Presentation on theme: "My Presentation Title Subtitle Goes Here Instructional Strategies for Blended and Online Learning: A Report."— Presentation transcript:
My Presentation Title Subtitle Goes Here Instructional Strategies for Blended and Online Learning: A Report
Instructional Strategies for Blended and Online Learning: A Report Jannette Finch Librarian College of Charleston North Campus and Lowcountry Graduate Center Leslie Sautter Associate Prof. Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences
Conference Presenter Qualifications * Dr. Margaret Riel Dr. Norm Vaughan Dr. Charles “Chuck” Dziuban Dr. Thomas C. Reeves
Common among Presenters Good Teachers. Good Students. TRIAD APPROACH –Planning –Having elements aligned (more in Strategies section)
source: Ehrmann (2002) Strategies for Success: TRIAD Approach changed
Definitions Online –No face to face (F2F) interaction Blended –Some F2F Synchronous –All together now! Asynchronous –Student-paced “…thoughtfully selected and complementary face- to-face and online approaches and technologies. “
Blended Course: What Proportion for Each? Planning is Key ONLINE F2F SynchronousAsynchronous 30 % 20 % 50 % 0 % Example!
Why Teach Blended/Online? Benefits to Faculty Ongoing course redesign; introduction of new teaching materials/resources; More actual, real-time interaction with students; Borderless teaching, reaching more (and potentially better prepared) students; Teach a course from other locations (e.g., during summer) Potential to create sustained communities of learners – enhance student learning; maximize institutional resources; access; retention/convenience
Benefits to Faculty (Dziuban) 87% of UCF faculty surveyed indicated they have changed their approach to teaching as a result of their online teaching experience. respond more to student needs course development and delivery incorporating technology into teaching modifying their time management utilizing resources source: RITE,
Why Take Blended/Online? Benefits to Students Convenience and Access –Removing the geographic barrier. Reaching remote areas that don’t have universities. Convenience and Access –Allows adults to continue to work full-time. Have an intensive F2F institute (i.e., during summer), then the rest is online. Potential to succeed –Students have more time to digest materials. Hands on experience still possible. Create sustained communities of learners – enhance student learning
Strategies for Success omit Jannette
Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education 1.encourages contact between students and faculty, 2.develops reciprocity and cooperation among students, 3.encourages active learning, 4.gives prompt feedback, 5.emphasizes time on task, 6.communicates high expectations, and 7.respects diverse talents and ways of learning. Chickering and Gamson’s (1987) Necess ary?
learning objectives content learner tasks assessment technology roles instructor roles instructional design mission goals E-Learning Alignment (Reeves’ Strategy) ??? Long-term Development Higher order, general Short-term outcomes Lower order, discrete Multiple perspectives One right answer Problem- Based Direct Instruction Authentic, meaningful Academic and textbook Focus on Learning Focus on teaching Real world data Prepackaged data Mental models Discrete knowledge Higher order, general Problem- Based Authentic, meaningful Real world data Mental models
Teaching with technology works when learning tasks are authentic! Keep it real. LEARNER TASKS
Technology in higher education is necessary, but not sufficient. Learning WITH technology, not FROM technology * TECHNOLOGY ROLES
Technologies such as Web are only delivery systems for the interactive learning dimensions we design for them. Problem-Solving Authentic Tasks Coaching Authentic Assessment TECHNOLOGY ROLES
E-Learning Alignment How To Apply… E-Learning Alignment How To Apply… Moved to show example
ALIGNMENT IS KEY! Objectives Content Instructional Design Instructor Roles Learner Roles Technology Roles Assessment Apply tourniquet ATLS (from manual) Authentic tasks Formative feedback Active engagement High fidelity simulation Stop bleeding Moved to show example
E-learning that fails (Reeves): extensive use of talking heads isolated learners who get limited feedback low-level learning measured by multiple-choice tests abstract exercises that don’t take advantage of technology LEARNER TASKS Leslie
E-learning that works (Reeves): Authentic tasks in an information-rich, tool-rich environment collaborative learning with synchronous and asynchronous communications learning at pace and time of learner‘s choosing learning marked by continuous improvement of a piece of work AN LEARNER TASKS
Fallacy We are Here People learn “from” technology. Knowledge is transmitted via media. People passively receive messages. Interaction need only be occasional and artificial. Instructional design is best left to experts. E-learning is simply moving traditional instruction online.
Truth We want to be Here People learn “with” technology. Knowledge is constructed, represented, and shared. People learn best when they collaborate to tackle problems/tasks. Interaction is authentic. Instructional design must become a process that better reflects how people learn.
Vaughan’s Strategy for Success Enlarged chart Jannette
Teaching Presence (Vaughan) Teaching Presence (TP) is a significant determinate of student satisfaction, perceived learning, and sense of community (Akyol & Garrison, 2008; Arbaugh, 2008; Eom, et al., 2006 ; Shea et al. 2004, 2005). TP is needed to establish CP and SP; lowest CP scores were reported by students who rated TP as weak (Shea & Bidjerano, 2009).
Faculty Strategies (Dziuban) Advice from Faculty to Faculty Preparation is crucial to success Attending to their mental health, getting support, and knowing technology. Finally, faculty should be prepared to spend more time on their Web course - it is a fact of life! source: RITE, Leslie
Student Strategies (Dziuban) Advice from Students to Students Keep up and don't procrastinate (discipline!) Attend the orientation Develop your computer skills Keep in touch with the professor, ask for help Check the forum daily source: RITE,
Building Learning Communities Community of Inquiry (Vaughan) Learning Circles (Riel) Jannette
Vaughan’s Community of Inquiry The importance of a community of inquiry is that, while the objective of critical reflection is intellectual autonomy, in reality, critical reflection is “thoroughly social and communal”. »Lipman, 1991
Riel’s Learning Circles Characterized by diverse population Distributed leadership Use the social capital of your classmates. Make every student a "consultant." Knowledge building Activities instead of weeks are organizational factors
Take Away Learning Circles might be best way for us (Distance Ed educators) to share information. Requiring students to form and use Learning Circles will save me time (peer review)
Strategy for Success Follow Models ectSites.htmlhttp://www.authentictasks.uow.edu.au/proj ectSites.html Others are on the blog
Assessment “We assess people and we evaluate things.” (Reeves)
Primary Roles of Assessment Diagnostic Formative Summative determine a student’s pre- knowledge and identify strengths and weaknesses provide a student with feedback on their progress during a course estimate performance at the end of a course and ‘grade’ student’s work
Experts recommend that online & blended courses should include a mix of three kinds of assessment: 1. Traditional 2. Performance 3. Portfolio
Authentic Assessment Seamless integration of assessment and task Opportunities to craft polished performances Significant student time and effort in collaboration with others Electronic portfolios Movies/documentaries Web pages Presentations to clients Downloadable reports CharacteristicsCharacteristics Examples in blended learning
Learning Styles Leslie
Which Type Learns Best Online?
Cognitive To know Thinking Thought Epistemology Knowing To feel Feeling Emotion Esthetics Caring To act Willing Volition Ethics Doing – Affective– Conative
Four Types: Function of Energy Level and Need for Approval Learning Styles (William Long, Univ. of Mississippi)
How do you act when you are pissed off?
Which Type Learns Best Online? Fully Online
Which Type Learns Best Online? Passive dependent – least satisfied with online learning Baby Boomer faculty and Millenial students – disconnect of generations Aggressive dependent most students in universities self-selection
Reality and Challenges University Support –Alone –Systemic –Boutique?
Reality and Challenges University Support –Smart Classrooms Too few Intermittent wireless –Course Development support? Training? –IT support Who ya’ gonna call? Password protected sites Streaming video –Secure Testing site
It’s 3 AM. I hope my instructor is online too! moved INSTRUCTOR ROLES
Conclusion Improvement in higher education will require converting teaching from a “solo sport” to a “community-based research activity”. (Herbert Simon, Former President of Carnegie Mellon University)
Time Equivalencies? College of Charleston Distance Education Guidelines Time Requirements for DE classes A synchronous three-hour lecture class should meet at least 2100 minutes just as a face-to face class would meet. An asynchronous class must be sustained long enough for the students to complete the course in a reasonable amount of time. The course must adhere to the same standards of quality found in the traditional classroom and must result in collegiate level learning outcomes appropriate to the rigor and breadth of the course offered in a face-to-face setting. Non-credit courses may carry time requirements.
Learning Styles Long Behavior Types – energy levels, need for approval Aggressive Independent – loves adventure, loves to confront, dislike pleasing and positive people, in your face, leaders when they learn to control their impulses, viewed as discipline problems in elementary education Aggressive Dependent – high energy level, need approval, work hard, all American kids, merit scholars, dedicated to pleasing others, hard time with leadership, trying to please everyone, all the time, pathologically polite Passive Independent – low energy levels, independent, like pushing jello under a door, non-communicative, withdraw under pressure, interpret advice as nagging, very little need for approval, chronically late, stubborn when pressured, don’t do things in their best interest, un-coachable Passive Dependent – low energy, highly sensitive, needs approval, very compliant, Long Behavior Traits Phobic – careful decision making, negative spin on anything, examine all the alternatives, yes... but, great critical thinkers and problem solvers Impulsive – short attention span, quick tempered Compulsive – thorough, precise, ritualistic Hysteric – passionate, colourful people, always in chaos, always crisis We teach these learning styles to students – alert them to issues How do you act when you are pissed off?
Categories of Teaching Presence (Vaughan) CategoriesDesign & Organization: Setting curriculum & methods Facilitating Discourse: Shaping constructive exchange Direct Instruction: Focusing and resolving issues IndicatorsSetting the curriculum Designing methods Establishing time parameters Utilizing medium effectively Establishing netiquette Setting climate for learning Drawing in participants, prompting discussion Encouraging, acknowledging, or reinforcing student contributions Identifying areas of agreement/disagreement Seeking to reach consensus/understanding Assess the efficacy of the process Present content/questions Focus the discussion on certain issues Confirm understanding through assessment and explanatory feedback Diagnose misconceptions Inject knowledge from diverse sources e.g., textbook, articles, internet, personal experiences (includes pointers to resources)
Redesigning a Course Case Study from Norm Vaughan
PSYC Winter 2007 Course redesigned for the winter 2007 semester based on feedback from the NSSE survey results Lecture component Social bookmarking - peer reviewed journal articles used to supplement course textbook Article critique assignment –Student groups select an article to critique each week –Weekly online discussions about the articles – moderated by these student groups –Groups then make a class presentation based on an analysis & synthesis of the online discussion – summary posted to seedwiki Lab Component Individual experiments redesigned to become team based Data collection required outside of class time Mashups used to analyze and present research findings Instructor and graduate teaching assistant demonstrated and discussed their current research in the labs
What is the typical effect of educational treatments on achievement across 800 meta- analyses, 50,000 studies, with more than 200 million students? Decreased EnhancedZero 0.20 Typical Effect Size
Teaching is about asking the right questions Learners must care If it hasn’t been assessed – it hasn’t been learned
Which Type Learns Best Online?
Dr. Margaret Riel Senior Researcher at SRI, International, and Visiting Professor, Pepperdine University Online Master in Educational Technology Use students as consultants Learning circles Group modules around learning outcomes, not weeks.
Dr. Norm Vaughan Faculty of Teaching & Learning, Mount Royal University Norm’s Questionnaire Table linking technologies with learning outcomes
Dr. Charles “Chuck” Dziuban Director of the Research Initiative for Teaching Effectiveness (RITE), University of Central Florida Statistician, all research driven by data Learning Styles as predictors for success or failure online Reactive behavior patterns
Dr. Thomas C. Reeves Professor of Instructional Technology, The University of Georgia Why worry about evaluating online learning? Has F2F learning ever truly been measured? Technology – like a dog act on stage – never know when the dog will pee