Presentation on theme: "Music in the Twentieth Century and Beyond"— Presentation transcript:
1Music in the Twentieth Century and Beyond Age of DiversityAge of Eclecticism
2Cultural Background Age of Diversity The twentieth century is one of the most complex times of all the historical periods. Changes have been fast and dramatic in all areas of culture: social, political, scientific, technology, economics.
17Impact on the arts Three types of artist Sensationalist – The sensationalist tends to break down convention and overthrow accepted methods and values. His/her art tends to lack expressive qualities since its main purpose is to shock the listener/observer.Experimentalist – The experimentalist seeks new methods and combinations of materials to express themselves. His/her art often lacks unity and coherence. The price that is paid for experimentalists is that they seldom perfect what they invent.Synthesist – The synthesist combines what is good of the sensationalist and the experimentalist with what is valid from the past. His/her art usually is less brilliant; yet is more resilient to the test of time
18Common Principles Among 20th-century Artists break with tradition (rejection of Romantic)rejection of subjective emotion as the primary basis for art. This is a clear influence from scientific research.rejection of concept that art must be realistic or literalrejection of unnecessary ornaments and attempts to “dress up” art. The motto is “form follows function” (architecture). There is a demand for simplicity, terseness and brutality of expression.There is little attempt to please or entertain; only for a desire to reflect the age directly and unashamedly.
19Visual Arts from 1900-1950 Impressionism Modernism Expressionism CubismDadaismAbstract ArtSurrealism
20Impressionists Provided transition to the 20th century Impression Sunrise, 1872Claude Monet ( )Rouen Cathedral, 1894
27ModernismFlourished from the end of the 19th century until the end of WWII.A reaction to all the rules of the 19th century, which had been called into question by the events of the 20th century.Doubt was cast upon conventional morality and traditional authorities.These new ways of looking at the world were very powerful and evoked a strong response, even if the general public found them hard to understand.”
28Piet Mondrian ( )Composition with Red, Blue and Yellow
30Expressionism (1910-1939) Centered in Austria and Germany Influenced by Sigmund Freud and his psychoanalytic theoriesExpressionists were concerned mainly with expressing their subjects emotions – often extreme, anguish, hysteria, nightmare and insanity
41Musical Style fromMusical Centers – France, Germany, United States
42Elements of Music Rhythm – witnesses a revitalization becomes one of the most striking elements of musicrepresents the physical nature of life – hectic urban life, surge and clatter of a highly industrial and technical societyincreasingly became an outlet for innovation: complex rhythms, irregular meters and accents, rapidly changing meters, polyrhythms (simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns)
43Melody Harmony less reliance on melody irregular unbalanced melodies angular, more instrumental in conceptionHarmonya single accepted harmonic language became a thing of the past.Before 1900, harmony was based on consonant and dissonant chords, and triadic or tertian harmony. These distinctions became blurred in 20th century harmonic practices.New harmonic practices were brought into existence to suit compositional needs: polychord, quartal harmony, tone clusters, new scales, polytonality, resurgence of modality, atonality 12-tone
44Texture Dynamics Tone color Homophonic music is predominant but there is a resurgence in emphasis on polyphonic texturesDynamicsgradual, less extremeTone colorbecame more important than ever; especially evident in the use of percussion
45Orchestration Form – Jazz – trend toward smaller orchestra with a leaner sound (economics)string sections loses its traditional leader roleless emphasis on a blended soundForm –divergent, “form follows function”Jazz –popular style from late 19th century which directly influences a number of 20th century composers
47ImpressionismFrench movement of the late 19th century to early 20th century that began in the visual arts but later extended into literature and musicParalleled impressionistic paintings: vague motives that only suggested a melody; varied timbre; short, flexible forms; use of modes, pentatonic and whole tone scales; shifting meters and rhythms which blur rhythmic effects; use of parallel chords and ninth chords (easily went from major to minor and vice versa).
48Claude Debussy ( )French composer of orchestral music, opera, ballet, piano, chamber music and chansonsDisenchanted with Germanic traditions (strict form, traditional orchestration, tonal/chromatic harmonies, metric rhythms)Found influence from eastern music – gamelon (Javanese) and bronze percussion instruments of IndonesiaInfluenced by symbolist poets (Mallarme)Debussy’s music virtually defines the transition from late Romantic music to twentieth century modernist music
49Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune (1894) The composition was inspired by the poem “L’Après-midi d’un faune” by Stéphane MallarméIt is one of Debussy's most famous works and is considered a turning point in the history of musicIt is a work that barely grasps onto tonality and harmonic function
50Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) Bolero (1928) Fascination with tone color, Spanish music, obsessive rhythmic repetitionOriginally a balletRavel said of this piece “(It is) an experiment consisting of one long, very gradual crescendo
51NationalismReflection of a country by utilizing folk song, stories and dances. This style encouraged authenticity (scientific method applied to music).This style reflected the cultures of the rural and urban areas.Béla Bartók, Aaron Copland, Charles Ives, George Gershwin
52Charles Ives (1874-1954) Putnam’s Camp, Redding, Connecticut (1912) From Three Places in New England (Orchestral Set No. 1)The piece is famous for its use of musical quotation and paraphrasing.The piece showcases Ive’s signature style traits of his style:layered texturesmultiple, simultaneous melodies, many of which are recognizable hymn and marching tunesmasses of sound, and tone clusterssudden, sharp textural contrasts
53Aaron Copland (1900-1990) Appalachian Spring, 1943-1944 Originally a balletCreated at the request of the choreagrapher, Martha GrahamRearranged as an orchestral suite
54NeoclassicismA revival of the techniques, forms and style features characteristic of the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical periodsOriginated in GermanyIgor Stravinsky, Béla Bartók, Aaron Copland
55Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) Rite of Spring, 1913 Ballet choreographed by Vaslav NajinskyRegarded as one of the most influential 20th century scoresInnovative use of complex rhythmic structures, timbres, and dissonance
56Serialism Serialistic or 12-tone atonal music Originated in Germany Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton WebernUses a “row” (a fixed sequence of the 12 tones of the chromatic scale) as the unifying basis for a composition's melody, harmony, structural progressions, and variations
57Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) “Moondrunk” from Pierrot Lunaire, 1912 A melodramaUse of SprechstimmeAtonal
58ExpressionismA style that, like Impressionism, began first in the visual arts and then moved into literature and music.As opposed to Impressionism which looked outward – Expressionism looked inward and sought to express inward emotionsOriginated in GermanyArnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern
59Alban Berg (1885-1935) Wozzeck (1917-1922) Opera about the inevitability of hardship and the exploitation for the poor
60Avant-gardeThis style sought to overcome years of neglect in the elements of timbre and rhythm.Often this style was not embraced by the public but promoted by artists.This style included aleatory music (chance music that exploits randomness), electronic and multimedia.Originated in FranceEdgard Varèse, Milton Babbitt, John Cage
61Edgard Varèse Poème électronique (1958) Composed for the Phillips Pavillon at the 1958 Brussels Worlds FairThe first, electronic-spatial environment to combine architecture, film, light and music to a total experience made to functions in time and spaceUtilized machine noises, transported piano chords, filtered choir and solo voices, and synthetic tone colorings
63Radical Experimentation and Postmodernism: The Arts since 1950
64Cultural InfluencesPolitically: establishment of nations, continual struggle for control, third world vs. major powersEconomically: international trade, global commercializationSocially: mobility of society, human rights, social concerns, drugs, HIV/AIDSTechnologically: world communication, internet, electronics, computer, Palm Pilots
65Other Influences Radical Experimentation Postmodernism A general sense of restlessness pervaded culture after WWII. Artists began experimenting with new techniques, new materials, new ideas (avant-garde).PostmodernismA new movement that followed Modernism.One aspects of Postmodernism is the attempt to discover the meaning of art.A second aspect is the concept of cultural relativity – no one culture or idea is better or more worthy than any other, it all depends on the context.Resulted in blending of Eastern culture, rediscovery of past styles (tonality).
66Visual Art Since 1950 Assemblage Abstract Expressionism Pop Art Op Art (Optical Art)
67AssemblageThe technique of putting together constructions from different media, often pieces of junk.Robert Rauschenberg( )Odalisk
68Abstract Expressionism American movement that grew out of Surrealism’s interest in the sub-conscious and what the mind can do without any conscious suggestion.Abstract Expressionists produced huge pictures full of color, energy and spontaneity.Jackson Pollock – Autumn Rhythm, Number 30
70Pop ArtDraws inspiration from popular culture and the mass production processesAndy Warhol( )Green Coca-Cola Bottles
71Op Art (Optical Art)Refers to artworks that depend on the viewer’s eyes responding to the lines and patterns in a certain way (optical illusions)Bridget Riley(b. 1931)Current
72Music Since 1950: General Characteristics Total SerialismAleatoric MusicMinimalismMusic QuotationTonal MusicNew SoundsElectronic SoundsLiberation of SoundMixed Media
73Increased use of 12-tone system during the 1950’s and 1960’s. Proponent: Aaron CoplandTotal Serialism: use of the techniques of 12-tone to organize rhythm, dynamics and tone color during the 1940’s and 1950’s.Proponents: Milton Babbitt, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Pierre Boulez
74Aleatoric Music or Chance music: composer chooses pitches, tone colors and rhythms by random methods, or allows the performer to choose much of the music material.Proponent: John CageMinimalism: characterized by a steady pulse, clear tonality and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns.Proponents: Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, John Adams
75Tonal Music and a return to tonality: “New Romantics” Music Quotation: works containing deliberate quotations from earlier music.Proponents: Ellen Taaffe Zwilich, George Crumb, George RochbergTonal Music and a return to tonality: “New Romantics”Proponents: David Del Tredici, George Rochberg
76Electronic Sounds: The development of tape studios, synthesizers and computers in the 1950’s and 1960’s resulted in potentially unlimited resources for the production and control of sound. Composers are no longer limited by human performers.Proponent: Milton BabbittLiberation of sound: greater exploitation of noise-like sounds. Increased use of microtones.Proponent: Krzysztof PendereckiMixed Media: Music (often electronic) is presented together with visual counterparts (slides, films, gestures, theatrical action
79George Crumb (b. 1929) Ancient Voices of Children (1970) From Where Do You Come, My Love, My Child?
80Philip Glass (b. 1937) Einstein on the Beach (1976) Glass’ first and longest opera (five hours)A trilogy of operas: Einstein on the Beach, Satyagraha, AkhnatenThese three operas serve as "portrait" operas that portray men whose personal vision transformed the thinking of their time through the power of ideas and not arms.
81Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (b. 1939) Concerto Grosso (1985)Commissioned to commemorate the 300th birthday of George Frideric HandelUtilizes themes from a Handel Violin SonataClear example of “quotation music”
82John Adams (b. 1947) Short Ride in a Fast Machine (1986) Example of minimalism
83Four important influences on 20th/21st century music Women’s movement (1960’s): performers to composers to conductorsEconomics of composingrift between composer and audiencegovernment foundations – now waningComputer/MidiPopular and Classical fusion
84SummaryIt is difficult to judge our present musical styles since history gives us perspective.Listeners who worry that the music of our time is no good may be interested to know that similar concerns were expressed about music in Wagner’s time and even in Beethoven’s time.20th/21st century music, like music of every age, effectively mirrors the prevailing patterns of the time.