Presentation on theme: "Dyslexia and Related Disorders"— Presentation transcript:
1Dyslexia and Related Disorders The International Dyslexia Association (IDA). IDA encourages the reproduction and distribution of this fact sheet. If portions of the text are cited, appropriate reference must be made. Fact sheets may not be reprinted for the purpose of resale.Fact Sheet #63 – 01/03
2DyslexiaThe word dyslexia comes from the Greek language and means poor language.Individuals with dyslexia have trouble with reading, writing, spelling and/or math although they HAVE THE ABILITY and have had opportunities to learn.Individuals with dyslexia CAN LEARN; they just learn in a different way.Often these individuals, who have talented and productive minds, are said to have a language learning difference.
3Dyslexia Symptoms Difficulty with oral language Late in learning to talkDifficulty pronouncing wordsDifficulty acquiring vocabulary or using age appropriate grammarDifficulty following directionsConfusion with before/after, right/left, and so onDifficulty learning the alphabet, nursery rhymes, or songsDifficulty understanding concepts and relationshipsDifficulty with word retrieval or naming problems
4Dyslexia Symptoms Continued Difficulty with readingDifficulty learning to readDifficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words (Phonological Awareness)Difficulty with hearing and manipulating sounds in words (Phonemic Awareness)Difficulty distinguishing different sounds in words (Auditory Discrimination)
5Dyslexia Symptoms Continued Difficulty with reading (Continued)Difficulty in learning the sounds of lettersDifficulty remembering names and/or shapes of lettersReverses letters or the order of letters when readingMisreads or omits common small words“Stumbles” through longer wordsPoor reading comprehension during oral or silent readingSlow, laborious oral reading
6Dyslexia Symptoms Continued Difficulty with written languageDifficulty putting ideas on paperMany spelling mistakesMay do well on weekly spelling tests, but there are many spelling mistakes in daily workDifficulty in proofreading
7Related Disorders Difficulty with handwriting (Dysgraphia) Unsure of right or left handednessPoor or slow handwritingMessy and unorganized papersDifficulty copyingPoor fine motor skills
8Related Disorders Difficulty with math (Dyscalculia) Difficulty counting accuratelyMay reverse numbersDifficulty memorizing math factsDifficulty copying math problems and organizing written workMany calculation errorsDifficulty retaining math vocabulary and/or concepts
9Related Disorders Difficulty with attention (ADD/ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)InattentionVariable attention—pays attention to certain thingsDistractibility—easily distractedImpulsivity—difficulty in controlling impulsesHyperactivity
10Related Disorders Difficulty with motor skills (Dyspraxia) Difficulty planning and coordinating body movementsDifficulty coordinating facial muscles to produce sounds
11Related Disorders Difficulty with organization Loses papers Poor sense of timeForgets homeworkMessy deskOverwhelmed by too much inputWorks slowly
12Related Disorders Other Difficulty naming colors, objects, and letters (Rapid Automatized Naming)Memory problemsNeeds to see or hear concepts many times in order to learn themDistracted by visual stimuliDownward trend in achievement test scores or school performanceWork in school is inconsistentTeacher says, “If only she would try harder,” or “He’s lazy.”Relatives may have similar problems
13Thoughts to considerEveryone probably can check one or two of these characteristics. That does not mean that everyone has dyslexia. A person with dyslexia usually has several of these characteristics, which persist over time and interfere with his or her learning. If your child is having difficulties learning to read and you have noted several of these characteristics in your child, he or she may need to be evaluated for dyslexia and/or a related disorder.
14What Kind of Instruction Does My Child Need? Dyslexia and other related learning disorders cannot be cured. Proper instruction promotes reading success and alleviates many difficulties associated with dyslexia. Instruction for individuals with learning differences should be:Explicit – directly teaches skills for reading, spelling, and writingSystematic and Cumulative – has a definite, logical sequence of concept introductionStructured – has step-by-step procedures for introducing, reviewing, and practicing conceptsMultisensory – engages the visual, auditory, and kinesthetic channels simultaneously or in rapid succession.
15AccommodationsSchools can implement academic accommodations and modifications to help dyslexic students succeed.For example, a student with dyslexia can be given extra time to complete tasks, help with taking notes, and work assignments that are modified appropriately. Teachers can give taped tests or allow dyslexic students to use alternative means of assessment.Students can benefit from listening to books on tape, using text-reading computer programs, and from writing on computers.
16TAKS Accommodations Provide color transparencies/overlays Provide place markersPermit individual administration of tests, allowing student to read aloud. In this setting, the student may read aloud while working or may read the subject area test into a tape recorder during testing and play the tape back while workingProvide a large-print version of the testPermit oral responses to test items, mark responses in test booklet, or type responsesPermit student to dictate the composition directly to a test administrator, spelling out all words and indicating all capital letters and punctuation marksPermit student to tape record the essay while composing it, then play it back for the test administrator, spelling, capitalizing, and punctuating itPermit student to type written composition on a typewriter or on a computer, but may not use the computer’s “spell check”Permit test questions and answer choices for the Math, Grade 8 Social Studies, Grade 8 Science and/or Grade 5 Science tests to be read aloud
17TAKS BundlingOrally reading all proper nouns associated with each passage before students begin reading that passage,Orally reading all questions and answer choices to students, andExtending the testing time over a two-day period.
18Classroom Accommodations Reduce the number and length of required assignments/homeworkAllow more time for regular assignmentsBreak the assignment into a series of small assignments / chunking assignmentsReduce the reading level of the regular assignment (reword, edit)Use alternatives to Written/Reading assignments (performance/”hands-on” activities/physical assignments, oral presentations, reports, projects, etc.)Use individual learning packages with clearly stated objectivesRepeat instructions and give more detailed directions
19Classroom Accommodations Brief the student on key points before starting an assignmentUnderline/outline major points in the regular assignmentGive instructions through several channels, (written, oral, etc.)Allow phonetic spelling on assignmentsReversals/transpositions of letters/numbers should not be marked wrong. Instead, reversals/transpositions should be pointed out.Teacher aide/volunteer takes notes for the studentClassroom peers make carbon copies for the studentStudent tapes lessons or lectures
20Dyslexia Intervention—Elem. Texas Scottish Rite Dyslexia Training ProgramThe Texas Scottish Rite Hospital Dyslexia Training Program for Children is most appropriate for elementary school-age students from second semester first grade through fifth grade. Classes should be composed of students who have been screened and identified as learners who would benefit from this type of written language instruction. Students should be of average or above-average intelligence (IQ of 90 or above).
21Dyslexia Intervention—Sec. Texas Scottish Rite Literacy ProgramThe Texas Scottish Rite Hospital Literacy Program is designed for secondary school age and adult students. Classes should be composed of students who have been screened and identified as learners who would benefit from this type of written language instruction. Because of the emphasis on intense phonetic analysis of written language, the program should be used with students of average or above-average intelligence (IQ of 90 or above).
22Other Interventions being used EsperanzaVoyagerRead NaturallyRewardsFast ForWord
23Section 504 OverviewJohn Copenhaver and Miriam K. Freedman
24Section 504 OverviewSection 504 / Americans with Disabilities Act is a civil rights statute that prohibits discrimination. Like the sister statutes of Title VI (race) and Title IX (gender), Section 504/ADA focuses on discrimination based solely on disability.
25Civil RightsSection 504 is often referred to as the first civil rights act for individuals with disabilities. Section 504 applies to students, parents, employees, and other individuals with disabilities.
26I.D.E.A. -vs.- Section 504I.D.E.A. (Individuals w/Disabilities Education Act) is a funding statute.I.D.E.A. requires the student to have one of thirteen specific disabilities. Section 504 is not categorical; but, covers any qualifying physical or mental impairments.Section 504 is a non-discrimination statute designed to provide equal opportunity. I.D.E.A. is designed to provide specialized instruction to enable the student to achieve at a level commensurate with his own ability.I.D.E.A. is limited to students with an educational need. Section 504 may cover students with no educational need (such as a wheelchair- bound student).
28General EducationSection 504 / ADA should be a General Education management responsibility.
29Section 504 has been around since 1973 Section 504 gets little respect because funding is not attached.
30Roles of School Personnel School Board of EducationPolicy on NondiscriminationGrievance ProcedureHearing ProcedureSuperintendent504 Coordinator DesignationAnnual Notice to Parents/StudentsContinuing Notice to Parents/Students504 Coordinator504 Procedures CoordinationStaff TrainingSection 504 Grievance Procedures ManagementSchool Principals andCertified andClassified StaffNondiscriminatory Practices in ClassroomsReferral/Identification/EvaluationParent Involvement and EncouragementProgram Modifications and AccommodationsCurricular Adaptations
31Section 504 Three Prong Eligibility Standard A Student who:Has a (1) physical or mental impairment which (2) substantially limits (3) one or more major life activities, had a record of such impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.
32Section 504The student has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of a person’s major life activities.The impairment must impact the student’s education.WalkingSeeingWorkingBreathingHearingCaring for one-selfLearningSpeaking
33What Is Substantial?Always….… 1098765432Never……… 1
34Examples of Students with Disabilities Who Might be Eligible Under Section 504/ADA HIV/AIDSTuberculosisArthritisAsthmaAllergiesDiabetesObesityEpilepsyHeart DiseaseChronic Fatigue*PregnancyOrthopedicDyslexia*It depends*Special Education—Qualified StudentsConduct DisorderTemporary DisabilityADD/ADHD*Drug and AlcoholMigraine HeadacheTourette SyndromeTBI—Traumatic Brain InjuryCerebral PalsyCancerMultiple Sclerosis*Slow learners
35IllustrationA person with a minor vision impairment, such as 20/40 vision, does not have a substantial impairment of the major life activity of seeing.
36IllustrationA person who is deaf is substantially limited in the major life activity of hearing. A person with a minor hearing impairment, on the other hand, may not be substantially limited.
37Definition of Eligibility Has a record of such an impairment.EXAMPLES of individuals who have a record of an impairment are persons who have histories of mental or emotional illness, learning disabilities, asthma, heart disease, cancer, etc. and students in Special Education.
38Definition of Eligibility Is regarded as having such an impairment.Anna, a student with mild diabetes controlled by medication, is barred by the staff from participation in certain sports because of her diabetes. Even though Anna does not actually have an impairment that substantially limits a major life activity, she is protected under Section 504/ADA because she is treated as though she does.
39EligibilityEvery person eligible for Section 504 will not necessarily be eligible for Special Education.Every person eligible for Special Education IS ALSO PROTECTED UNDER SECTION 504.
40Points to Remember When Considering Section 504 Eligibility High standard to meet for Section 504 eligibilityOn the average, only 1-2% of the student population of any school is deemed Section 504 eligible.Learning difficulties not always due to a physical or mental impairment.Student will forever have a record of being divided.Section 504 eligibility is not for “at-risk” students.Phrase “substantially limits” is in present indicative verb form. Thus, student must be presently, not potentially or hypothetically, substantially limited.
41Definition IssueNOTE: The second and third prongs of the definition referring to individuals with a “record of” or regarded as “having an impairment” are relevant only when some negative action is taken based on the perception or record. “This cannot be the basis which the requirement for a free appropriate public education (FAPE) is triggered.” (OCR Policy Memorandum, August 3, 1992) However, such discrimination can result in costly litigation.
42AccommodationsModifications made by classroom teacher(s) and other school staff to enable the students to benefit from their education program. A plan should be developed outlining services and/or accommodations.
43Parent InvolvementThe parents should be included in the 504 process whenever possible.
44DOCUMENTATION IS ALWAYS It is important to document evaluation results, eligibility determination, services, and placement issues regarding each student.DOCUMENTATION IS ALWAYSA BEST PRACTICE.
45Student Assistance Team / CRC The Student Assistance Team / CRC (pre-referral) will provide support and suggestions to classroom teachers regarding any student experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties. If the strategies are unsuccessful, a referral for an evaluation could be made to Section 504/Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) or Special Education.
46ReferralReferrals are accepted from parents, professional staff, students, and/or other staff members. The problem(s) and previous remedies (Response to Intervention) are considered and reviewed.
47NotificationThe school notifies the parents or guardians, in writing, of the schools’ reason and intent to conduct an evaluation. The notice should include a description of the evaluation and procedural safeguards. Parental consent would be considered best practice for all Section 504/ADA evaluations.
48Section 504/ADA Committee Meeting A best practice is to use the Student Assistance Team as the Section 504/ADA Committee. Typical members would include the following:The committee of knowledgeable persons will study and analyze the evaluation data to determine if the student has a mental or physical disability that substantially limits a major life activity and influences the student’s educational program.ParentsCounselorStudent (when appropriate)PrincipalTeacher(s)Other (as needed)
49Eligibility and Accommodations/Services If the student IS eligible under Section 504/ADA, the team determines accommodations and/or services that will enable the student to benefit from his/her education. This can be documented on an individual Section 504 plan.
50ServicesThe following factors are considered by a team knowledgeable about the student and the disability:Evaluation resultsSection 504/ADA eligibilityThe student’s unmet needsServices and/or accommodations based on eligibilityPossible staff inserviceLeast Restrictive Environment (LRE)
51ImplementationThe school staff makes the necessary accommodations to allow for the student’s disability. Parents should be consulted and given opportunities for input. The accommodations and/or services are then implemented.
52Review Primary Responsibilities under Section 504 Evaluation: Conduct an evaluation that is adequate for that child. Evaluations should be unique to the case and individual. Must determine IF there is a disability.Meeting: Convene a group of people knowledgeable about the child, the disability, and his/her academic needs.Placement: Determine placement and related services (accommodations) to make the disabled student equal to the nondisabled student.
53ReviewEach student’s accommodations and/or services are reviewed periodically. Best practice would be at least annually.
54Common Accommodations Provide a structured learning environment.Repeat/simplify instructions regarding class assignments and homework.Supplement verbal instructions with visual ones.Use behavior management techniques.Adjust class schedules.Modify test delivery.Use tape recorders, Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI), and other audiovisual equipment.Select modified textbooks or workbooks.Tailor homework assignments.Tutor one-on-one.
55Common Accommodations Use classroom aides and notetakers.Modify nonacademic times (lunchroom, recess) and physical education.Change student seating.Change instructional pace.Change instructional methods.Change instructional materials.Provide peer tutoring.Implement behavioral/academic contracts.Use positive reinforcements (rewards).Use negative consequences (punishments).Use supplementary materials.
56Process Overview for Dyslexia / 504 A student exhibits reading difficultiesResponse to Intervention doesn’t workSuspect dyslexiaA 504/CRC meeting occursParent permission to testScreening—Vision/Hearing, Parent survey, Teacher survey, grades, student samples collected and reviewedAssess for Dyslexia504/CRC reconvenes, determines:Yes 504—severe dyslexia and those who will receive TAKS Dyslexia BundlingNo 504—students NOT substantially limited in major life activity, mild dyslexiaPlacement and accommodationsParent notification of assessment results and 504 meeting
57Questions or Concerns Jay Fulton, 444-4500 x1024 firstname.lastname@example.org Becky Borroel, x1014