Presentation on theme: "Sacraments Initiation Healing Vocation. Sacraments As Liturgy Definition Christ & the Church Doctrine & Terms St. Paul St. Augustine St. Thomas Aquinas."— Presentation transcript:
Sacraments As Liturgy Definition Christ & the Church Doctrine & Terms St. Paul St. Augustine St. Thomas Aquinas
I.Sacraments as Liturgy God= Trinity= Mysterion LiturgyThe Church Life Creation (Capax Dei) Love (Agape) & Glory (Doxa)
A.Mysterion: receiving the Divine Love; God reveals Himself as mysterion thru. Experiencing is knowing this mystery. To know is to know God. Jn 1:18; 3:17: 18 No one has ever seen God. It is God the only Son, who is close to the Father’s heart, who has made him known; 17 Indeed, God did not send the Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him.
B. A human is Capax Dei- the capacity of God. We’re meant to be filled w/God grace: Godself in us. The unity of the Mystery comes down to us thru & returns to the Father thru.. God’s Love (Agape) & Glory (Doxa) explode in Creation; when God creates He empties Himself. He communicates Himself in those created, thru His agape & doxa which is returned.
Is the focal point: all comes thru Him. He begins the glory in humanity. is the Church; the return of love & glory is also thru Him, the Church, the Mystery. The giving & returning all thru is LITURGY.
Divine Office Liturgy Mass Sacraments The ChurchThe “7” ***
II. Sacraments: something we see (phys’l) to tell us ~ something we canNOT see: grace Definitions according to: A. St. Paul: according to S. Paul, sac are Mysterion. Mysterion is the Greek word for mystery & was used by Paul in Eph: 1:9 & 3:3-9 when he referred to God’s plan of saving, renewing, & uniting all things in Jesus.
Eph: 1:9 & 3:3-9: 9 he has made known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure that he set forth in Christ; 3 and how the mystery was made known to me by revelation, as I wrote above in a few words, 4 a reading of which will enable you to perceive my understanding of the mystery of Christ. 5 In former generations this mystery was not made known to humankind, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit: 6 that is, the Gentiles have become fellow heirs, members of the same body, and sharers in the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel. 7 Of this gospel I have become a servant according to the gift of God’s grace that was given me by the working of his power. 8 Although I am the very least of all the saints, this grace was given to me to bring to the Gentiles the news of the boundless riches of Christ, 9 and to make everyone see what is the plan of the mystery hidden for ages in [c] God who created all things;c
Sac fits this – they are the mysterion b/c Jesus established them so that the Father’s plan to save might be accomplished in them, thru the Holy Spirit. B.St. Augustine: gave 4 important principles of what a sacrament is: 1.A sac is a Holy Sign, thru which we both perceive & receive invisible grace. 2.In it’s rite there are 2 essential parts: a phys’l part (matter) & spoken part (form) p.65
3. Some sac are NEVER repeated: they confer an eternal CHARACTER upon the soul. Which??? 4.Since it’s Christ who’s actually doing the sac, grace & holiness is NOT prevented by any moral defect or lack of faith or sins by the one administering the sac. For St. Augustine, a sac is a Sign of the Sacred Reality. This sign points to the deeper reality. Eg: the H 2 O of baptism points to the sacred reality of our soul being cleansed of original sin. HW: bring in symbols
C. St. Thomas Aquinas: a sacrament is an EFFACACIOUS SYMBOL. 1.Symbols: from the Gk sym – ballo: bring 2 things together. A symbol is a token, mark, or object used to represent a reality. Symbols pt to something more. a) Ordinary Symbols: or signs pt to a reality but does NOT affect or bring about the reality. Eg: a flag may symbolize the reality of freedom, liberty, or patriotism; however, they DO NOT cause or bring about those realities. It just symbolizes or pts to the reality.
b) Efficacious Symbol: brings about what it symbolizes & symbolizes what it brings about. An efficacious symbol not only pts to the reality; it brings about, effects & IS the Reality. These are the Sac. Eg: the bread & wine of the Eucharist are symbols that pt to the reality of Jesus’ body & blood. BUT, b/c the Euch is a sac & efficacious symbol, the bread & wine become & TRULY Jesus’ body & blood.
Another EG: H 2 O in baptism symbolizes clean- zing & life. In the sac of bap H 2 O is efficacious – it really does cleanse & new life, not just symbolize it. 2. St. Thomas also spoke of sac as instruments God uses to gain salvation thru grace. III. As Sacrament: Jesus is the PRIMORDIAL or first sac from which all others come; He is our encounter w/the Father. In Jesus, the Father’s love becomes visible.
A.He is the MYSTERY of the Father (S. Paul). In Christ, the Father’s plan for our salvation to renew & unite is revealed. He unifies & reconciles us w/God. God’s mystery is revealed in Jesus. B.Jesus(= )is the Sign of the Sacred reality (St. Augustine). He’s the sign of God’s love & forgiveness., in His humanity, is the great sign of the Father – in Him, God becomes visible.
C. fits St. Thomas’ definition of an efficacious symbol: His passion, death, & resrxn pt to the reality that sin & death have been conquered & everlasting life w/God is a reality. Since Jesus is a sac He not only pts to these realities, He effects & brings them about. All this is so b/c is human & God the WORD incarnate (made flesh). His human- ness is the sign & symbol of God’s love.
IV. The Church as Sacrament The Church is the Fundamental sac. The Church is sac b/c it is the Body of Christ. The activity of Jesus is reality in the Church & her 7 sac.
It is mysterion b/c it is part of God’s plan for our salvation It is a sign of God’s reality b/c it’s a visible sign of God’s saving acts It is an efficacious symbol b/c thru Jesus & the Holy Spirit we can gain life everlasting V. Doctrine & Terms: the word sac comes from the Latin word Sacramentum which was an oath of allegiance a soldier took upon induction into the service. Early Christians ( ians) used the word when they entered into the Church @ baptism.
They made a sacramentum to their new life & pledged to renounce sin & embrace. Eventually, the term was used for all the sacs. A.Effectiveness of Sacs: In sacs we have a guarantee of God’s grace, thru the rite itself, That is b/c sac work: EX OPERE OPERATO: BY THE WORK DONE. IE: just by doing the rite correctly, b/c it is Jesus actually doing the sac, receiving the grace is guaranteed. Whether we’re open to receiving them & accepting the grace is on us; however, the grace is there.
2.Sacramentals: work Ex Opere operantis: by the work of the worker; this means that grace isn’t guaranteed just by a specific axn. It depends upon the person doing the work to receive the grace. EG: Just attending Mass doesn’t guarantee grace. It’s the person’s participation, prayerfulness & willingness that does.
VI. Grace: is Godself in us. It brings us from our present state into a closer relationship w/God. It is a GIFT; it is FREE. We do not merit it in a sac. But, like any gift, whether we open & use it depends upon us. A.Sanctifying Grace: is that change or transformation that occurs under God’s influence in a person open to God’s action. B.Actual Grace: is the immediate, specific, & purposeful action of God, effecting a change in a person in a particular situation or circumstance.
VII. Essentials of the Rite: every sac contains the following signs & symbols that guarantee God’s reality of grace & presence. A. Matter: physical part B. Form: spoken part C. Action: when God’s grace & presence becomes specific, effective, & present. Matter + Form = Action D. Sign: the sacred reality E. Administer(s): who performs the rite/sac
VIII. Reformation: protestant reformers reduced the # of sac to 2: baptism & the Lord’s Supper. Reformers taught that the sac were mere “remembrances” of thru which grace might come. *** End for Exam
HW: Questions 15pts 1.In your own words, citing Sts. Paul, Augustine, & Thomas, discuss what a sacrament is. 2.Discuss the differences between sacraments & sacramentals especially with respect to grace. 3.Discuss Sacraments as Liturgy using the terms from the diagram (Doxa, mysterion, Capax Dei)
Exam Essays A.List & explain the 5 categories for the Essentials of the Rite B.Explain differences between a Sacrament & a Sacramental. How do each “work”? C.Explain the differences between an ordinary symbol & an efficacious symbol giving an eg of each. D.Explain liturgy using the diagram. E.How does Christ or the Church fit the definition of a sac according to Ss. Paul, Augustine, & Thomas?