Presentation on theme: "The World cycles of expansion and collapse big bang black holes island universes."— Presentation transcript:
The World cycles of expansion and collapse big bang black holes island universes
Cycles Water cycle Seasons Death - Life Creation - Destruction
Good and Bad Hindus do not judge in moral terms short term versus long term
Nature Use and cooperate with nature No need to conquer natural world (as Westerners do)
Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) Reformer of Hinduism who helped to create modern India Founder of Brahmo Samaj (Society of God) Unitarian
Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) A man respected for his simple lifestyle, high thinking and fearless attitude.
Trained as a lawyer in Britain An advocate for the “colored” minorities in South Africa He was involved in India’s struggle for independence from Britain. Worked for the welfare of “untouchables”
He believed that the practice of nonviolence as part of the Hindu tradition was the key to human survival. Gandhi fasted, was a vegetarian, and was celibate in order to “free his spirit from bodily constraints, to prepare a vessel fit for the inspiration of God”
Two doctrines Ahisma- nonviolence Satyagraha- “truth force”
Problems for Humans Soul Karma Wheel of rebirth Individual choice
The Solution Reconciliation with the Absolute Overcoming the pulls of life Different paths for different people; all equal Some people ask the assistance of a deity.
The Absolute The highest reality that precedes all else, on which everything is dependent. Believe in many Gods Reason is it is better to have people choose among images of many gods than to leave them unable to feel any devotion for an abstract principle. Some prefer one image or god to another ex. Either Shiva or Vishnu Many prefer one of the more personal deities ex. Kali or Krishna
Absolute Cont’d Few images of Brahman are found. It is understood that Niguna Brahman is the ground of all gods. Henotheism- emphasizes one superior god in the presence of lesser gods. Reality embraces all experiences Behind all phenomena there is a source of energy that makes it possible. This can be experienced in a variety of ways. No one way in itself is complete.
Rituals & Symbols 4 Steps to complete obligations of a Hindu 1)Samskaras -most important ritual -the sacraments or rites by which a Hindu is fully integrated into the community 2)Upanayana -initiation rite indicating that a boy is a twice-born person -beginning of the student stage -must wear a janeu, sacred thread to remain in his caste
Cont’d 3) Vivaha -marriage, rite of entry into the 2 nd stage or ashram, that of householder 4) Antyesti -funerals, last rites -most cremated in a shraddha, a wooden casket created by oldest brother Between these major sacraments, Hindus practice many rituals and use many symbols. Hindu worship in temples can be individual or congregational.
Cont’d Worship may be assisted by a priest. Worshippers may recite Vedic hymns, light candles or other sacred flame, offer pure food to the gods, offer money to be used for religious purposes, and comment on a guru’s insights regarding duties. The tank at the temple is used for ritual bathing.
Cont’d Puja is a form of worship that an individual addresses to the image of one pair of deities. Examples of ritual festivals are: -Raksasbandhana -Vijayadasami -Deepavali -Holi
Common Beliefs The evolution of the physical world Energy Matter The law of karma and rebirth God working with in us
Common Beliefs con’t. The four-fold goal of human life Dharma Artha Kaama Mokshha
Reincarnation Fundamentals Jiva Ego Physical body Surface consciousness consisting of innumerable desires Impulses
Reincarnation cont’d Deeds determine direction Philosophies Life on earth did not emerge suddenly… Souls cannot fee itself completely free itself and unite with its Creator…