2 What is an Objective?A statement of what we want students to know, do, and feel.A teacher must be able to ASSESS the objective in some way.Synonyms: Intended Learning Outcome, Achievement Target, Standard, Indicator
3 Bloom’s TaxonomyIn 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists. Together, they developed a classification of levels of thinking behaviors thought to be important in the processes of learning.
4 Best known is the Cognitive taxonomy as follows Bloom and co. actually identified three domains of educational activities.Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)Best known is the Cognitive taxonomy as follows
5 Knowledge observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, placesknowledge of major ideasmastery of subject matterKnowledge
6 Comprehension understanding information grasp meaning translate knowledge into new contextinterpret facts, compare, contrastorder, group, infer causespredict consequencesComprehensionKnowledge
7 Application use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situationssolve problems using required skills or knowledgeApplicationComprehensionKnowledge
8 Analysis seeing patterns organization of parts recognition of hidden meaningsidentification of componentsAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledge
9 Synthesis use old ideas to create new ones generalize from given facts relate knowledge from several areaspredict, draw conclusionsSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledge
10 Evaluation compare and discriminate between ideas assess value of theories, presentationsmake choices based on reasoned argumentverify value of evidencerecognize subjectivityEvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledge
11 Bloom’s Mnemonic Karen Can Add And Subtract Easily Evaluation SynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledge
12 Original Terms New Terms Bloom’s Taxonomy - RevisedOriginal Terms New TermsEvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering(Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8)
13 Change in TermsThe names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms.As the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process verbs were more accurate.The subcategories of the six major categories were also replaced by verbsSome subcategories were reorganized.The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is a product of thinking and was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remembering instead.Comprehension became understanding and synthesis was renamed creating in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking described by each category.(http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/oz-teachernet/training/bloom.html (accessed July 2003) ; Pohl, 2000, p. 8)
14 Create a mnemonic for the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy CreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
15 Affective Domain Attitudes Receiving:Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention.RespondingActive participation on the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction in responding (motivation).ValuingThe worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner ín overt behavior and are often identifiable.
16 Affective Domain (cont.) Attitudes OrganizationOrganizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating an unique value system. The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Internalizing values (characterization)Has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional).
17 Psychomotor Domain Skills PerceptionThe ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation.SetReadiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person’s response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets).Guided ResponseThe early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing.
18 Complex Overt Response MechanismThis is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. Complex Overt ResponseThe skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance.
19 Adaptation Origination Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirementsOriginationCreating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.
20 Webb’s Depth of Knowledge DOK 1: Recall and Reproduction Recall or recognition of a fact, information (definitions, terms, dates, etc.), concept, or procedureIdentify who, when, what where, and whyRecall facts, terms, concepts, trends, generalizations and theoriesUse a variety of toolsRecognize or identify specific informationIdentify specific informationDefineDescribe (recall, recite or reproduce information)Identify purposes
21 DOK 2: Application of Skills and Concepts Use of information, conceptual knowledge, following or selecting appropriate procedures, two or more steps with decision points along the way, routine problems, organizing/displaying dataDescribe or explain how or whyGive an exampleDescribe and explain issues and problems, purposes, patterns, sources, reasons, points of view or processesCompareClassify, sort items into meaningful categoriesConvert information from one form to another
22 DOK 3: Strategic Thinking Requires reasoning, developing a plan or sequence of steps to approach a problem; requires some decision making and justification; abstract and complex; often having more than one possible answer Use concepts to solve problemsUse evidence to justifyPropose and evaluate solutions to problemsRecognize and explain misconceptionsCite evidence and develop a logical argument for conceptsReason and draw conclusionsDisseminate among plausible answersAnalyze similarities and differences in issues and problemsApply concepts to new situationsMake connections across time and place to explain a concept or big ideaRecognize and explain patternsMake and support decisionsEvaluate effectiveness and impact
23 DOK 4: Extended Thinking An investigation or application to real work; requires time to research, think, and process multiple conditions of the problem or task non-routine manipulations, across disciplines/content areas/multiple sourcesConnect ideas and concepts within the content area or among content areasExamine and explain alternative perspectives across a variety of sourcesDescribe and illustrate how common themes and concepts are found across time and placeMake predictions with evidence as supportDevelop a logical argumentPlan and develop solutions to problemsAnalyze and synthesize information from multiple sourcesComplex reasoning with planning, investigating or developing a productApply and adapt information to real-world situationsParticipation in simulations and activities requiring higher-level thinking
24 Cognitive DemandCognitive demand relates to how much thinking is called for by the students for a specific task. For example, routine memorization involves low cognitive demand, no matter how advanced the content. Applying, analyzing, and evaluating concepts involves high cognitive demand, even for basic content. Both types of cognitive demand are associated with student performance and are necessary in the classroom.
25 APPLICATION High cognitive demand Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.Solve geometric proofs using the appropriate theorems.APPLICATIONHigh cognitive demand
26 COMPREHENSION Low cognitive demand Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.Explain the “melting pot” philosophy.COMPREHENSIONLow cognitive demand
27 ANALYZE High cognitive demand Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.Compare and contrast enrichment versus acceleration in terms of readiness, academic benefits, and social and emotional adjustment for precocious youth.ANALYZEHigh cognitive demand
28 SYNTHESIS High cognitive demand Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.Create a poem using metaphorsSYNTHESISHigh cognitive demand
29 KNOWLEDGE Low cognitive demand Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.Define the associative property of additionKNOWLEDGELow cognitive demand
30 EVALUATE High cognitive demand Identify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy and the cognitive demand of the following objectives.Justify the selection of materials for an insulated box.EVALUATEHigh cognitive demand
31 So What Do We Use This For? To write objectivesTo help us match objectives to assessment methods and instructional tasks
32 You Try!Identify the level of cognitive demand of the given objectives from the state core and put them on the appropriate shape.Then put each objective on the correct level of Bloom’s taxonomy on the board.
33 HomeworkBring the state core to class on Monday for the topic you want to use for your TWSRemember your Contextual Factors paper is due MondayIdentify at least three contextual factors that influence student learning – positive or negative. Use one student, one classroom, and one schoolwide or community factor. Then provide suggestions for how you will respond to the factor. Typed, 1-2 pages, double spaced
34 Review Activity: Bloom’s Taxonomy Select three indicators from the state coreDetermine the cognitive demand of the indicators and write them on the appropriate shape.Place the indicators on the correct section of Bloom’s taxonomy on the board.
35 Backwards Design OBJECTIVES ASSESSMENTS LESSONS 1. Identify Desired Results2. Determine Acceptable EvidenceOBJECTIVESASSESSMENTS3. Plan of ActionLESSONS
37 Why “backward”? The stages are logical but they go against habits We’re used to jumping to lesson and activity ideas - before clarifying our performance goals for studentsBy thinking through the assessments upfront, we ensure greater alignment of our goals and means, and that teaching is focused on desired results
38 Unpacking the Standards What are the objectives from the core?
39 STOP AND WORKGet out your core curriculum and find the Standards, Objectives, and Indicators that you want to teach for your TWS.Write them on your green rounded rectangle (lower half)Ex: Standard 2, Objective 3,b. Describe how weather and forecasts affect people's lives.c. Predict weather and justify prediction with observable evidence.
40 “Big Ideas” are typically revealed via – Core conceptsFocusing themesOn-going debates/issuesInsightful perspectivesOrganizing theoryOverarching principleUnderlying assumption
41 Big Ideas: Examples Words are power. Reading is more than just the words on a page.Relationships between quantities can be represented by graphs, tables, and equations.Healthy nutrition practices influence all aspects of our lives.All life is interrelated as evidenced by the differences and similarities among species.
42 More Big Idea ExamplesGreat artists often break with conventions to better express what they see and feel.Price is a function of supply and demand.Friendships can be deepened or undone by hard timesHistory is the story told by the “winners”F = ma (weight is not mass)Math models simplify physical relations – and even sometimes distort relations – to deepen our understanding of themThe storyteller rarely tells the meaning of the story
45 Unpacking the Standards What are the “big ideas” that flow from the objective or that the objective is based on?What are the objectives from the core?
46 Predictions about the weather influence people’s lives. Standard 2, Objective 3,b. Describe how weather and forecasts affect people's lives.c. Predict weather and justify prediction with observable evidence.
47 Unpacking the Standards What are the “big ideas” that flow from the objective or that the objective is based on?What is the overall unit objective?What are the standards, objectives, and indicators from the core?
48 Predictions about the weather influence people’s lives. Understand that the elements of weather can be observed, measured, and recorded to make predictions.Standard 2, Objective 3,Identify and use the tools of a meteorologist (e.g., measure rainfall using rain gauge, measure air pressure using barometer, measure temperature using a thermometer).Describe how weather and forecasts affect people's lives.Predict weather and justify prediction with observable evidence.
49 STOP AND WORKWhat “Big Idea” are the listed standards, objectives, and indicators based on?Write your “Big Idea” for your TWS on the top half of your rounded rectangle. Talk with your group about it.Write your overall unit objective.
50 Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions What knowledge, skills, and dispositions follow from the “Big Ideas” and the specific indicators to be taught?What “teachable chunks” can be described?“Expert blindspot”
51 Identify the Cognitive Load Low cognitive load objectives - what we want students to know (rectangles)High cognitive load objectives - what we want students to be able to do (ovals)
52 Write as an Objective 1. Start with a verb Use your list of Bloom’s or DOK verbsMake sure each objective includes only one action and one content partState as a student outcome (not what the teacher will do)Focus attention on the Big Idea and are part of the core curriculumInclude high and low cognitive load objectives
53 a. Identify and use the tools of a meteorologist (e. g a. Identify and use the tools of a meteorologist (e.g., measure rainfall using rain gauge, measure air pressure using barometer, measure temperature using a thermometer).Label a rain gauge, barometer, and thermometerUse a rain gauge to measure rainfallUse a barometer to measure air pressureUse a thermometer to measure temperatureb. Describe how weather and forecasts affect people's lives.Describe how weather and forecasts affect people's lives.c. Predict weather and justify prediction with observable evidence.Create a three day weather forecastSupport your weather forecast using observable evidence
54 Reading is more than just words on the paper. Read the assigned book fluently.
63 STOP AND WORKUNPACK each indicator from the core and write an objective using the Bloom’s verbs. Make sure each objective is chunked so that you can teach it in one lesson. Separate the objectives into low and high cognitive load. Write on the appropriate shape.
64 Unpacking the Standard Assignment recap Identify all the core indicators you will cover.Specify the “Big Ideas” that students will acquire.Break out the indicators into teachable chunks separated by high and low cognitive load.Rough draft due in class next time so we can work on them.