Features Timber frame structure Symmetry as courtyard style Rich artistic image A. Decorative roof B. The use of foil structure C. The use of color
Classification by structure 楼 lou (Multistory buildings) 台 tai (terraces) 亭 ting (pavilions) 阁 ge (Two-story pavilions) 塔 ta (Chinese pagodas) 轩 xuan (Verandas with windows) 榭 xie (Pavilions or houses on terraces) 屋 wu (Rooms along roofed corridors)
Traditional Architecture Styles Imperial architecture Religious architecture Garden architecture Residential architecture Bridge architecture
Imperial Architecture Imperial mausoleums Imperial palaces The number “Nine” and imperial architecture The notion of Ruler is affiliated with the Sun Dragon and Phoenix
1. E Pang palace of the Qin dynasty 1. E Pang palace of the Qin dynasty 2. Wei Yang palace of the Han dynasty 2. Wei Yang palace of the Han dynasty 3. Daming Palace of the Tang DynastyDaming Palace of the Tang Dynasty 4. Forbidden City in Beijing & in Shenyang 4. Forbidden City i
E Pang Gong
the forbidden city
An Underground Palace --- Ming Tombs A Chinese imperial mausoleum usually consists of two parts, the divine road and the burial palace. The marble archway or paifang is the beginning of the divine road and of the whole Ming Tombs. This carved archway is the largest existent one in China. It bears patterns of clouds and dragons, which is a characteristic of imperial architecture. The divine road is a passage in front of the tombs to facilitate the sacrificial ceremonies. The two hexagon stone pillars are the sign of a divine road. Behind the engraved pillars are 24 stone animals. They are four horses, four legendary animals called qilin, four elephants, four camels, four legendary animals called xiezhi, and four lions. Behind the stone animals are 12 stone figures. Each of these life － like statues is carved out of a whole rock. Stone figures and animals along the divine road serve as guardians and waiters, and the animals are employed to rid evil spirits and symbolize peace.
Religious Architecture Chinese Buddhist architectureBuddhistarchitecture Taoist architecture Confucianism and Chinese architecture
Chinese Buddhist Architecture It consists of temple, pagoda and grotto. Localization starts right after Buddhist architecture was introduced into China with Buddhism during the Han dynasty, interpreting Chinese architectural aesthetics and culture. Chinese Buddhist architecture follows symmetric style strictly. Famous grottoes are Mogao Caves, Yungang Grottoes and Longmen Grottoes.
Taoist Architecture It applies two architectural styles - traditional style and Bagua style. In the former style, traditional symmetric architectural layout is applied. Main halls are set up on the central axis. The second is the Bagua style in which all structures surround the Danlu in the center. The center axis from the south to the north is very long and structures flank the axis. The style reflects Taoist philosophy that the human cosmos follows the natural cosmos to integrate energy, qi and spirit.
Confucianism and Chinese architecture A value and ethical system based on "Loyality ( 忠 )", "Filial Piety ( 孝 )", "Chastity ( 节 )", "Righteousness ( 义 )". Put a strong emphasis on the relationship between ruler and subjects, father and son, husband and wife as well as the absolute authority of the ruler, father and husband. Rever 5 virtues such as Benevolence ( 仁 ), Righteousness ( 义 ), Rite ( 礼 ), Wisdom ( 智 ), Trust ( 信 ).
Garden Architecture History The ancient Chinese gardens originated in the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, when monarchs began to build parks for their own leisure and pleasure. Classification 1. Imperial gardens 2. Private gardens 3. Monastic gardens
Residential Architecture Traditional Chinese residences reflect the national culture, the sub-culture of a specific region and that of the ethnic group within it.
seven major styles of traditional domestic architecture Beijing’s Hutong and Courtyard the Si he yuan in northern China– Courtyard House Shikumen - a type of tenement housing unique to Shanghai Yaodong in north China Seal-like Compound (Yi Ke Yin) the earthen buildings (tu lou) of Hakkas Miao-style house / the stilt house (Diaojiulou)
Beijing 's Hutong and Courtyard A hutong is a unique form of community that exists only in China. It means a small street or a lane between two courtyards, or a community within the city consisting of hutong residences. People name each hutong by various means. A lot of smaller hutongs have been formed inside bigger hutongs
Siheyuan Siheyuan is the traditional courtyard-style residence of Beijing. This architectural style is world-famous for its unsophisticatedness and elegance as well as its unique artistic attainment. It is called Siheyuan because the houses in it are constructed in such a way that zhengfang, xiangfang and daozuo are connected with walls and that the whole complex creates an enclosed square courtyard. It has been several hundred years since this kind of architectural form took shape.
Li Yutang’s quotes: "in the dwelling there is a garden, in the garden there is a house, in the house there is a courtyard, in the courtyard there is a tree, on the tree there is the sky, in the sky there is the moon, what a fortunate life!”
yaodong ( 窰洞 ) A yaodong ( 窰洞 ) is a dugout used as an abode or shelter in China. Yaodongs are common in north China, especially on the Loess Plateau. The history of yaodongs goes back to time immemorial, and continues today.
Shikumen History of Shikumen The origin of shikumen buildings can be traced back to the 1860s when people from southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang ran into the foreign settlements in Shanghai due to the Taiping Heavenly Uprising. A valuable Architectural Legacy. It is a combination of Eastern and Western architectural styles featuring the traditional Eastern grey brick door lintels with a Western style of decorative engraving on the walls.
Seal-like Compound (Yi Ke Yin) In southern China 's Kunming, Yunnan Province, there is a variation of Siheyuan. Here the courtyard compounds are called YikeYin, which is Chinese for “seal” because when viewed from above the layout resembles the familiar shape of the square seal to be seen on Chinese documents and paintings.
Tulou (Earthen Building) Three types of Hakka dwellings: 1. Phoenix house 五鳳樓 2. Round house 土樓，圓屋 3. Piang Fong 平房 (flat house) The buildings are usually formed in two or three circles. The kitchen and dining room will be found on the first floor. The second floor is used as warehousing, and the third and fourth floors contain bedrooms. The inner circle is 2-storied with 30 to 50 rooms which function as guesthouses. In the middle is a rectangular hall, a public place for several hundred inhabitants.
Diaojiulou (House on Stilt) Diaojiaolou (literally means hanging attic) is a residential house with a dense architectural flavor of the ethnic minority in the southwestern Yunnan Province. The wooden building is built close to the mountain or above the river with an extended floor space. These houses are usually built on slopes with only support poles and no foundations, and are entirely made of wood without iron.
Beam Bridge The earliest reference to the beam bridge in the Chinese history is the Ju Bridge dating from the Shang Dynasty. From the Zhou Dynasty to the Qin and Han Dynasties, bridges with timber beams and stone piers were dominant. Famous bridges: 1. the 362-span Anping Bridge 2. the 47-span Wan’an Bridge 3. Jiangdong Bridge in Zhangzhou 4. the Fengyu Bridge (all-weather bridge) built by the Dong people
Arch Bridge The joint of the beams and sides evolved gradually into isometric trilateral, and pent lateral arches, and finally into semicircular arch. The span, too, was gradually extended, from 2 or 3 m up to m (clear span). Famous bridges: 1. Zhaozhou Bridge (Anji Bridge) 2. Feng Bridge (the Maple Bridge) 3. Baodai Bridge (the Precious Belt Bridge)
Cable Suspension Bridge Cable suspension bridges vary in kind according to the materials of which the cables are made, rattan, bamboo, leather and iron chain. Famous bridges: 1. Fanhe Bridge 2. Jihong Bridge 3. Luding Iron-chain Bridge
Floating Bridge To cross the river, boats were linked together to form a floating bridge. It is also named qiaohang (the bridge boat) and zhouliang (the boat beam). The earliest reference to the floating bridge is shown in the Book of Songs. In the 12th century B.C, King Wen of the Zhou Dynasty ordered a bridge to be built on the Wei River. Pujing Floating Bridge in the Tang Dynasty
Feng shui and Chinese architecture History The principles of feng shui Yin and Yang The bagua - directions and elements Schools of feng shui : 1. The Form school 2. The Compass school 3. The Black Sect school 4. Flying Star school
History It is generally believed that Qin fire had all feng shui books burned. The most authoritative work is “Qing Nang Jing” given by Huang Shi Gong to Zhang Liang during the late Qin Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, Yang Yun Song and his disciples wrote several books that are considered the most authoritative work by all feng shui schools.
The principles of Feng shui Qi( 气 ), the energy of the universe, is carried in the wind and retained within water. Both elements were used as a way of directing Qi Feng shui is not only a practice that is related to physical space, but also to the inhabitants of the space itself, as both are interconnected. The goal of feng shui guidelines is to locate and orient dwellings, possessions, land and landscaping, etc., so as to be attuned with the flow of qi.
Yin and Yang Fundamental to feng shui is the idea that yin and yang are the two basic principles underlying all matter and energy in the universe. These forces are opposites, but are not in opposition. Rather, they are complementary and need each other to exist and flourish. The constantly changing interactions of yin and yang give rise to the infinite variety of patterns in life.
The bagua - directions and elements The bagua (or pa kua) of the I Ching (Book of Changes) is an octagonal diagram used in feng shui analysis. Each direction on the octagon (north, northeast, etc.) is associated with certain significant aspects. When one maps the bagua onto a home, village, cemetery, etc., information about correct orientation and placement can allegedly be gleaned.
The Influence of Ba Gua on the earthen buildings of Hakkas Originally, the Hakkas came from central China and were influenced profoundly by traditional Chinese culture. Earthen buildings were created using the ba gua (Eight Trigrams) theory, more widely known in the West as Feng Shui, which was thought to be the essence of ancient Chinese culture. From a more practical point of view, as the Hakkas usually lived in barren and remote hilly environments, they needed to defend themselves from wild animals as well as other clans.
Use in burials The effect of proper feng shui on the living is thought to carry over to the afterlife. In traditional feng shui belief, the feng shui of cemeteries affects the state of the dead spirits and, indirectly, their living descendants. Spirits of the buried were believed to remain at their gravesites or by the homes of their kin, and just as bad feng shui harms relaxation and ease of mind among the living, the spirits of people buried with bad feng shui will be anxious and restless, and therefore more likely to trouble the living. This reasoning led to careful feng shui planning of cemeteries
Philosophy of Space Liang Sicheng 梁思成 China’s Architecture History 《中國建築史》 China Architecture Institute 中国营造学社