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The importance of positive versus negative

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Presentation on theme: "The importance of positive versus negative"— Presentation transcript:

1 The importance of positive versus negative
Experiences in childhood

2 Socialization Transforms Biological Organisms into Social Beings
“Self” Our recognition that we are at once distinct and part of a whole

3 If socialization makes us….
Then what does isolation do? = a dysfunctional self From Pavlov’s Dogs to Harlow’s Monkeys Social behavior is learned

4 Can be seen as having three components
Personality or “self” Can be seen as having three components Cognition Emotion Behavior

5 Feral Children - “mythic” – legendary accounts
Neglected Children “reality” Raised in relative isolation

6 ANNA: In the late 1930s and 1940s a noted sociologist, Kingsley Davis, was called to investigate the case of Anna, a young girl who was the illegitimate daughter of a poor and mentally impaired mother who left Anna alone, locked in the attic. Anna’s mother had kept her locked up in an attic room to avoid Anna’s grandfather’s anger at her birth. Aside from brief visits to bring food, she had almost no human contact. When found, she was unable to walk or to speak. Her hearing and vision were normal. She seemed to show potential to learn and did desire human contact. She died at age 10 Before her death, Anna learned to walk, understand simple commands, feed herself, and achieve some neatness. Although she seemed to show some potential to learn language, she spoke only in phrases, rather than complete sentences. She could bounce and catch a ball, string beads, identify a few colors, and build with blocks. When found, Anna had the mental capacity of a newborn infant. At her death she had achieved a mental level of approximately 2 to 3 years…

7 GENIE: A more recent case from the 1970s teaches us a lot
GENIE: A more recent case from the 1970s teaches us a lot. This is the case of Genie written about in your text. Extensive tests showed that in many ways Genie was highly intelligent. But her language abilities never advanced beyond that of a 3rd grader. Genie never became a truly social being. Eventually the scientists who worked with her concluded that the most severe deprivation that caused her to fail at language was her lack of emotional learning and her feelings of loss and lack of love. Genie was never fully capable of living independently and spent her life in a home for developmentally disable adults. (Genie was showcased, along with the famous case of Victor from France, in a video entitled “Secrets of a Wild Child,” available in our college library.)

8 ISABELLE was 6½ years old when she was found
ISABELLE was 6½ years old when she was found. Isabelle’s mother was a deaf mute (could not hear or talk) who stayed in a dark room with Isabelle, shut off from the rest of the family. Like Anna, Isabelle was in bad shape both physically and mentally. She spent most of her life in a room with her mother. For speech she made a strange croaking sound. (secret language?) She reacted to strangers, especially men, with much fear. She behaved like a deaf child, and her mental capacity was no more than that of a 6-month of baby. An intensive training program was started right away and gradually Isabelle began to respond. Then suddenly she began to learn rapidly. Two months – full sentences and Sixteen months - a vocabulary of 1,500-2,000 words Her I.Q. tripled in a year and a half.

9 Spitz Research Comparison of those raised in nursing home with those in orphanage Much higher death rates for those left in the orphanages

10 Skeels and Dye Research
IQs increased by 28% over time with mentally disabled women IQs decreased by 30% for those left in the Orphanage -- Teaches us that cognitive development depends upon healthy socialization

11 Stimulating interaction is essential for the development of “self”
Socialization into a full sense of “self” requires group experience and social interaction to develop a normal human personality. Language (any kind we create) allows us to internalize and make sense of the culture surrounding us

12 Social Psychological perspectives on the development of self
Informed by sociology as well as psychology

13 “totality of our beliefs and feelings about our selves”
 Self concept “totality of our beliefs and feelings about our selves” physical “I’m wrinkled” active “I’m good at soccer” social “I’m nice to dogs and elderly people” psychological “I am opposed to war”

14 Self develops in three social stages
Mead Self develops in three social stages Imitation, play, game

15 Mead “Without language there is no mind, therefore the mind itself is a social product.” Through socialization we learn to take the role of the “significant” other and then the “generalized” other. results in ….. “I” and “Me”

16 Cooley Looking Glass Self
Society is internalized & becomes part of the self through the interaction

17 I’m not who you think I am…..

18 I’m not who I think I am….

19 I am who I think you think I am.

20 Dr. H’s Looking Glass Self!

21 Goffman We have virtual selves……
“If I were ever in a room with everyone I have ever known, I would not know who to be”….. Some call it “flexible”, others “mutable”

22 Freud Civilization is dependent upon the control of impulse!

23 impulsive drives and is present at birth
Id impulsive drives and is present at birth the id is supposed to be the instinct which gives rise to our more brutish, irrational behaviors

24 Ego links the self to the real world, mediating the drives of the id and the control of the superego. The ego is our cognitive system - i.e., our perceptions - it's what controls action and organizes our personalities

25 Superego has three jobs to do – 1 - to inhibit the impulses of the id
2 - to persuade the ego to substitute moral goals for realistic ones 3 - to strive for perfection.

26 Erickson Life course socialization is about ego identity development
is based on how we resolve our crises From trust to integrity….

27 Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust
Positive outcome: If their needs are met consistently by the parents, infants not only will develop a secure attachment with the parents, but will learn to trust their environment in general as well.

28 Negative outcome: If not, infant will develop mistrust towards people and things in their environment, even towards themselves.

29 Crisis: Autonomy (Independence) vs. Doubt (or Shame)
Description: Toddlers learn to walk, talk, use toilets, and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage.

30 Positive outcome: If parents encourage their child's initiative and reassure when she makes mistakes, the child develop the confidence needed to cope with future situations

31 Negative outcome: If parents are overprotective, or disapproving of the child's acts of independence, he/she may begin to feel ashamed doubt his/her abilities.

32 Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt
Description: Children have newfound power at this stage as they have developed motor skills and become more and more engaged in social interaction with people around them.

33 Positive outcome: If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept without guilt, that certain things are not allowed, but at the same time will not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in make-believe role plays. .

34 Crisis: Competence (aka. "Industry") vs. Inferiority
Description: secondary socialization -- school is the important event at this stage. Children learn to make things, use tools, and acquire the skills to be a worker and a potential provider.

35 Positive outcome: If children can discover pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being productive, seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence.

36 Negative outcome: If not, they will develop a sense of inferiority.

37 Crisis: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Description: This is the time when we ask the question "Who am I?" Here, we must integrate the healthy resolution of all earlier conflicts. Did we develop the basic sense of trust? Do we have a strong sense of independence, competence, and feel in control of our lives? Adolescents who have successfully dealt with earlier conflicts are ready for the "Identity Crisis", which is considered by Erikson as the single most significant conflict a person must face. Positive outcome: come out of this stage with a strong identity, and ready to plan for the future. Negative outcome: sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices, especially about vocation, sexual orientation, and general roles.

38 Crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Description: In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. No matter how successful you are with your work, you are not complete until you are capable of intimacy. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship and may retreat into isolation. Positive outcome: close relationships and share with others if they have achieved a sense of identity. Negative outcome: fear commitment, feel isolated and unable to depend on anybody in the world.

39 Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Description: ability to look outside oneself and care for others --- adults need children as much as children need adults, and that this stage reflects the need to create a living legacy. Positive outcome: nurturing children or helping the next generation in other ways. Negative outcome: person remains self-centered and experience stagnation later in life.

40 Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair Important
Description: Old age is a time for reflecting upon one's own life and its role in the big scheme of things the healthy adult will not fear death

41 Note how each stage of Erickson’s
Ego Identity Model is associated with varying agents of socialization (family, peers, education, media, etc...)

42 Piaget’s “cognitive development” or “stages of learning”
Sensorimotor - no symbolic thought “out of sight, out of mind” preoperational - begin to use to words as mental symbols to describe but not translatable concrete operational – begin to take the role of others but limited formal operational – moral reasoning – can think abstract thought, impute motives, consider justice

43 Summary of Mead, Cooley, Freud, Erickson and Piaget
Mead and Cooley - personality/self develops through role-taking and interaction (development is social) Freud - personality develops as inborn desires clash with social constraints (development is social but in response to biological drives) Erickson - stages of personality development change according to social constraints (highlights the development of self via stages) Piaget - learning occurs in stages as our ability to reason increases, i.e., moral reasoning (highlights the stages of learning - also very dependent upon socialization)

44 Other seemingly natural aspects are also products of socialization
Moral Reasoning……. Emotions……..

45 “It’s our nature to nurture?”
Couric Sociobiology?

46 Kohlberg - moral development
Pre-conventional Levels little concern for views of others - based on punishment Conventional Level behavior is dependent upon approval wide approval is interpreted as right (significant others, peers) Looking glass self

47 Post-conventional Level (few adults reach this stage)
Morality is viewed in terms of individual rights Moral conduct -- the final stage is judged by principles based on human rights that transcend government and laws.

48 Gender roles influence morality as well
Gilligan Gender roles influence morality as well

49 Men – often make decisions using notions of justice – What’s Fair?
Women – often make decisions using notions of relationships -- who gets hurt the least?

50 She identified Justice based reasoning as male
Care-based reasoning as female Studies that have compared male and females have found examples of both. Some have found one factor is education.

51 Gender Socialization (What is it to be male? Female?)
The role of parents and schools in gender socialization


53 Recent survey found….. Boys and Men are called upon more frequently
College remains a “chilly” climate for women

54 Gender Stereotypes associated with Men:
Aggressive No Emotions Loud Messy?? Are Men really Messy? Athletic Math and Science Oriented CEO Money Maker

55 Gender Stereotypes associated with Women:
Submissive Emotional Quiet Neat/Clean Clumsy Artsy Housewife Child rearing

56 Some quizzes to check out!!
Early socialization Kids say the funniest things....Gender Role Reversal Role reversal

57 Racial Socialization What is it to be African American, Jewish, Italian, Hispanic, Asian, German, Scotch, Irish, Native American, etc.. Rituals, Festivals, Food, Pop culture, Religion – all facilitate racial socialization – some facilitate negative racial socialization

58 We Socialize our Children into the worlds we know
Some children are taught early to demonstrate the following: obedience, neatness, cleanliness Which Social Class might this represent?

59 Some children are taught early to demonstrate the following:
Curiosity, happiness, and self-control Which Social Class might this represent?

60 Instead, he looked closer at the occupations the parents held….
Kohn found that social class by itself was helpful but didn’t explain it all. Instead, he looked closer at the occupations the parents held…. And sure enough…..

61 Those with jobs that had autonomy… encouraged self expression etc..
Those heavily supervised encouraged obedience, promptness, etc..

62 Agents of socialization:
family -- the primary agent religion sports schools mass media peer groups workplace  

63 Family – Primary Socialization
1 - primary locus for procreation and socialization as well as the primary source of emotional support (functionalist might focus on this)  2 - family is where we acquire our specific social position in society  (symbolic interaction might examine role-taking) 3 - the socialization reproduces the class structure as it is passed to next generation (conflict theorists look at this)

64 Education: secondary socialization
1 - teaches specific knowledge, skills affects self-image, beliefs, values 2 - transmission of culture, social control selection, training, tracking 3 - “hidden curriculum”  poor schools versus wealthy schools – cultural capital in action

65 Media – informal agent The most pervasive form is TV / Facebook / Video games Book reports children (24.85) hours per week Nielson new report says new average is 5 hours a day per household and 151 hours per month!! 98 percent of U.S. households have at least one TV Story Telling through media Cultivation through the media creates a predisposition Cultivation through Media Provides information and introduces us to variety, an array of viewpoints, norms available in culture, entertainment…… Kids who watch 28 hours of TV a week will see 16,000 simulated murders and 200,000 acts of violence by the time he/she reaches 18 years of age!

66 Facebook :
There are over 800 million members Up to 50% of the members are online at any given time Approximately 250 million photos are uploaded everyday Average user is connected to 80 community pages and groups 75% of members are not American 350 million users access facebook through mobile devices

67 Media Critics argue….. Advertising is an informal agent of socialization and can lead to unrealistic, even destructive, gender role images. Kilbourne (1990) Advertisement Stereotypes in Advertising

68 Yet they constitute more than 30 percent of the population
Distortion of reality? Working class and poor are disproportionately represented with only 1.2% of the characters portrayed Yet they constitute more than 30 percent of the population

69 Minorities on TV Either under represented or presented as very rich or very poor

70 Women? As women age, they get less roles and those they get are of stereotypes, e.g., Witches, Mothers, Nuns, etc…

71 “Class Dismissed”
See all 8 episodes

72 1 - contribute to our sense of belonging -- self-worth
Peers People linked by common interests, equal social position and usually, similar ages 1 - contribute to our sense of belonging -- self-worth  2 - normative -- peer groups can have their own norms, attitudes, speech, and dress codes....

73 Technology Socialization – and technology – A good thing?????


75 Anticipatory socialization?
TV Movies teach teens what it is to be a young adult…. Also teach us what to fear – will see 200,000 acts of violence by 18 years of age

76 Role Models – Parents, Sports, Class

77 What is re-socialization (voluntary - involuntary)? “rite of passage”

78 Anticipatory & Resocialization
Rites of passage….. Say something about our social structure – Voluntary Rites of passage can create a sense of belonging….. Durkheim: “They hold society together and are often the site of the sacred in a given society.”

79 Rites of passage help ease our changes in status

80 Rites of Passage Involuntary
De-socialization often occurs before re-socialization “total institution”

81 Emotions Why do they fit in discussions about socialization?
Have you ever felt one way but expressed something different?

82 Emotions Defined “a bodily cooperation with an image, a thought,
a memory—a cooperation of which the individuals is usually aware.”

83 Structural View Kemper’s model: within social structures we have varying degrees of (power) authority and status (prestige or honor). Kemper essentially uses Weber’s notion of power. Changes in relative power result in the arousal of negative and positive emotions.

84 More power = satisfaction, security, and confidence
Less power = anxiety, fear and loss of confidence Status Shields

85 Result from situations that bring about physiological arousal
Primary Emotions Result from situations that bring about physiological arousal

86 Social Structure May Inhibit Certain Emotions……
Emotions are social objects experienced in public but felt in private There are emotion norms just as there are behavioral norms and we learn these via socialization “feeling rules”

87 Emotions are…… responses that have been institutionalized by society and transmitted through culture

88 Fear Anger Depression/Sadness Happiness

89 Feeling rules – Boundaries that delineate the privileges and obligations for what we must feel in a given situation – they provide direction for feelings and duration “a zone” she calls it.

90 Secondary Those emotions we learn to feel via feeling rules/emotion norms Guilt Proud Shame Embarrassment

91 Supposed to be Angry when insulted Calm and cool under pressure Happy at weddings Sad at funerals Rejoice at good news but not too much if it is at someone’s expense

92 Commercialization of feelings…
Leads to blocked authenticity Can lead to a new kind of alienation

93 Role Models from parents to sports
Another good film to consider

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