Presentation on theme: "Sacraments of Christ Chapter 5. Sign, Symbol, Sacrament Why 7 Sacraments Thomas Aquinas – like human development Thomas Aquinas – like human developmentBorn-BaptismGrow-Confirmation."— Presentation transcript:
Sign, Symbol, Sacrament Why 7 Sacraments Thomas Aquinas – like human development Thomas Aquinas – like human developmentBorn-BaptismGrow-Confirmation Are fed – Eucharist Healed- Penance Recover or die- Anointing Family – Matrimony Need leaders – Holy Orders
St. Paul – sacrament is a mystery – God’s hidden plan of wanting to save renew, unite in Christ St. Paul – sacrament is a mystery – God’s hidden plan of wanting to save renew, unite in Christ St. Augustine- sign & symbol – something concrete that points to something else St. Augustine- sign & symbol – something concrete that points to something else Flag, stop sign Sign of sacred reality Holy sign – symbol which believers perceive and receive an invisible grace (Baptism-rebirth) Efficacious symbol – Thomas Aquinas – they ARE what they point to – Eucharist not only points to Christ – it IS Christ
Sacraments ARE what they symbolize Sacraments ARE what they symbolize To be a sacrament, a sign or symbol must do the following: Lead us to God Lead us to God Come from God Come from God Be an action of God Be an action of God The best example The best example of a sacrament is of a sacrament is Jesus Christ himself. Jesus Christ himself.
Sacramental Nature of Christ and the Church Signs Not all signs are sacraments – must lead us to God but also must come from God Not all signs are sacraments – must lead us to God but also must come from God Jesus Jesus original sign & prime sacrament Not only a sign but is God - efficacious
The Primordial Sacrament Jesus is the starting point of all sacraments. Jesus is the perfect sign of God’s great love for us. The fundamental nature of a sacrament is revealed in Jesus.
Jesus as Sacrament God in flesh God in flesh Really happened at definite time & location Really happened at definite time & location Paschal Mystery Paschal Mystery For all generations Able to destroy death & bring about salvation Present for every generation since Made known to us in LITURGY – work of the people- work of the Trinity Father- Creator Father- Creator Son- redeemer Son- redeemer Holy Spirit- teacher & guide Holy Spirit- teacher & guide
Real Presence of Christ Present in Priest Present in Priest Commissioned- Holy Orders Baptizes, hears confession, etc Christ is the true minister Priest- representative who stands in for others ex. babysitter, substitute teacher Present when Scripture is read- word of God inspired by the Holy Spirit Present in community pray and sing together Present in Eucharist – transubstantiation – earthly liturgy is a foretaste of heavenly liturgy – saints and angels together
Church as Sacrament Sign of unity of God and each other Sign of unity of God and each other All races and cultures- catholic All races and cultures- catholic No longer physically present – Church is Christ’s instrument No longer physically present – Church is Christ’s instrument 7 sacraments Mystery Eastern Churches – sacraments called mysteries Eastern Churches – sacraments called mysteries Visible sign of invisible grace Visible sign of invisible grace Not just a symbol like peace sign – efficacious symbol
7 Sacraments instituted by Christ First Christians baptized First Christians baptized Healed the sick Healed the sick Breaking of the bread Breaking of the bread 1 st 2 centuries – no one term to describe sacraments- just practiced what Christ had done 1 st 2 centuries – no one term to describe sacraments- just practiced what Christ had done 3 groups 3 groups Christian Initiation – Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist Healing- Penance, Anointing of the Sick Service- Holy Orders, Matrimony Council of Florence (1439) Council of Florence (1439)
Council of Florence Proper matter – the prescribed materials. Correct words or form – the prescribed words and gestures. Designated minister – the prescribed minister.
Sacraments of Initiation Baptism – brings new life in Christ. Confirmation – strengthens our new life with the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Eucharist – nourishes us with the Body and Blood of Christ.
Sacraments of Initiation Introduction The New Way The New Way Thought at first to be an extension of Judaism Then Gentiles- exceptions made Catechumenate- 3 year process Sponsored by baptized Christian Sponsored by baptized Christian Studied, prayed, fasted Studied, prayed, fasted Initiation Initiation Hearing and acceptance of Good News Profession of faith Easter Vigil- Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist
Process changed Original sin Original sin High infant mortality High infant mortality Children had been baptized from early times Vatican II restored catechumenate
Four Steps of RCIA Evangelization – a person hears the word of God and responds to it. It is followed by a rite of acceptance Catechumenate – over the course of a year, catechumens study the faith in special parish classes, are mentored by a sponsor, do service, and participate in the Liturgy of the Word at Mass. On the first Sunday of Lent, candidates are enrolled in the Book of the Elect by the bishop.
Four Steps of RCIA Purification and Enlightenment – During Lent, catechumens scrutinize their lives and do penance. They receive the Lord’s Prayer and the Creed on which to center their lives. At the end of this period they receive the three sacraments of initiation at the Easter Vigil Mass. Mystagogia – The newly baptized neophytes continue to meet with one another after Easter until Pentecost, gradually taking their place in the Church.
Baptism Immersion or triple pouring of water Immersion or triple pouring of water “I baptize you in the name of the…” “I baptize you in the name of the…” Priest, Bishop, Deacon- normal minister Priest, Bishop, Deacon- normal minister Become part of Christ’s body – the Church Become part of Christ’s body – the Church Anointed with sacred chrism – oil consecrated by the Bishop on Holy Thursday Anointed with sacred chrism – oil consecrated by the Bishop on Holy Thursday 2 nd anointing – by Bishop at Confirmation 2 nd anointing – by Bishop at Confirmation White garment- put on Christ; risen with Christ White garment- put on Christ; risen with Christ Can be at Mass Can be at Mass Brought forth at Our Father – links to Eucharist Brought forth at Our Father – links to Eucharist Adults at Easter Vigil Adults at Easter Vigil
The Essential Rite of Baptism Proper matter: Water Correct words or form: Triple pouring of or immersion in water with the words, “I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.” Designated minister: bishop, priest, or deacon
Effects of Baptism Washes away original sin and any other sins and the punishment due. Makes us children of God and temples of the Holy Spirit. Welcomes us as members of the Church, the Body of Christ. Marks us forever as sharers in the common priesthood of all believers, and in Christ’s mission of justice and peace.
Confirmation Bishop lays hand on forehead Bishop lays hand on forehead Anoints with chrism Anoints with chrism “Be sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit” “Be sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit” Since the time of the Apostles- laying on of hands Since the time of the Apostles- laying on of hands Gift of the Holy Spirit Completes Baptism Origin of Confirmation In the early Church chrism was added In the early Church chrism was added Eastern Churches-Chrismation- after Baptism Eastern Churches-Chrismation- after Baptism
Originally all 3 at one time Originally all 3 at one time Time of Confirmation – adolescence ? Time of Confirmation – adolescence ? Candidate prepared Candidate prepared State of grace Given only once – indelible character Effects Effects Roots us more deeply in Christ’s love Unites us with firmly with Christ and strengthens our bond with His Church Increases gifts of the Holy Spirit Usually administered at Mass – connect to the Eucharist Usually administered at Mass – connect to the Eucharist Renew Baptismal promises Renew Baptismal promises
Requirements for Reception of the Sacrament of Confirmation Be prepared to profess the faith. Be in the state of grace. Intend to receive the sacrament. Be prepared to witness to Jesus Christ.
The Essential Rite of Confirmation Proper matter: Chrism Correct words or form: Laying on of hands and anointing with chrism on the forehead with the words: "(Name), be sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit." Designated minister: Bishop
Holy Eucharist Vatican II – “source and summit of Christian life” Vatican II – “source and summit of Christian life” United with heavenly liturgy United with heavenly liturgy Pius X – encouaged weekly reception – moved age from 12 to age of reason Pius X – encouaged weekly reception – moved age from 12 to age of reason Development Development Began at Passover meal- Last Supper 1 st century – gathered in homes – preaching, prayer, breaking of the bread
Development of the Eucharist Christ instituted the Eucharist during a Passover meal held at the Last Supper as a memorial of his Death and Resurrection. At the Council of Trent (1545 – 1563) the doctrine of transubstantiation was defined and the Roman Missal was published by Pope Pius V.
155- outline Liturgy of word Liturgy of word Sermon Sermon Prayer of the faithful Prayer of the faithful Sign of peace Sign of peace Communion offering Communion offering Consecration Consecration Anointing – Amen Anointing – Amen Many of the prayers we still use today Many of the prayers we still use today Apostolic Tradition (315) outlined prayers and order of worship – even closer to ours today 4th century – preface and Sanctus added Charlemagne – tried to unify – prayers differed from region to region Council of Trent (1545-1563) – transubstantiation defined
Pius V – established Roman Missal – used until Vatican II Vatican II – emphasize Lord’s Supper Community Community Call to penance and forgiveness Call to penance and forgiveness Scripture proclaimed by people Scripture proclaimed by people Reception under both species Reception under both species Command to go forth Command to go forth Translation revised by Benedict XVI 2 main parts – Liturgy of the Word, Liturgy of the Eucharist 2 main parts – Liturgy of the Word, Liturgy of the Eucharist Liturgy of the Word Introductory rites- gather, sign of the cross, ask for forgiveness, Gloria, opening prayer Introductory rites- gather, sign of the cross, ask for forgiveness, Gloria, opening prayer
Liturgy of the Word – readings Liturgy of the Word – readings Liturgy of the Eucharist Preparation of altar Preparation of altar Donation & gift Donation & gift Eucharistic Prayer – several Eucharistic Prayer – several Thanksgiving to Father Holy Spirit called down on gifts Words of consecration Offering of sacrifice Intercessions-Pope, clergy, living, dead Amen – I agree Amen – I agree Our Father Our Father Sign of peace Sign of peace Lamb of God- need for God’s mercy Lamb of God- need for God’s mercy Breaking of bread and reception of Communion Breaking of bread and reception of Communion Conclusion – blessing and go forth Conclusion – blessing and go forth
Parts of the Eucharistic Liturgy Introductory Rites Sign of the Cross Sign of the Cross Penitential Rite Penitential Rite Gloria Gloria Opening Prayer Opening Prayer Liturgy of the Word First Reading First Reading Psalm Response Psalm Response Second Reading Second Reading Gospel Gospel Homily Homily Creed Creed General Intercessions General Intercessions Liturgy of the Eucharist Preparation of the Altar Preparation of the Altar Presentation of the Gifts Presentation of the Gifts Eucharistic Prayer Eucharistic Prayer Great Amen Great Amen Communion Rite Communion Rite Our Father Lamb of God Reception of Holy Communion Prayer after Communion Concluding Rite Concluding Rite
The Essential Rite of Eucharist Proper matter : unleavened bread and wine Correct words or form: Changing bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ by the words: "Take this, all of you, and eat it: this is my body which will be given up for you... Take this, all of you, and drink from it: this is the cup of my blood of the new and everlasting covenant. It will be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven. Do this in memory of me.“ Designated minister: Bishop or priest
Sacraments of Healing Our new life in Christ can be weakened by suffering, illness, death, and the effects of sin. Anointing of the Sick Penance / Reconciliation
Sacraments of Healing Introduction Jesus= physician- souls and bodies Jesus= physician- souls and bodies Paralytic- healed & forgave sins Paralytic- healed & forgave sins
Penance – Reconciliation - Confession Penance renews, restores, and strengthens our relationship with God and the community after it has been damaged by sin. Penance shows that God’s love is without limits
Penance Sacrament of renewed faith- renews, restores, strengthens relationship with God & community after damaged by sin Sacrament of renewed faith- renews, restores, strengthens relationship with God & community after damaged by sin God’s love without limits- sign of love & personal forgiveness God’s love without limits- sign of love & personal forgiveness Known as Penance, Reconciliation, Confession Known as Penance, Reconciliation, Confession Begins with Jesus- mission was to sinners Begins with Jesus- mission was to sinners “Whatever you bind on earth ….” “Whatever you bind on earth ….”
Difference in practices – not essentials Difference in practices – not essentials 3 rd -5 th centuries Forgiveness of venial sin through Eucharist prayers & works of mercy Forgiveness of venial sin through Eucharist prayers & works of mercy Mortal sin – long, difficult time of penance Mortal sin – long, difficult time of penance Once in a lifetimes Took place in public Often put off till near death 6 th century- private confession – counsel and offer forgiveness Thomas Aquinas – 13 th c Contrition sorrow wipes out sin Contrition sorrow wipes out sin Confession necessary for forgiveness of mortal sin – penance and absolution Confession necessary for forgiveness of mortal sin – penance and absolution Recent reforms – face to face
Essential Elements of Penance The acts of the person who undergoes conversion Contrition Contrition Confession Confession Satisfaction Satisfaction The intervention of the Church Absolution from the priest Absolution from the priest All Catholics are required to go to confession at least once per year to confess serious sins
God Alone Forgives Sin Christian life is marked by lifelong conversion Even though forgiveness is expressed through the Church and this Sacrament, God alone forgives sin
Anointing of the Sick The sacrament encourages those who are sick to overcome the alienation caused by illness Jesus continues to bring healing through the prayers of the Church, and through the sacraments, especially the Eucharist and the Anointing of the Sick
Anointing of the sick Inevitable weakness and illness Inevitable weakness and illness Rooted in the letter of James Rooted in the letter of James Middle Ages Middle Ages Only to the dying- Extreme Unction Penance and Viaticum (last communion) Vatican II – for elderly, major surgery Vatican II – for elderly, major surgery Spiritual effects Spiritual effects Able to accept trials of illness Forgiveness of sins Grace Contribute to the holiness of the Church United to Passion of Christ
Possible restoration of health Supernatural strength for dying Minister- priest Minister- priest Celebration of the Sacrament Celebration of the Sacrament Sometimes during Mass Laying on of hands Prayer for the person Anoint forehead and hands with Chrism Introductory rites and Scripture reading Blessing with holy water May hear confession
Essential Elements of Anointing of the Sick Essential Elements of Anointing of the Sick The priest or bishop The priest or bishop lays his hands on the sick person lays his hands on the sick person prays for the person in the faith of the Church prays for the person in the faith of the Church anoints the forehead and hands of the sick person with oil previously blessed by a bishop anoints the forehead and hands of the sick person with oil previously blessed by a bishop
Sacraments at the Service of Communion These sacraments are directed toward the salvation of others, not toward those receiving the sacraments. Matrimony Holy Orders
Sacraments of Service Holy Orders All share in office of priest All share in office of priest Some with ministerial priesthood Some with ministerial priesthood
Holy Orders The ministerial priesthood Sacramental ordination consecrates certain baptized men to one of three degrees of a sacred order: Episcopate – bishops Episcopate – bishops Presbyterate – priests Presbyterate – priests Diaconate – deacons Diaconate – deacons
Tradition Tradition Jesus was a male Choose male apostles Not something anyone can choose Not something anyone can choose No one has the right to be ordained No one has the right to be ordained Celebration of the sacrament Celebration of the sacrament Laying on of hands by the bishop Prayer of consecration Minister= bishop Cannot be repeated Cannot be repeated
Matrimony Marriage is a sacred covenant -- that is an agreement between the husband and wife, and between the couple and God.
Matrimony Established by God Established by God Modeled after Christ & His Church Modeled after Christ & His Church St. Augustine St. Augustine Procreation of children Chastity & fidelity of spouses Indissoluble union Must be given freely Must be given freely Mutually confer on each other Mutually confer on each other Gift of unconditional love Gift of unconditional love
Effects Effects Grace to love one another Grace to remain faithful Strengthen each other for eternal life Blessed with children Grace to raise children in the faith Called “domestic Church” Celebration Celebration Sacred covenant Liturgy of the Word – importance of marriage Special nuptial blessing Holy Communion
The Essential Rite of Matrimony The essential element of Matrimony is the mutual consent to marry. The words of consent must be freely given. Catholics must marry in the presence of a priest or a deacon, and in the presence of two witnesses. The spouses themselves are the ministers of the sacrament.
Matrimony The family is called “the domestic Church.” The family is a living witness and testimony of eternal, unbreakable, and boundless love that the couple (and their children) give to one another and to the world.
The Seven Sacraments The sacraments celebrate Jesus as the Way, the Truth, and the Life. The sacraments are a way for us to live life to the fullest. The sacraments are the way to allow Jesus to touch our lives.