Presentation on theme: "Father Paul A. Burke Holy Spirit Catholic Church, Atlanta."— Presentation transcript:
Father Paul A. Burke Holy Spirit Catholic Church, Atlanta
The Second Vatican Council called for a renewal of the Sacred Liturgy. Sacrosanctum Concilium (The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy) was the decree issued on the Sacred Liturgy in 1963.
1. Unity: The Liturgy is a sacrament of unity. “…to foster whatever can promote union among all who believe in Christ” (SC 1). 2. Traditional Restoration: The Liturgy must foster perennial values of Christianity. “Certain elements are to ‘be restored to the vigor which they had in the days of the holy Fathers’…sound tradition may be retained” (SC 50).
3. Modern Adaptation: Genuine inculturation follows the model of the Incarnation (Divine exchange). “Provisions shall also be made, when revising the liturgical books, for legitimate variations and adaptations to different groups, regions, and peoples, especially in mission lands, provided that the substantial unity of the Roman rite is preserved; and this should be borne in mind when drawing up the rites and devising rubrics” (SC 38).
4. Vernacular Language: the vernacular drawn from the Latin. “Particular law remaining in force, the use of the Latin language is to be preserved in the Latin rites. But since the use of the mother tongue, whether in the Mass, the administration of the sacraments, or other parts of the liturgy, frequently may be of great advantage to the people, the limits of its employment may be extended. This will apply in the first place to the readings and directives, and to some of the prayers and chants” (SC 36).
5. Noble Simplicity: radiant with noble truth. “The rites should be distinguished by a noble simplicity; they should be short, clear, and unencumbered by useless repetitions; they should be within the people's powers of comprehension, and normally should not require much explanation” (SC 34).
The International Commission on English in the Liturgy (ICEL) is a mixed commission of Catholic Bishops' Conferences in countries where English is used in the celebration of the Sacred Liturgy according to the Roman Rite. The purpose of the Commission is to prepare English translations of each of the Latin liturgical books and any individual liturgical texts in accord with the directives of the Holy See.
A dismal situation was brought about by good pastoral and catechetical intentions. The bishops in the early 1970s were anxious to get the new Missal to the people as quickly as possible. Translation published in 1973 and revised in 1975.
The translation that was approved was distorted because it was based on a flawed principle of translation known as “dynamic equivalence.” This principle was endorsed in Comme le prévoit, the 1969 translation guideline produced by the Consilium for Implementing the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy.” The principle demands a lively modern translation that is supposed to get to the meaning of the Latin without literally translating every word. However, paraphrasing is not good enough for sacred texts composed in Latin and Greek over many centuries for use in Divine Liturgy.
A paraphrase can fail to give us not only what the Latin original means, which is bordering on telling lies, but paraphrase often eliminates poetic beauty in the original, particularly scriptural language that runs through the prayers of the Roman Rite. Mistakes were made in the translation because of the speed at which the texts were translated. Italian Proverb: “Every translator is a traitor.”
The new translation was done using formal equivalence. This method reflects all of the meanings and forms of the text. Faithful to all the levels of meaning that are present in the sacred text. “Lex orandi, lex credendi” – how we pray impacts how we believe.
Apostolic Letter on the 25 th Anniversary of Roman Missal. Liturgical reform complete. Liturgical renewal continues. What is needed is a deepening and maturity of what we have.
Apostolic Letter on the 40 th Anniversary of Sacrosanctum Concilium. Appreciation of Liturgical Books and the stability they denote. Christ is the principal liturgist.
Fourth Instruction on Implementation states that the Incarnation is the model for inculturation; there is a double movement. St. Athanasius: “God became man so that man might become divine.”
Fifth Instruction on Proper Implementation of SC. A further development in vernacular. Stated that the principles of translation are: principles based on theology; principles based on the genius of the Roman Rite and principles based on the genius of the English language.
Liturgical vernacular expresses divine truths: “The words of the Sacred Scriptures, as well as the other words spoken in liturgical celebrations, especially in the celebration of the Sacraments, are not intended primarily to be a sort of mirror of the interior dispositions of the faithful; rather, they express truths that transcend the limits of time and space” (LA 19). Doctrinal Precision: “The translation must always be in accord with sound doctrine” (LA 26).
Is based on “Typical Editions”: “The Latin liturgical texts of the Roman Rite, while drawing on centuries of ecclesial experience in transmitting the faith of the Church received from the Fathers, are themselves the fruit of the liturgical renewal, just recently brought forth. In order that such a rich patrimony may be preserved and passed on through the centuries, it is to be kept in mind from the beginning that the translation of the liturgical texts of the Roman Liturgy is not so much a work of creative innovation as it is of rendering the original texts faithfully and accurately into the vernacular language. While it is permissible to arrange the wording, the syntax and the style in such a way as to prepare a flowing vernacular text suitable to the rhythm of popular prayer, the original text, insofar as possible, must be translated integrally and in the most exact manner, without omissions or additions in terms of their content, and without paraphrases or glosses. Any adaptation to the characteristics or the nature of the various vernacular languages is to be sober and discreet” (LA 20).
Fosters Unity: “In preparing all translations of the liturgical books, the greatest care is to be taken to maintain the identity and unitary expression of the Roman Rite, not as a sort of historical monument, but rather as a manifestation of the theological realities of ecclesial communion and unity” (LA 5). Manner of Expression proper to the Roman Rite: “That notable feature of the Roman Rite, namely its straightforward, concise and compact manner of expression, is to be maintained insofar as possible in the translation” (LA 57).
Translates accurately certain texts: “Whenever the biblical or liturgical text preserves words taken from other ancient consideration should be given to preserving the same words in the new vernacular translation” (LA 23).
Is easily understood: “translations should be characterized by a kind of language which is easily understandable, yet which at the same time preserves these texts’ dignity, beauty, and doctrinal precision” (LA 25). Is a sacred language: “it should cause no surprise that such language differs somewhat from ordinary speech. Liturgical translation that takes due account of the authority and integral content of the original texts will facilitate the development of a sacral vernacular, characterized by a vocabulary, syntax and grammar that are proper to divine worship” (LA 47).
Fosters active participation: “The Sacred Liturgy engages not only man’s intellect, but the whole person, who is the ‘subject’ of full and conscious participation in the liturgical celebration” (LA 28).
Committee on the English translation of Liturgical texts. Chaired by Cardinal George Pell of Sydney. “To assist and advise the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments in fulfilling its responsibilities with regard to the English translations of liturgical texts. Representing the different continents as it does, the committee reflects the international character of the English language. This makes available to the Holy See the great wealth of pastoral experience drawn from different cultures” (Pope John Paul II).
The unique style of the Roman Rite should be maintained in translation. By “style” is meant here the distinctive way in which the prayers of the Roman Rite are expressed. The principal elements of such a style include a certain conciseness in addressing, praising and entreating God, as well as distinctive syntactical patterns, a noble tone, a variety of less complex rhetorical devices, concreteness of images, repetition, parallelism and rhythm as measured through the cursus, or ancient standards for stressing syllables of Latin words in prose or poetry.
The texts of the revised translation of the Roman Missal are marked by a heightened style of English speech and a grammatical structure that closely follows the Latin text. In addition, many biblical and poetic images, such as “Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof…” (Communion Rite) and “…from the rising of the sun to its setting” (Eucharistic Prayer III) have been restored.
Sacramentary All-powerful God, Increase our strength of will for doing good That Christ may find an eager welcome At his coming, and call us to his side in the kingdom of heaven. Roman Missal Grant your faithful we pray Almighty God the resolve to run forth to meet with righteous deeds at his coming so that, gathered at his right hand, they may be worthy to possess the heavenly kingdom.
Sacramentary Father of everlasting goodness, our origin and guide, be close to us and hear the prayers of all who praise you. Forgive our sins and restore us to life. Keep us safe in your love. Grant this through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen. Roman Missal Draw near to your servants, O Lord and never cease to welcome their prayers, that, for those who glory in you as Creator and guide, you will restore what you have created and keep safe what you have restored. Through our Lord Jesus Christ your Son, who lives and reigns with you, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, God for ever and ever. Amen
The first prayer was broken up into small sentences, with ideas that contrast with one another, while the second flows with continuity and a unity of meaning that is found in the Latin original. There is nothing in the Latin about asking for the forgiveness of sins, rather the emphasis is on God’s grace restoring those who recognize their Creator and guide, that is, people with faith. The present sacramentary virtually eliminated the word “grace.” “Gratia” was replaced by “love.” Reminiscent of the heresy of Pelagianism: that we save ourselves by our own efforts, not through the grace of God.
Sacramentary …so that from east to west… A perfect offering may be made… Father, calling to mind the death Your Son endured for our salvation, his glorious resurrection and ascension into heaven and ready to greet him when he comes again… Roman Missal …that from the rising if the sun to its setting… A pure sacrifice may be offered to your name… Therefore, O Lord, as we celebrate the memorial of the saving Passion of your Son, his wondrous Resurrection and Ascension into heaven…
Sacramentary Lord, I am not worthy to receive you, but only say the word and I shall be healed. Roman Missal That you enter under my roof, but only say the word and my soul shall be healed (Prayer of the Centurion).
The new translation gives full honor to the Mother of God. The bland expression “the Virgin Mary” is replaced by the most- blessed, the pre-eminent saint, the Queen of all Saints.
The current text bleached out metaphors: “from east to west” is replaced by “from the rising of the sun to its setting.” Emphasis on the universal sacrifice bringing together space and time. Hearkens back to the prophecy of Malachi. Richer emphasis on the Holy Spirit. Literal accuracy and doctrinal precision.
In the East, mystery in worship is maintained largely by the iconostasis, the icon screen across the sanctuary.
In the West, the Latin language functioned as a kind of iconostasis of language. Coupled with the celebration of the Mass “ad orientem,” facing the altar, the Roman Rite retained the sense of holy mystery that the East maintained through the universal liturgical paradox of concealing so as to reveal. The truth of the mystery came to be carried in the Latin texts.
1. The new translation is faithful to the Latin. 2. The new translation is faithful to Vatican II. 3. The authentic translation preserves the texts’ dignity, beauty and doctrinal precision. 4. Broad collaborative process that was not rushed. 5. Rich biblical imagery and patristic texts: sacrificial dimension. 6. Reflects the transcendence and immanence of God. 7. Enters into the mystery of the heavenly liturgy.
The new translation will come into effect on the First Sunday of Advent, 2011.
“I should like to speak to you about a specific matters that affect your episcopal ministry at this time. it is the imminent publication of the new translation of the Roman Missal. I want to take this opportunity to thank all of you for the contribution you have made, with such painstaking care, to the collegial exercise of reviewing and approving the texts. This has provided an immense service to Catholics throughout the English-speaking world. I encourage you now to seize the opportunity that the new translation offers for in-depth catechesis on the Eucharist and renewed devotion in the manner of its celebration. “The more lively the eucharistic faith of the people of God, the deeper is its sharing in ecclesial life in steadfast commitment to the mission entrusted by Christ to his disciples” (Sacramentum Caritatis, 6).Sacramentum Caritatis
United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Federation of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions The Liturgical Institute at Mundelein Seminary, Chicago, Illinois Midwest Theological Forum New Liturgical Movement Archdiocese of Atlanta, Office of Divine Worship