4St. Paul – sacrament is a mystery – God’s hidden plan of wanting to save renew, unite in Christ St. Augustine- sign & symbol – something concrete that points to something elseFlag, stop signSign of sacred realityHoly sign – symbol which believers perceive and receive an invisible grace (Baptism-rebirth)Efficacious symbol – Thomas Aquinas – they ARE what they point to – Eucharist not only points to Christ – it IS Christ
5Sacraments ARE what they symbolize To be a sacrament, a sign or symbol must do the following:Lead us to GodCome from GodBe an action of GodThe best exampleof a sacrament isJesus Christ himself.
6Sacramental Nature of Christ and the Church SignsNot all signs are sacraments – must lead us to God but also must come from GodJesusoriginal sign & prime sacramentNot only a sign but is God - efficacious
7The Primordial Sacrament Jesus is the starting point of all sacraments.Jesus is the perfect sign of God’s great love for us.The fundamental nature of a sacrament is revealed in Jesus.
8Jesus as Sacrament God in flesh Really happened at definite time & locationPaschal MysteryFor all generationsAble to destroy death & bring about salvationPresent for every generation sinceMade known to us in LITURGY – work of the people- work of the TrinityFather- CreatorSon- redeemerHoly Spirit- teacher & guide
9Real Presence of Christ Present in PriestCommissioned- Holy OrdersBaptizes, hears confession, etcChrist is the true ministerPriest- representative who stands in for others ex. babysitter, substitute teacherPresent when Scripture is read- word of God inspired by the Holy SpiritPresent in community pray and sing togetherPresent in Eucharist – transubstantiation – earthly liturgy is a foretaste of heavenly liturgy – saints and angels together
10Church as Sacrament Sign of unity of God and each other All races and cultures- catholicNo longer physically present – Church is Christ’s instrument7 sacramentsMysteryEastern Churches – sacraments called mysteriesVisible sign of invisible graceNot just a symbol like peace sign – efficacious symbol
117 Sacraments instituted by Christ First Christians baptizedHealed the sickBreaking of the bread1st 2 centuries – no one term to describe sacraments- just practiced what Christ had done3 groupsChristian Initiation – Baptism, Confirmation, EucharistHealing- Penance, Anointing of the SickService- Holy Orders, MatrimonyCouncil of Florence (1439)
12Council of Florence Proper matter – the prescribed materials. Correct words or form – the prescribed words and gestures.Designated minister – the prescribed minister.
13Sacraments of Initiation Baptism – brings new life in Christ.Confirmation – strengthens our new life with the gifts of the Holy Spirit.Eucharist – nourishes us with the Body and Blood of Christ.
14Sacraments of Initiation IntroductionThe New WayThought at first to be an extension of JudaismThen Gentiles- exceptions madeCatechumenate- 3 year processSponsored by baptized ChristianStudied, prayed, fastedInitiationHearing and acceptance of Good NewsProfession of faithEaster Vigil- Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist
15Children had been baptized from early times Process changedOriginal sinHigh infant mortalityChildren had been baptized from early timesVatican II restored catechumenate
16Four Steps of RCIAEvangelization – a person hears the word of God and responds to it. It is followed by a rite of acceptanceCatechumenate – over the course of a year, catechumens study the faith in special parish classes, are mentored by a sponsor, do service, and participate in the Liturgy of the Word at Mass. On the first Sunday of Lent, candidates are enrolled in the Book of the Elect by the bishop.
17Four Steps of RCIAPurification and Enlightenment – During Lent, catechumens scrutinize their lives and do penance. They receive the Lord’s Prayer and the Creed on which to center their lives. At the end of this period they receive the three sacraments of initiation at the Easter Vigil Mass.Mystagogia – The newly baptized neophytes continue to meet with one another after Easter until Pentecost, gradually taking their place in the Church.
18Baptism Immersion or triple pouring of water “I baptize you in the name of the…”Priest, Bishop, Deacon- normal ministerBecome part of Christ’s body – the ChurchAnointed with sacred chrism – oil consecrated by the Bishop on Holy Thursday2nd anointing – by Bishop at ConfirmationWhite garment- put on Christ; risen with ChristCan be at MassBrought forth at Our Father – links to EucharistAdults at Easter Vigil
19The Essential Rite of Baptism Proper matter: WaterCorrect words or form: Triple pouring of or immersion in water with the words, “I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.”Designated minister: bishop, priest, or deacon
20Effects of BaptismWashes away original sin and any other sins and the punishment due.Makes us children of God and temples of the Holy Spirit.Welcomes us as members of the Church, the Body of Christ.Marks us forever as sharers in the common priesthood of all believers, and in Christ’s mission of justice and peace.
21Celebration of the Sacrament of Baptism Lighted CandleAnointing with OilWhite Garment
22Confirmation Bishop lays hand on forehead Anoints with chrism “Be sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit”Since the time of the Apostles- laying on of handsGift of the Holy SpiritCompletes BaptismOrigin of ConfirmationIn the early Church chrism was addedEastern Churches-Chrismation- after Baptism
23Originally all 3 at one time Time of Confirmation – adolescence ? Candidate preparedState of graceGiven only once – indelible characterEffectsRoots us more deeply in Christ’s loveUnites us with firmly with Christ and strengthens our bond with His ChurchIncreases gifts of the Holy SpiritUsually administered at Mass – connect to the EucharistRenew Baptismal promises
24Requirements for Reception of the Sacrament of Confirmation Be prepared to profess the faith.Be in the state of grace.Intend to receive the sacrament.Be prepared to witness to Jesus Christ.
25The Essential Rite of Confirmation Proper matter: ChrismCorrect words or form: Laying on of hands and anointing with chrism on the forehead with the words: "(Name), be sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit."Designated minister: Bishop
26Holy Eucharist Vatican II – “source and summit of Christian life” United with heavenly liturgyPius X – encouaged weekly reception – moved age from 12 to age of reasonDevelopmentBegan at Passover meal- Last Supper1st century – gathered in homes – preaching, prayer, breaking of the bread
27Development of the Eucharist Christ instituted the Eucharist during a Passover meal held at the Last Supper as a memorial of his Death and Resurrection.At the Council of Trent (1545 – 1563) the doctrine of transubstantiation was defined and the Roman Missal was published by Pope Pius V.
284th century – preface and Sanctus added 155- outlineLiturgy of wordSermonPrayer of the faithfulSign of peaceCommunion offeringConsecrationAnointing – AmenMany of the prayers we still use todayApostolic Tradition (315) outlined prayers and order of worship – even closer to ours today4th century – preface and Sanctus addedCharlemagne – tried to unify – prayers differed from region to regionCouncil of Trent ( ) – transubstantiation defined
292 main parts – Liturgy of the Word, Liturgy of the Eucharist Pius V – established Roman Missal – used until Vatican IIVatican II – emphasize Lord’s SupperCommunityCall to penance and forgivenessScripture proclaimed by peopleReception under both speciesCommand to go forthTranslation revised by Benedict XVI2 main parts – Liturgy of the Word, Liturgy of the EucharistLiturgy of the WordIntroductory rites- gather, sign of the cross, ask for forgiveness, Gloria, opening prayer
30Liturgy of the Eucharist Liturgy of the Word – readingsLiturgy of the EucharistPreparation of altarDonation & giftEucharistic Prayer – severalThanksgiving to FatherHoly Spirit called down on giftsWords of consecrationOffering of sacrificeIntercessions-Pope, clergy, living, deadAmen – I agreeOur FatherSign of peaceLamb of God- need for God’s mercyBreaking of bread and reception of CommunionConclusion – blessing and go forth
31Parts of the Eucharistic Liturgy Introductory RitesSign of the CrossPenitential RiteGloriaOpening PrayerLiturgy of the WordFirst ReadingPsalm ResponseSecond ReadingGospelHomilyCreedGeneral IntercessionsLiturgy of the EucharistPreparation of the AltarPresentation of the GiftsEucharistic PrayerGreat AmenCommunion RiteOur FatherLamb of GodReception of Holy CommunionPrayer after CommunionConcluding Rite
32The Essential Rite of Eucharist Proper matter: unleavened bread and wineCorrect words or form: Changing bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ by the words: "Take this, all of you, and eat it: this is my body which will be given up for you Take this, all of you, and drink from it: this is the cup of my blood of the new and everlasting covenant. It will be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven. Do this in memory of me.“Designated minister: Bishop or priest
33Sacraments of HealingAnointing of the SickPenance / ReconciliationOur new life in Christ can be weakened by suffering, illness, death, and the effects of sin.
34Sacraments of Healing Introduction Jesus= physician- souls and bodies Paralytic- healed & forgave sins
35Penance – Reconciliation - Confession Penance renews, restores, and strengthens our relationship with God and the community after it has been damaged by sin.Penance shows that God’s love is without limits
36PenanceSacrament of renewed faith- renews, restores, strengthens relationship with God & community after damaged by sinGod’s love without limits- sign of love & personal forgivenessKnown as Penance, Reconciliation, ConfessionBegins with Jesus- mission was to sinners“Whatever you bind on earth ….”
37Difference in practices – not essentials 3rd-5th centuriesForgiveness of venial sin through Eucharist prayers & works of mercyMortal sin – long, difficult time of penanceOnce in a lifetimesTook place in publicOften put off till near death6th century- private confession – counsel and offer forgivenessThomas Aquinas – 13th cContrition sorrow wipes out sinConfession necessary for forgiveness of mortal sin – penance and absolutionRecent reforms – face to face
38Essential Elements of Penance The acts of the person who undergoes conversionContritionConfessionSatisfactionThe intervention of the ChurchAbsolution from the priestAll Catholics are required to go to confession at least once per year to confess serious sins
39God Alone Forgives Sin Christian life is marked by lifelong conversion Even though forgiveness is expressed through the Church and this Sacrament, God alone forgives sin
40Anointing of the SickThe sacrament encourages those who are sick to overcome the alienation caused by illnessJesus continues to bring healing through the prayers of the Church, and through the sacraments, especially the Eucharist and the Anointing of the Sick
41Anointing of the sick Inevitable weakness and illness Rooted in the letter of JamesMiddle AgesOnly to the dying- Extreme UnctionPenance and Viaticum (last communion)Vatican II – for elderly, major surgerySpiritual effectsAble to accept trials of illnessForgiveness of sinsGraceContribute to the holiness of the ChurchUnited to Passion of Christ
42Celebration of the Sacrament Possible restoration of healthSupernatural strength for dyingMinister- priestCelebration of the SacramentSometimes during MassLaying on of handsPrayer for the personAnoint forehead and hands with ChrismIntroductory rites and Scripture readingBlessing with holy waterMay hear confession
43Essential Elements of Anointing of the Sick The priest or bishoplays his hands on the sick personprays for the person in the faith of the Churchanoints the forehead and hands of the sick person with oil previously blessed by a bishop
44Sacraments at the Service of Communion These sacraments are directed toward the salvation of others, not toward those receiving the sacraments.MatrimonyHoly Orders
45Sacraments of Service Holy Orders All share in office of priest Some with ministerial priesthood
46Holy Orders The ministerial priesthood Sacramental ordination consecrates certain baptized men to one of three degrees of a sacred order:Episcopate – bishopsPresbyterate – priestsDiaconate – deacons
47Not something anyone can choose No one has the right to be ordained TraditionJesus was a maleChoose male apostlesNot something anyone can chooseNo one has the right to be ordainedCelebration of the sacramentLaying on of hands by the bishopPrayer of consecrationMinister= bishopCannot be repeated
48MatrimonyMarriage is a sacred covenant --that is an agreement between the husband and wife, and between the couple and God.
49Matrimony Established by God Modeled after Christ & His Church St. AugustineProcreation of childrenChastity & fidelity of spousesIndissoluble unionMust be given freelyMutually confer on each otherGift of unconditional love
50Effects Celebration Grace to love one another Grace to remain faithful Strengthen each other for eternal lifeBlessed with childrenGrace to raise children in the faithCalled “domestic Church”CelebrationSacred covenantLiturgy of the Word – importance of marriageSpecial nuptial blessingHoly Communion
51The Essential Rite of Matrimony The essential element of Matrimony is the mutual consent to marry.The words of consent must be freely given.Catholics must marry in the presence of a priest or a deacon, and in the presence of two witnesses.The spouses themselves are the ministers of the sacrament.
52MatrimonyThe family is called “the domestic Church.” The family is a living witness and testimony of eternal, unbreakable, and boundless love that the couple (and their children) give to one another and to the world.
53The Seven SacramentsThe sacraments celebrate Jesus as the Way, the Truth, and the Life.The sacraments are a way for us to live life to the fullest.The sacraments are the way to allow Jesus to touch our lives.