school
45HistoryIt is generally believed that Qin fire had all feng shui books burned. The most authoritative work is “Qing Nang Jing” given by Huang Shi Gong to Zhang Liang during the late Qin Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, Yang Yun Song and his disciples wrote several books that are considered the most authoritative work by all feng shui schools.
46The principles of Feng shui Qi(气), the energy of the universe, is carried in the wind and retained within water. Both elements were used as a way of directing QiFeng shui is not only a practice that is related to physical space, but also to the inhabitants of the space itself, as both are interconnected.The goal of feng shui guidelines is to locate and orient dwellings, possessions, land and landscaping, etc., so as to be attuned with the flow of qi.
47Yin and YangFundamental to feng shui is the idea that yin and yang are the two basic principles underlying all matter and energy in the universe. These forces are opposites, but are not in opposition. Rather, they are complementary and need each other to exist and flourish. The constantly changing interactions of yin and yang give rise to the infinite variety of patterns in life.
48The bagua - directions and elements The bagua (or pa kua) of the I Ching (Book of Changes) is an octagonal diagram used in feng shui analysis. Each direction on the octagon (north, northeast, etc.) is associated with certain significant aspects. When one maps the bagua onto a home, village, cemetery, etc., information about correct orientation and placement can allegedly be gleaned.
49The Influence of Ba Gua on the earthen buildings of Hakkas Originally, the Hakkas came from central China and were influenced profoundly by traditional Chinese culture. Earthen buildings were created using the ba gua (Eight Trigrams) theory, more widely known in the West as Feng Shui, which was thought to be the essence of ancient Chinese culture. From a more practical point of view, as the Hakkas usually lived in barren and remote hilly environments, they needed to defend themselves from wild animals as well as other clans.
50Use in burialsThe effect of proper feng shui on the living is thought to carry over to the afterlife. In traditional feng shui belief, the feng shui of cemeteries affects the state of the dead spirits and, indirectly, their living descendants. Spirits of the buried were believed to remain at their gravesites or by the homes of their kin, and just as bad feng shui harms relaxation and ease of mind among the living, the spirits of people buried with bad feng shui will be anxious and restless, and therefore more likely to trouble the living. This reasoning led to careful feng shui planning of cemeteries
51Philosophy of Space Liang Sicheng 梁思成 China’s Architecture History《中國建築史》China Architecture Institute 中国营造学社