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Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue UNIT 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue UNIT 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue UNIT 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday

3 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays Unit 3, Part 1 MAIN MENU The Energy of the Everyday (pages 530–555) Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.

4 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 530–534) Vocabulary Workshop

5 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ Meet Robert Hayden Click the picture to learn about the author.

6 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ In this poem, you meet a son remembering his father. In his recollection, the son gains a newfound understanding of his father’s love. Before you read the poem, think about the questions on the following slide. Connecting to the Poem

7 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ How often do you reflect on what your parents or family members do to show their love for you? How do you interpret and respond to their everyday gestures and manners? Connecting to the Poem

8 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ Poet and teacher Robert Hayden dedicated his life to his craft and to working “closely with young people” in order “to encourage creative writing.” He researched and celebrated his heritage in his poetry. Hayden said, “I believe in the essential oneness of all people,” and his poems portray universal human concerns of loss and love. Hayden won many awards for his work and was the first African American to be named as the Library of Congress consultant in poetry, a position now called poet laureate. Building Background

9 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ As you read this poem, notice how Hayden captures the different moods and actions of his characters through vivid imagery. Setting Purposes for Reading The Energy of the Everyday

10 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ A line in a poem usually consists of a single word or row of words. A stanza is a group of lines forming a unit in a poem or song, and is similar to the paragraph unit in prose. Setting Purposes for Reading Line and Stanza

11 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ Typically, stanzas are separated by a line of space. In this poem, note how the poet uses lines and stanzas to help convey ideas. As you read, try to determine the author’s focus and thematic intent of each stanza. Setting Purposes for Reading Line and Stanza

12 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ Tone refers to an author’s attitude toward his or her subject matter. A writer’s tone might project a variety of attitudes such as sympathy, objectivity, or humor. It may be conveyed through elements such as word choice, punctuation, sentence structure, and figures of speech. Analyzing Tone

13 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ When you analyze the tone of a selection, you deepen your understanding of the author’s message. Try to determine the speaker’s tone as you read Hayden’s poem. Analyzing Tone

14 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ Reading Tip: Asking Questions Use a chart like the one on the next slide to identify how the speaker uses description to achieve a certain tone. Fill in the circles with descriptions from the poem and note the tone conveyed. Analyzing Tone

15 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Tone

16 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ chronicchronic adj. persistent; ongoing, especially of sickness or pain (p. 532) Chronic backaches made it difficult for my mom to garden. indifferentlyindifferently adv. not concerned about someone or something; without a preference (p. 532) When Mr. Tate spoke, his children listened indifferently, as they were not interested. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

17 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays BEFORE YOU READ austereaustere adj. stern; severe in appearance; (p. 532) Micky’s austere expression let us know that he was pretty disappointed. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

18 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays

19 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays The Energy of the Everyday What details make the everyday actions described in the poem particularly vivid? READING THE SELECTION Answer: You might mention imagery such as “the blueblack cold” or “cracked hands that ached” as particularly vivid.

20 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays Analyzing Tone Read the text highlighted in blue on page 532. How do these five words from the speaker contribute to the tone of the poem? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Some may say that this suggests a sad, regretful tone. Others may say that it shows the true nature of love: do something kind without getting anything in return. Reading Strategy

21 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays Look at the painting on page 532. How would you describe this man’s expression and mood? Compare and contrast them to the personal qualities conveyed by the speaker of the poem. READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art

22 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays Answer: Observational and stoic. It reflects the speaker’s melancholic revelation of his father’s love. READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art

23 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays

24 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: Answers will vary. 1.Which one line or image from “Those Winter Sundays” most resonated with you? Explain. Responding and Thinking Critically Respond

25 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ 2.(a) What did the speaker’s father do on Sunday mornings in the winter? (b) As a child, did the speaker appreciate his father’s efforts? How do you know? Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

26 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) He stoked the furnace to warm the room before waking his children. (b) No; he spoke indifferently to him. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

27 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) He took his father for granted. (b) The father provides warmth as well as love. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 3.(a) Why do you think the speaker spoke indifferently to his father? (b) In the third stanza, how has the father “driven out the cold”?

28 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: Love is expressed in common, everyday gestures. 4.What does the speaker now understand that he did not understand before? Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

29 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) By giving it shape and sound (b) Reflects the son’s indifferent, ungrateful feelings toward his father 5.(a) How does the speaker personify the cold? (b) How does this reflect the son’s feelings? Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

30 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) To point out the limited perspective children have of their parents (b) Children and adults who remember being children 6.(a) What do you think was Robert Hayden’s motive in writing this poem? (b) Who do you think he would most like to reach with this poem? Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

31 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: The poem asks the readers to examine the small, daily things people do for others. 7.In what ways does Hayden bring greater significance to the daily responsibilities a parent performs? Explain Responding and Thinking Critically Connect The Energy of the Everyday

32 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Examining the contribution each line and stanza makes to the overall movement and thematic development of the poem can help you better understand the poet’s purpose and intention. Line and Stanza

33 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: First: father; second: speaker; third: interaction between the two 1.What is the specific focus of each separate stanza? How might the focus of the third stanza incorporate those of the first two Line and Stanza

34 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: The second and third stanzas trace his realization of his father’s love and his regret over not appreciating it. 2.How does each line in the poem trace the speaker’s development as a person? Line and Stanza

35 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Apply Theme In many of his poems, Hayden revisits the settings of his working- class Detroit childhood. Imagine a conversation between a child and his or her parent or guardian on such a winter morning. Writing About Literature

36 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ In your conversation, the two can either bring up or avoid issues of gratitude and fear of anger. Write down this imagined conversation, including words, phrases, or images from the poem that made an impression upon you. Writing About Literature

37 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Analyzing tone helps you better understand the message the poet tries to convey and the response the poet strives to elicit. Pay attention to word choice, repetition, and imagery used to convey a particular feeling. Review the descriptions in your chart to help you answer the following questions. Analyzing Tone

38 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: They reveal his lack of sympathy for his father. 1.How do the speaker’s descriptions of the cold house mirror his attitude toward his father? Analyzing Tone

39 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Answer: Love isn’t always demonstrative but sometimes subtle and quietly expressed. 2.Examine the speaker’s word choice. What does it tell you about the speaker and his father’s love? Analyzing Tone

40 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ Practice with Context Clues For each vocabulary word, use context clues to figure out its meaning. Think about which type of context clue helped you. Practice

41 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ 1.Every time Jane fidgeted, Grandmother gave her an austere, disapproving look. A.nervous B.stern C.warm Practice

42 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ 2.Mary suffered from chronic allergies until she finally got a prescription for a new medication. A.ongoing B.extreme C.occasional Practice

43 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays AFTER YOU READ 3.Shipra did not care which movie we saw, so she reacted indifferently when I picked one. A.sadly B.happily C.without a preference Practice

44 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays

45 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 535–539)

46 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Meet Billy Collins Click the picture to learn about the author.

47 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ The following poem talks about seeing creatures in everyday objects. Before you read the poem, think about the following questions: What do you see when you look at clouds? Do you expect age or experience to change what you see? Connecting to the Poem

48 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Hamlet tells the story of the sensitive young prince of Denmark in the months after his father, the king, is murdered by his uncle Claudius. Hamlet resolves to murder Claudius as retribution. However, he spends much of the play thinking and soliloquizing rather than acting on his resolution. As a result of his reputation as a thinker, and not a doer, Hamlet has often been reimagined as the archetypal pensive, tormented male artist. Building Background

49 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ As you read this poem, pay attention to how creatures are seen in everyday objects and how the speaker reacts to them. Setting Purposes for Reading The Energy of the Everyday

50 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READ Enjambment is the continuation of the sense of a sentence or phrase from one line of a poem to the next without a pause between the lines. Enjambment

51 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READ The first line below is an example of enjambment: Enjambment Many times I would be daydreaming on the carpet and one would appear next to me,

52 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READ Enjambment contrasts with end-stopped lines, in which the sense and the grammatical structure reach completion at the end of a line. Enjambment can occur in both metered and free-verse poetry. Enjambment

53 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Structure Analyzing text structure involves identifying the order or pattern an author uses to present his or her ideas.

54 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Structure Many elements help to form the structure of a poem or literary work, including cause- and-effect relationships, chronological order, problem and solution, the repetition of certain rhetorical devices, and lists. As you read, identify the various ways in which Collins structures this poem.

55 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Reading Tip: Noting Descriptive Words As you read the poem, note the words that Collins uses to describe the creatures he sees and the locations where he sees them. Analyzing Structure

56 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ melancholymelancholy adj. depressed; dejected (p. 538) The dark and rainy day created a melancholy mood in the school. submergedsubmerged adj. hard to see; sunken (p. 537) The real plan was submerged in a mass of detail. bureaubureau n. a chest of drawers for the bedroom; suitably (p. 537) Please put the clothes back in the bureau. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

57 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ grimace v. to make a face expressing disgust, disapproval, or pain (p. 538) The boy grimaced at his mother when she scolded. fissure n. a narrow crack (p.538) The earthquake caused a fissure in the earth. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

58 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1

59 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday Keep the following questions in mind as you read. What is the speaker’s perception of the everyday objects he describes? Does his perception change as the poem progresses? READING THE SELECTION Answer: The objects seem to him to have life trapped inside them that is trying to escape. This perception seems to frighten or disturb him, even as an adult.

60 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 Look at the painting on page 537. In what ways is the painting similar to and different from the way the speaker in the poem “sees” creatures? READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art

61 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 Answer: In both works, faces or creatures are seen where they really do not exist. Students may say that in the painting, many different objects function together to form a face, while in the poem, the speaker usually sees creatures in individual objects. READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art

62 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 Enjambment Read the text highlighted in purple on page 538. How do these lines exemplify enjambment? Explain Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: These lines exemplify enjambment because one line flows into the next without a pause.

63 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday Read the text highlighted in tan on page 538. Why does the stone, an ordinary object, bother the speaker so much? READING THE SELECTION Answer: The stone reminds the speaker of his fears as a child. The stone evokes memories and feelings, even though it is a lifeless object.

64 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1

65 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: Answers will vary. Responding and Thinking Critically Respond 1.Describe your feelings about the creatures after reading the poem.

66 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) As trapped, frowning, and melancholy (b) The speaker imagines them because of the reflections or designs. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 2.(a) How does the speaker describe the “creatures” in the furniture? (b) Why do you think the speaker sees creatures in the furniture?

67 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) The speaker throws the stone into the water. (b) It reminds him of his childhood fears. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 3.(a) How does the speaker react to the stone his companion finds on the beach? (b) Why do you think the speaker reacts in this way?

68 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: The speaker’s reaction is purely emotional, not rational. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 4.Does the speaker’s reaction to the stone seem rational? Explain.

69 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: Answers will vary. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 5.(a) Can you identify with the speaker’s reaction in the poem? (b) How does Collins help you to identify with the experience?

70 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 6.(a) Why do you think the speaker directly addresses his companion in the fifth stanza? (b) Is this technique effective? Explain your answer.

71 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: (a) Because he understands exactly what his companion sees (b) Yes, because it emphasizes the emotional reaction and helps show that the speaker’s past influences the present.

72 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect 7.The everyday is usually considered non-threatening. In what ways has Collins made the everyday threatening? Explain. The Energy of the Everyday

73 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Answer: Collins has made the everyday frightening by describing ordinary objects with words such as howling, twisted, and freakish. The Energy of the Everyday

74 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Enjambment Poets use enjambment to create a conversational tone and flow in their poems. Collins uses this technique in many lines in this poem.

75 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Enjambment Answer: In stanzas 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. 1.Where does the poet use enjambment in the poem?

76 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Enjambment Answer: It creates a conversational tone. 2.How effective is the author’s use of enjambment? Explain.

77 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Respond to Style Write a personal response to “Creatures.” In your essay, discuss what you liked or disliked about the poem. Also discuss your response to the style of the poem, including the first-person point of view, the word choice, and the effect of the last stanza. Be sure to give examples from the poem to support your opinions. Writing About Literature

78 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ When you are finished with your draft, have your peer reviewer critique your essay and offer suggestions. Then, with these suggestions in mind, make revisions to your work. Finally, proofread your essay and edit it for mistakes in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Writing About Literature

79 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Structure is the order or pattern an author uses to present ideas. Cause and effect, chronological order, describing a problem and offering a solution, or listing information are all types of structures that Collins could have chosen. Analyzing Structure

80 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Structure Answer: You may say that it is chronological, moving from the speaker’s childhood to an incident that occurs when he is an adult. 1.Describe the structure that Collins uses to organize the poem. Support your answer with examples.

81 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Structure Answer: The structure emphasizes the poem’s themes by illustrating how the childhood fears in the first part of the poem affect the speaker’s adult behavior. 2.How does the structure of the poem help you better understand its message.

82 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Word Parts Use your knowledge of roots, as well as your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes, to pick the best definition for each of the boldfaced vocabulary words on the following slides.

83 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Structure 1.She submerged herself in the pool very slowly. A.swam B.washed C.immersed

84 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Structure 2.Yao felt melancholy for weeks after the fight. A.angry B.gloomy C.unkind

85 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Structure 3.Erin grimaced while taking out the trash. A.made a face B.grinned C.flexed

86 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Structure 4.The dropped plate had a small fissure. A.dent B.stain C.crack

87 Creatures Unit 3, Part 1

88 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 540–545)

89 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Meet Theodore Roethke Click the picture to learn about the author.

90 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ In “The Waking,” the speaker expresses ideas about life, death, knowledge, and self- awareness. Before you read the poem, think about the following questions: Do you have a personal philosophy of life that you believe in or follow? What reminds you of the connection between human beings and nature? Connecting to the Poem

91 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ The form of poetry known as the villanelle derives its name from a type of Italian rustic song. The shape of the villanelle was established by the work of the French poet Jean Passerat, who died in Critics compare the popularity once enjoyed by Passerat’s villanelles to that of popular songs today. Building Background

92 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Villanelles are nineteen lines long. They have five stanzas of three lines each, followed by one stanza of four lines. The first line of the first stanza is repeated as the last line of the second and fourth stanzas. The third line of the first stanza is repeated as the last line of the third and fifth stanzas. These two repeated lines are repeated once more at the end of the poem. Building Background

93 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading As you read “The Waking,” notice what Roethke suggests about the value of everyday life. The Energy of the Everyday

94 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Meter is a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables that gives a line of poetry a predictable rhythm. Rhythm gives poetry a musical quality, adds emphasis to certain words, and helps convey a poem’s meaning. Meter and Rhythm

95 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Examining meter and rhythm can help you understand a poem’s meaning and appreciate its aural quality. As you read the poem, try to determine its meter and the effect of its rhythm. Meter and Rhythm

96 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Mood The mood is the emotional quality of a literary work. A writer’s choice of language, subject matter, setting, and tone—as well as sound devices such as rhyme and rhythm—contribute to creating mood.

97 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Mood Understanding the mood will help you appreciate a writer’s state of mind. While reading this poem, try to determine the mood of the individual lines and of the poem as a whole to help you better understand the poet’s meaning.

98 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Mood Reading Tip: Finding Examples Use a chart like the one on the next slide to record examples of language, subject matter, setting, tone, and sound devices that create a strong mood.

99 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Mood

100 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1

101 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday Keep following questions in mind as you read. What is your place in nature? Is nature a guiding principle in your life? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Answers will vary. You will probably not think of nature as a guiding principle in your life, more as something external that should be respected and conserved.

102 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 Analyzing Mood Read the text highlighted in blue on page 542. What emotion is conveyed by this image? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: You may say happiness or joy.

103 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday Read the text highlighted in tan on page 542. How does Roethke make the ground seem important? READING THE SELECTION Answer: He capitalizes ground. He makes it seem sacred.

104 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1

105 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond 1.(a) Is this an uplifting poem? Explain. (b) How can you apply this poem to your own life?

106 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond Answer: (a) You may say that it is uplifting because it talks about living life freely and intuitively. (b) You may say that you could take life more slowly, noticing the sanctity of things as simple as the ground and a tree.

107 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 2.(a) How does the speaker “take” his waking? (b) What do you think the speaker means by this recurring phrase? AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Slowly (b) He lives life slowly but purposefully, noticing beauty in the simplicity of nature. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

108 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 3.(a) Identify two lines that address learning or thinking. (b) What ideas about knowledge do these lines express? AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

109 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 Answer: (a) ”We think by feeling. What is there to know?” and “I learn by going where I have to go.” (b) Thought is a product of emotion and knowledge is gained through living, instead of theorizing. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

110 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 4.(a) What climbs up a winding stair? (b) In your opinion, why did the poet include this image? AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) The lowly worm (b) It conveys humility. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

111 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 5.(a) What is “another thing” that nature has to do “to you and me,” according to stanza 5? (b) Explain the advice we are given in line 14. How is it related to the refrain “I learn by going where I have to go”? AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

112 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 Answer: (a) Naturally we will die. (b) Appreciate the world around us and learn from it AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

113 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 6.In your opinion, what attitude does the speaker express toward nature? AFTER YOU READ Answer: The speaker shows respect for nature and its mystery and ability to teach us. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

114 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 7.“What falls away is always.” Do you agree with this statement? Explain. AFTER YOU READ Answer: Some may agree because we always remember what we’ve lost. Others may disagree because once something is gone, it leaves our memory. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

115 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 8.(a) Roethke seems to be expressing a philosophy of how people should live their lives. What is this philosophy? (b) Would you follow this philosophy? Explain. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect The Energy of the Everyday

116 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Life should be taken slowly so that we notice the importance of mundane things. We should live by feeling, and learn by living. (b) Some might like its guidelines for living, while others might not like its emphasis on emotion over thought. Responding and Thinking Critically Connect The Energy of the Everyday

117 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ The basic unit of meter is the foot. The length of a metrical line can be expressed in terms of the number of feet it contains (see Literary Handbook). The meter in “The Waking” is iambic pentameter, the most common meter in English poetry. Meter and Rhythm

118 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ In iambic pentameter, the predominant foot, or unit of rhythm, is the iamb. An iamb is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. There are five feet in each line of iambic pentameter. The following lines from “The Waking” are an example of iambic pentameter. Meter and Rhythm

119 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ I wake to sleep, and take my waking slow. I feel my fate in what I cannot fear. I learn by going where I have to go. Meter and Rhythm

120 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: You should copy the stanza and mark it using iambic pentameter. 1.Copy the next stanza in the poem and mark the meter as modeled on the previous slide. Meter and Rhythm

121 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: They are consistent, like a heartbeat. This promotes living by feeling the rhythms of nature. 2.How might the meter and rhythm be important to the meaning of the poem? Meter and Rhythm

122 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ As you learned on page 531, a stanza is a group of lines that form a unit in a poem or song. A stanza in a poem is similar to a paragraph in prose. Review: Stanza

123 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ The stanzas in “The Waking” form a villanelle, a 19-line structure divided into five tercets, or three-line stanzas, and one quatrain. (The quatrain is the last stanza.) The most unusual characteristic of the villanelle is its use of refrains, or repeated lines. Review: Stanza

124 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ While Roethke adheres to the demands of the villanelle, he varies the form slightly to avoid stiffness. For instance, in places he uses slant rhyme, rhyme in which the words rhymed sound similar but do not rhyme exactly (as in jackal and buckle). Review: Stanza

125 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Partner Activity Meet with a partner to discuss the stanzas and refrains of “The Waking.” With your partner, answer the questions on the following slides. Review: Stanza

126 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: The words are dark and mysterious, but the line conjures the image of someone facing darkness triumphantly. 1.How does Roethke vary the refrains in “The Waking”? Provide an example. Review: Stanza

127 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Its rhythmic, musical form is appealing. (b) Its rustic tradition is fitting for promoting appreciation for everyday things. 2.(a) Why would modern poets choose to write in so limited and demanding a form as the villanelle? (b) Why is the villanelle form appropriate to the subject of “The Waking”? Review: Stanza

128 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Mood is a broader term than tone, which refers to the attitude of a speaker or author toward the subject matter of a work. Mood also differs from atmosphere, which is concerned mainly with the physical qualities that contribute to a mood, such as time, place, and weather. Analyzing Mood

129 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Mood is the emotional quality that the work conveys to the reader. The mood of a literary work can be consistent or can change over the course of the piece. Analyzing Mood

130 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 1.“I feel my fate in what I cannot fear.” What mood is created by this line? Answer: The words are dark and mysterious, but the line conjures the image of someone facing darkness triumphantly. Analyzing Mood

131 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 2.Over the course of the poem, does the mood shift? Chart the mood in each stanza of the poem to determine your answer. Use the chart on the next slide as a guide. Analyzing Mood

132 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Mood

133 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: The mood varies a little. stanza 3: joyful, respectful stanza 4: mysterious stanza 5: humble, encouraging stanza 6: hopeful Analyzing Mood

134 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Here are two words that will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. hypothesis n. a statement or guess made for the purpose of testing and evaluating simulate adj. to imitate the look and/or feel of something Academic Vocabulary

135 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Practice and Apply 1.From this poem, do you think Roethke would support the composing and testing of hypotheses as a means of learning? Explain. Academic Vocabulary

136 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Practice and Apply Answer: He would not support hypothesizing as a way to learn. He believes in learning by living. Academic Vocabulary

137 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Practice and Apply Answer: Humans cannot simulate reality; they are dependent on what nature gives them. 2.According to the poem, can humans simulate their own reality, or are they dependent on the world as it is? Explain. Academic Vocabulary

138 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Explore Author’s Purpose An author’s purpose in writing a piece of literature can usually be found in the poem’s meaning or message. Writing About Literature

139 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Write a one- or two-page analysis of Roethke’s purpose in writing “The Waking.” Use evidence from the poem to defend your position. Before you begin your draft, use a web like the one on the following slide to gather the supporting evidence. Writing About Literature

140 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ

141 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ In the center oval, write a phrase that describes the author’s purpose. In the ovals above the author’s purpose, write down individual quotes that relate to the purpose, taking care to write them down accurately. Writing About Literature

142 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ In the ovals below the author’s purpose, write down any impressions or ideas that strike you as you read. Once you have completed the web, begin your draft. Writing About Literature

143 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ After you complete your draft, meet with a peer reviewer to assess each other’s work and to provide constructive criticism. Then proofread and edit your draft for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Writing About Literature

144 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Start a journal to collect advice you come across about living a happy life. Include poems, quotations, anecdotes, and advice you’ve heard from friends, family, and people who inspire you. For each bit of advice, be sure to include details about the source as well as the date you discovered the advice. Learning for Life

145 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Using Infinitives In “The Waking,” Roethke uses simple verb forms, called infinitives, to express the simplicity of his philosophy of life. In particular Roethke uses the infinitive form: the root of a verb plus the word to. Infinitives generally express the idea of action. Roethke’s Language and Style

146 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Notice Roethke’s repeated use of infinitives throughout the poem: Roethke’s Language and Style “I wake to sleep, and take my waking slow. I feel my fate in what I cannot fear. I learned by going where I have to go.”

147 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Also notice that Roethke takes care not to “split” his infinitives, or put a word or phrase between to and the root of the verb. Roethke’s Language and Style

148 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ For example, the sentence I wanted to not go home contains a split infinitive. The sentence could be corrected by writing it as I wanted not to go home. Whenever possible, you should avoid using split infinitives in your writing. Roethke’s Language and Style

149 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Activity Make a list of Roethke’s infinitives. What do these verbs have in common? Which are repeated? What clues do these words give you to Roethke’s purpose and the meaning of the poem? Roethke’s Language and Style

150 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Infinitives The correct use of infinitives is important to consider when revising your writing. With a partner, go through your analysis of Roethke’s purpose and make sure you have correctly used infinitives. Where possible, simplify your verb constructions by using infinitives. When using infinitives, try to avoid splitting them. Revising Check

151 The Waking Unit 3, Part 1

152 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 546–549)

153 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Meet Jean Toomer Click the picture to learn about the author.

154 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ How do you feel about the possibility of machines performing human jobs? Before you read the poem, think about the questions on the following slides. Connecting to the Poem

155 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Do you think that machines and technology have diminished the need for human contact? Explain. How do feelings and compassion differentiate people from machines? Connecting to the Poem

156 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ The Harlem Renaissance, also known as the “New Negro Movement,” was a period of great creativity and artistic output among African Americans. Harlem, an African American community in New York City, provided a location for this unprecedented artistic movement to flourish. Artists and writers of the movement often focused on the African American experience in the United States. Writers such as James Weldon Johnson and Langston Hughes were among several African Americans from this period whose works became popular within the mainstream culture. Building Background

157 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ As you read “Reapers,” notice how Toomer endows a seemingly ordinary event with new energy and emotion. Setting Purposes for Reading The Energy of the Everyday

158 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Rhyme is the repetition of the same stressed vowel sounds and any succeeding sounds in two or more words. End rhyme occurs at the ends of lines of poetry, while internal rhyme occurs within lines. Setting Purposes for Reading Rhyme and Rhyme Scheme

159 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Slant rhymes occur when words include sounds that are similar but do not rhyme exactly. Rhyme scheme is the pattern that end rhymes form in a stanza or in a poem. As you read, try to determine the effect of the rhyme and the rhyme scheme found in Toomer’s poem. Setting Purposes for Reading Rhyme and Rhyme Scheme

160 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Poets utilize rhythm and meter to enhance the musical quality and meaning of their work. While reading “Reapers,” analyze the meter, the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, and rhythm, which can be either regular (with a predictable pattern of meter) or irregular, in order to understand what the poet wants to express. Analyzing Rhythm and Meter

161 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ For example, the repetitive beat of the poem illustrates the image of the workers swinging the scythes in a consistent rhythm. Analyzing Rhythm and Meter

162 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Reading Tip: Visualizing Listen to the “beat” of the poem while it is being read aloud. Visualize the images that the author is trying to portray through the rhythm. Use a graphic organizer like the one on the following slide to help you determine what images you visualize and how they affect your understanding of the poem. Analyzing Rhythm and Meter

163 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Rhythm and Meter

164 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ reapersreapers n. machines or people that cut grain for harvesting (p. 548) The reapers worked in the fields all day. scythesscythes n. cutting implements made of a long, curved single-edged blade (p. 548) The men used scythes to cut through the long wheat in the fields. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

165 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ honeshones n. whetstones or similar tools used to sharpen knives and other types of blades (p. 548) They used hones to make the knives razor-sharp. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

166 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1

167 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday While you read the poem, keep the following question in mind. Why would a poet write about such an ordinary event? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Poets see the unusual in usual activities. They use activities that readers can easily picture to explore more abstract themes.

168 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday Read the text highlighted in the tan on page 548. How do these lines add meaning to an otherwise ordinary object? READING THE SELECTION

169 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 READING THE SELECTION Answer: You may say that Toomer is showing how machines lack the control and sensitivity that humans have. The machine continues cutting, even after injuring the rat, while humans may have shown awareness of or even sympathy for an injured living creature.

170 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1

171 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: Answers will vary. 1.What are your feelings about farm machinery after reading the poem? Responding and Thinking Critically Respond

172 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Use scythes to cut down weeds (b) Matter-of-fact and deliberate 2.(a) Describe in your own words what the reapers do. (b) What attitude do the reapers seem to have toward their work? Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

173 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) The mower runs over it. (b) To show that the machines lack human sensitivity 3.(a) What happens to the field rat in the poem? (b) Why do you think Toomer includes this incident? Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

174 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) It squeals. (b) It makes the reader uncomfortable, feeling the rat’s suffering. 4.(a) What sound does the injured rat make? (b) What effect does this sound have as you read the poem? Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

175 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Both are black. (b) To show how the field work dehumanizes the men 5.(a) What connections do you see between the reapers and the horses? (b) Why do you think Toomer links the reapers and the horses in this way? Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

176 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 6.(a) How does the rhythm of this poem reflect its content? (b) If the poem did not have this kind of rhythm, would it have the same impact? Explain. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

177 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) The rhythm reflects the swinging of the reapers’ scythes. (b) No, because the poem would lose the sense of tedious routine that the reapers face each day. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

178 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 7.(a) What do you think is Toomer’s purpose in writing this poem? (b) Do you think Toomer accomplishes his purpose in the poem? Explain. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

179 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) To contrast humans and machines to show that machines are a poor substitute for human labor (b) You may say yes because of how he structured the poem as comparison. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

180 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: The meter simulates the rhythm of the workers’ scythes swinging motion. Toomer also uses meter and rhythm to copy the sound that a machine might make through a repeated pattern of sounds. 8.How does the meter of “Reapers” add to the reader’s sensory experience of “the everyday”? Responding and Thinking Critically Connect The Energy of the Everyday

181 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Toomer uses a particular rhyme and rhyme scheme to achieve a certain purpose. Rhyme scheme is designated by the assignment of a different letter of the alphabet to each new rhyme. For example, in the first four lines of Toomer’s poem “Georgia Dusk,” the rhyme scheme is abba: Rhyme and Rhyme Scheme

182 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ The sky, lazily disdaining to pursue a The setting sun, too indolent to hold b A lengthened tournament for flashing gold, b Passively darkens for night’s barbeque[.] a Rhyme and Rhyme Scheme

183 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ These lines also contain end rhyme (“hold,” “gold”) and internal rhyme (“tournament,” “indolent”). Rhyme and Rhyme Scheme

184 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: End rhyme 1.What kind of rhyme does “Reapers” have? Explain. Rhyme and Rhyme Scheme

185 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: aabbccdd; It creates a consistent sense of rhythm, like the reapers’ labor. 2.What is the rhyme scheme of “Reapers”? How is it important to the poem? Rhyme and Rhyme Scheme

186 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Critic Motley Deakin remarks that “the general effect of [Toomer’s] poetry is a loosening of poetic structures, a movement towards prose.” Evaluate this idea by rewriting “Reapers” as prose. When you are finished, decide whether you agree with this critic’s analysis. Why or why not? Literary Criticism

187 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Analyzing Meter and Rhythm Poets often try to convey meaning through meter and rhythm. 1.Describe the rhythm of “Reapers.” Answer: The rhythm is plodding and repetitive.

188 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: The rhythm reflects the mechanical nature of the farm work. 2.How do you think the rhythm is important to the meaning of the poem? Analyzing Meter and Rhythm

189 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: Answers will vary. 3.Try reading the poem with a different rhythm. Does this change the poem’s effect? Explain. Analyzing Meter and Rhythm

190 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Practice with Synonyms Choose the synonym for each vocabulary word from “Reapers.” Practice

191 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 1.reapers Practice A.harvesters B.slaves

192 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 2.scythes A.knives B.machines Practice

193 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 3.hones A.whetstones B.steel Practice

194 Reapers Unit 3, Part 1

195 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 550–556)

196 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Meet Pablo Neruda Click the picture to learn about the author.

197 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ The following poem pays homage to a pair of socks that Pablo Neruda treasures. Before you read the poem, think about the questions on the following slide. Connecting to the Poem

198 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Poem How do material objects in your possession become important to you? Of your prized possessions, which is most valuable to you? Why?

199 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Traditionally, odes are long, lyrical poems that often use seven- and eleven-syllable rhythms. Odes are categorized by their expression of noble and dignified feelings. They also typically exalt their subject matter. Pablo Neruda, who once said, “My poetry became clear and happy when it branched off towards humbler subjects and things,” satisfied only part of this definition. While Neruda’s odes do famously celebrate their subjects, they do not flaunt the lofty style characterized by traditional odes. Rather, they sing the praises of the ordinary, the fundamental, and the essential. Building Background

200 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ As you read “Ode to My Socks,” try to appreciate the narrator’s reverence for his socks, an everyday item. Focus, too, on the significance of the ideas and images flanking the ode’s subject. Setting Purposes for Reading The Energy of the Everyday

201 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Free verse is poetry without a fixed pattern of rhyme, meter, line length, or stanza arrangement. Traditional rules of form are often replaced with techniques such as repetition and alliteration to generate the poem’s musical configurations. Setting Purposes for Reading Free Verse

202 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ As you read, notice how the unrestrained feel of the free verse form affects the way in which Neruda communicates his ideas. Setting Purposes for Reading Free Verse

203 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ When you paraphrase, you restate a text’s meaning in your own words. Questioning a text involves asking yourself about the relevance of a given selection. Monitoring comprehension by paraphrasing and questioning can help you better understand a work. Monitoring Comprehension

204 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Reading Tip: Keeping Track of Your Understanding After reading “Ode to My Socks” once, revisit each stanza individually. As you complete a stanza, paraphrase it and ask yourself questions about its meaning. Use a chart to record your use of paraphrasing and questioning. Monitoring Comprehension

205 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ Monitoring Comprehension

206 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ immenseimmense adj. immeasurable; vast; huge (p. 553) I felt immense pleasure in presenting the student with the scholarship. decrepitdecrepit adj. ruined with age; depleted (p. 553) The decrepit bus did not look safe. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

207 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 BEFORE YOU READ remorseremorse n. distress stemming from the guilt of past wrongs (p. 553) The sobbing prisoner showed remorse in court. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition. sacredsacred adj. worthy of reverence (p. 553) The archaeologist eagerly uncovered the sacred texts.

208 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1

209 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday Think about the following questions while reading. How does the narrator convince the reader of his socks’ importance? Why might he be interested in exalting a pair of socks? READING THE SELECTION

210 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 Answer: He describes their softness, beauty, and usefulness. He appreciates simplicity and encourages the reverence of ordinary things. READING THE SELECTION

211 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 Monitoring Comprehension Read the text highlighted in blue on page 553. How might you paraphrase this line? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Answers will vary, but may be similar to “extremely colorful socks.” Reading Strategy

212 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 The Energy of the Everyday Read the text highlighted in tan on page 553. What kind of schoolboy impulse is the author trying to convey here? READING THE SELECTION Answer: The hunting or seizing impulse that schoolboys seem to have with objects that fascinate them.

213 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 Free Verse Read the text highlighted in purple on page 553. What elements of free verse does the writer use here? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Varied line length, no set meter, and use of alliteration. Literary Element

214 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1

215 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: You might say that sentimental value is greater than materialistic value. 1.Has Neruda’s tribute to his socks affected how you feel about your socks? How has it affected your feelings about material possessions in general? Responding and Thinking Critically Respond

216 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Fish; sharks; blackbirds; cannons; decrepit firemen (b) The images are not beautiful and contrast with the beautiful socks. 2.(a) What has the speaker called his feet ? (b) Why might the speaker choose to represent feet in so many ways? Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

217 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 3.(a) In lines 18–24, how does the speaker perceive his feet? (b) In lines 39–40, why do you think the speaker compares his feet to “two decrepit firemen”? Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

218 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) As cold and uninviting, like fish or sharks (b) Decrepit firemen are ineffective against a blaze, and the narrator’s feet aren’t up to facing “that woven fire” of the socks. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

219 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 4.(a) According to the speaker, which two types of people hoard things? (b) From where might this temptation to hoard come? Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

220 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Schoolboys with fireflies and learned men with sacred texts (b) The temptation seems to be innate and universal, since these two examples are of vastly different groups: carefree schoolboys and learned men. The author might suggest that concealing beautiful things is a natural impulse. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

221 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 5.How well has Neruda expressed the meaningfulness of these socks? Explain. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: You should refer to Neruda’s reverential descriptions of the socks using content from the poem.

222 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 6.(a) Using specific examples, explain how Neruda has veered from the traditional form of an ode. (b) Why do you think Neruda chose to break with tradition in writing this ode? Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

223 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) You may cite such straight– forward examples as “my feet were two fish made of wool” or “two socks as soft as rabbits.” (b) To relay ideas in a more natural, accessible way Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

224 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: The summary increases reader confidence in interpreting the poem. 7.How might Neruda’s decision to summarize his ode in the last stanza affect the reader’s interpretation of its ideas? Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

225 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 8.Neruda is known for his praise of the ordinary. What examples best illustrate this characteristic in “Ode to My Socks?” Explain. Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Answer: The poem’s subject, socks, is a celebration of the ordinary, as are other objects present in the ode, like a friend knitting socks and twilight. The Energy of the Everyday

226 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ With free verse, a writer is not bound by form or arrangement. An author may embark upon the subject matter with less regard for traditional form. Free Verse

227 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Rather, the writer has freedom to arrange the lines and stanzas according to sound, the importance of ideas, appearances, or any other criteria the author personally chooses. The free verse Neruda uses in his odes has been praised for creating “a river of print flowing down the page.” Free Verse

228 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: You might cite very short lines and lines that use very simple diction, since this is a key difference between Neruda’s odes and conventional ones. 1.Which lines in “Ode to My Socks” would you say are the most unconventional? Explain. Free Verse

229 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: It causes the reader to pause in the middle of thoughts that would usually require no pause. 2.How do the varied line lengths affect the recitation of the poem? Free Verse

230 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ As you learned on pages 528–529, structure is the distinct order or arrangement used to present a writer’s ideas. Ideas may be presented in a variety of ways, including chronologically, according to relevancy, or in order of importance. Review: Structure

231 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Group Activity With a group of two or three classmates, analyze the structure of “Ode to My Socks.” Assign one stanza to each student for evaluation. Review: Structure

232 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Once all group members have examined a stanza, record your group’s findings in a chart similar to the one on the next slide. Use the left-hand column to indicate the stanza number. Use the right-hand column to describe the stanza’s structure. Review: Structure

233 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Review: Structure

234 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Monitoring comprehension can help you gain a deeper understanding of a poem and its meaning, especially in an unconventional poem like this Neruda ode. Monitoring Comprehension

235 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Use the strategies of paraphrasing and questioning to help you uncover meaning. A good way to monitor your comprehension is to paraphrase the entire selection and then ask yourself questions about what elements are most important. Monitoring Comprehension

236 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 1.Paraphrase the events in “Ode to My Socks.” Monitoring Comprehension

237 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: A friend brought the narrator a pair of knitted socks, sewn with her own hands. When he slipped the socks on, he could not believe how soft they were. After this, the narrator started comparing them to a lot of different things, including his own feet. He was tempted to hide the socks but decides not to, figuring that he has been doubly blessed with something both beautiful and useful. Monitoring Comprehension

238 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: You might say the simplicity of style and tone—as well as that of the subject matter—is the most important aspect because it makes it more accessible and widens the audience for poetry. 2.What, do you think, is the most important aspect of this poem? Monitoring Comprehension

239 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Practice with Word Parts Identify the correct word part for each vocabulary word on the following slides. Use a dictionary if you need help. Practice

240 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 1.What is the prefix in immense? A.-se B.mens C.im- Practice

241 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 2.What part of decrepit is a prefix that usually means “out of” or “away from”? A.crep B.-it C.de- Practice

242 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 3.What is the root of sacred? A.-red B.acre C.sacr Practice

243 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ 4.What is the root of remorse? A.mors B.re- C.-se Practice

244 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. compatible adj. able to exist together amicably fluctuate v. to waver; to move backward and forward or up and down Academic Vocabulary

245 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Practice and Apply Answer: The stanzas adhere to a free verse form that brings out a musical quality of the words. 1.How does Neruda make the stanzas of “Ode to My Socks” compatible? Academic Vocabulary

246 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Answer: With varying lengths 2.How does Neruda make the lines fluctuate? Practice and Apply Academic Vocabulary

247 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Analyze Genre Elements “I confess that to write with simplicity has been my most difficult undertaking.” These sentiments, expressed by Neruda, seem to contradict the nature of a traditional ode. Writing About Literature

248 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ A traditional ode has four general qualities: an ode uses and describes exalted, intensified emotions; it elevates its subject matter in a noble manner; it uses complex stanza forms; and it embodies the musical qualities of lyric poetry. Write a one- to two- page essay that analyzes Neruda’s use of genre elements in “Ode to My Socks.” Writing About Literature

249 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Before you draft your essay, record on the chart on the next slide examples in which Neruda uses the genre elements and those where he does not. Writing About Literature

250 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ

251 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Once your draft is complete, ask a peer reviewer to evaluate your work. Then proofread and edit your draft for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Writing About Literature

252 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ With a classmate, deliver a performance of “Ode to My Socks.” Through pantomiming and recitation, relay the events and emotions illustrated in the poem to your classmates. Decide who will read the poem and who will act out the speaker’s words. Performing

253 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Demonstrate your creativity by adding lighting, music, and slides to your performance, or present a simple pantomime version with just words and meaningful movement. Performing

254 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Using Adjectives Throughout “Ode to My Socks,” Neruda uses adjectives efficiently and eloquently to express the qualities of his socks. Neruda’s Language and Style

255 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Consider his use of adjectives in the following example: Neruda’s Language and Style I resisted the mad impulse to put them into a golden cage...

256 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Neruda strikes a balance between using enough adjectives for the reader to appreciate his subject and not crowding his poem with description. Neruda’s Language and Style

257 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Neruda’s Language and Style Consider how the poem would be different without any adjectives. I resisted the impulse to put them into a cage...

258 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Neruda’s Language and Style Then think about how the poem would be different it Neruda had overused adjectives: I, wise, resisted the mad impulse to put them into a gilded, golden cage...

259 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ In each example, under- or overusing adjectives alters the desired image. Neruda’s Language and Style

260 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Activity Create a two-column chart to analyze the adjectives in “Ode to My Socks.” In the first column, list the adjective. In the second column, determine how important you think each adjective is: low, medium, or high. Neruda’s Language and Style

261 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1 AFTER YOU READ Choosing appropriate adjectives to describe nouns will help you clarify your writing. Review your essay about genre elements in “Ode to My Socks.” Determine the relevance of each adjective you used in your essay and make any changes that you deem necessary. Revising Check: Adjectives

262 Ode to My Socks Unit 3, Part 1

263 Vocabulary Workshop Context Clues Connecting to Literature In this excerpt from his poem about his father, Robert Hayden uses the word banked, meaning not “stored for safe keeping” nor “steeply inclined,” but rather, “covered with ashes to burn slowly.” VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones “... with cracked hands that ached / from labor in the weekday weather made / banked fires blaze.” —Robert Hayden, from “Those Winter Sundays”

264 Unit 3, Part 1 Vocabulary Workshop Context Clues Words like banked that sound and are spelled alike but have different meanings are called homonyms. Words like weather and whether, which sound alike but are spelled differently, are called homophones. VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones

265 Unit 3, Part 1 Vocabulary Workshop Context Clues Although homonyms and homophones can be confusing, the context, or setting, in which the word appears usually provides clues to the word’s meaning. From Hayden’s use of banked to describe fires and our own knowledge of them, we can determine which definition he means. VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones

266 Unit 3, Part 1 Vocabulary Workshop Context Clues Part of the reason why English is difficult for many non-native speakers to learn is because of its many homophones. On the next slide is a list of some common ones. VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones

267 Unit 3, Part 1 Vocabulary Workshop Context Clues ate/eightright/rite/write for/for/fourrow/roe here/hearscent/sent/cent higher/hiresite/sight/cite its/it’ssome/sum morning/mourningtheir/there/they’re none/nunto/too/two one/wonwholly/holy/holey VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones

268 Unit 3, Part 1 Context Clues Exercise Use context clues to decide which homonym or homophone belongs in each sentence. Use a dictionary if you need help. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP 1.Father (passed / past) him a pair of freshly shined shoes. Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones

269 Unit 3, Part 1 Context Clues Exercise Use context clues to decide which homonym or homophone belongs in each sentence. Use a dictionary if you need help. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP 2.The fire kept out the cold (whether / weather). Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones

270 Unit 3, Part 1 Context Clues Exercise Use context clues to decide which homonym or homophone belongs in each sentence. Use a dictionary if you need help. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP 3.The warmth helped (heel / heal) their chilled bodies. Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones

271 Unit 3, Part 1 Context Clues Exercise Use context clues to decide which homonym or homophone belongs in each sentence. Use a dictionary if you need help. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP 4.It counteracted the loneliness of the (night / knight). Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones

272 Unit 3, Part 1 Context Clues Exercise Use context clues to decide which homonym or homophone belongs in each sentence. Use a dictionary if you need help. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP 5.He did not (know / no) how to express his feelings to his father. Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones

273 Unit 3, Part 1 Vocabulary Terms To help you understand the meaning of a homonym you come across in a reading passage, carefully examine the sentence in which the word appears and the surrounding sentences. The context should provide clues to the word’s meaning. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Recognizing Homonyms and Homophones Context Clues

274 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays Bellringer What are some different ways that parents demonstrate love for their children? Unit 3, Part 1 BELLRINGER

275 Unit 3, Part 1 Creatures Bellringer What fears did you have as a child? How did these fears change as you grew older? How can you explain these changes? Is losing the power to imagine a necessary hazard of growing up? Unit 3, Part 1 BELLRINGER

276 Unit 3, Part 1 The Waking Bellringer Let the wind take you where it will Look before you leap Unit 3, Part 1 BELLRINGER What is the difference in philosophy between these two sayings? With which one do you agree?

277 Unit 3, Part 1 Reapers Bellringer Where do poets get their ideas? Unit 3, Part 1 BELLRINGER

278 Unit 3, Part 1 Ode to My Socks Bellringer What makes ordinary items such as a belt, a piece of fruit, or a mug special? Unit 3, Part 1 BELLRINGER

279 Unit 3, Part 1 Those Winter Sundays Bellringer Option Unit 3, Part 1 BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCY Click on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency.

280 Unit 3, Part 1 Reapers Bellringer Option Unit 3, Part 1 BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCY Click on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency.

281 Unit 3, Part 1 Ode to My Socks Bellringer Option Unit 3, Part 1 BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCY Click on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency.

282 Unit 3, Part 1 A.from labor in weekday weather B.from getting the fire going C.from polishing too many shoes D.from chopping and splitting firewood Why did the speaker’s father hands ache? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Checkpoint

283 Unit 3, Part 1 A.helped him dress B.polished his shoes C.made him breakfast D.helped him settle an argument What did the father do for his son, the speaker? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Checkpoint

284 Unit 3, Part 1 A.all the creatures on the dark bottom of the sea B.all the names of the speaker’s friends C.all the secrets of a secretive boy D.all the speakers dreams What did the creatures in the wallpaper and porcelain lamp seem to know? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Checkpoint

285 Unit 3, Part 1 A.pain B.loneliness C.sadness D.sympathy What expression does the speaker’s friend think is on the face on the stone? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Checkpoint

286 Unit 3, Part 1 A.making terrible noises B.causing nightmares for the speaker C.scaring little children D.bothering beachgoers and ruining everyone’s summer What does the speaker say the face on the stone is doing? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Checkpoint

287 Unit 3, Part 1 A.in what he cannot fear B.in what he cannot dream C.in what he cannot see D.in what he cannot learn How does the speaker feel his fate? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Storytelling Checkpoint

288 Unit 3, Part 1 A.he wants to more time to sleep B.he wants to be like a worm climbing slowly C.he wants to experience life as fully as possible D.he wants to hear the sounds of his dancing feet Why would the speaker “take his walking slowing”? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS Storytelling Checkpoint

289 Unit 3, Part 1 A.weed cutters B.field rocks C.steel blades D.horns, or stones tools What do the reapers use to sharpen their scythes? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS The Summer People Checkpoint

290 Unit 3, Part 1 A.The reapers continue cutting. B.The reapers try to help the field rat. C.The scythe breaks. D.The reapers cry. What happens after the scythe injures the field rat? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS The Summer People Checkpoint

291 Unit 3, Part 1 A.a shepherd B.a fireman C.Maru Mori D.a school boy Who brought the speaker a pair of socks? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS The Summer People Checkpoint

292 Unit 3, Part 1 A.because the socks were so handsome B.because his feet were so dirty C.because he had no use for the socks D.because he walked barefoot Why did the speaker this his feet were unacceptable? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS The Summer People Checkpoint

293 Unit 3, Part 1 A.to return the socks B.to save the socks somewhere C.to put his shoes on over the socks D.to sell the socks for money What temptation did the speaker resist? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS The Summer People Checkpoint

294 Unit 3, Part 1 ►Literary Terms HandbookLiterary Terms Handbook ►Reading HandbookReading Handbook ►FoldablesFoldables ►Writing HandbookWriting Handbook ►Business WritingBusiness Writing ►Language HandbookLanguage Handbook ►Test-Taking Skills HandbookTest-Taking Skills Handbook ►Daily Language Practice TransparenciesDaily Language Practice Transparencies Unit 3, Part 1 REFERENCE ►Grammar and Writing Workshop TransparenciesGrammar and Writing Workshop Transparencies

295 Unit 3, Part 1 Help To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Help button to access this screen. Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio. Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Handbook, Literature Online, and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature. Unit 3, Part 1 HELP


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