Presentation on theme: "The importance of positive versus negative"— Presentation transcript:
1The importance of positive versus negative Experiences in childhood
2Socialization Transforms Biological Organisms into Social Beings “Self”Our recognition that we are at once distinct and part of a whole
3If socialization makes us…. Then what does isolation do?= a dysfunctional selfFrom Pavlov’s Dogs toHarlow’s MonkeysSocial behavior is learned
4Can be seen as having three components Personality or “self”Can be seen as having three componentsCognitionEmotionBehavior
5Feral Children - “mythic” – legendary accounts Neglected Children “reality”Raised in relative isolation
6ANNA: In the late 1930s and 1940s a noted sociologist, Kingsley Davis, was called to investigate the case of Anna, a young girl who was the illegitimate daughter of a poor and mentally impaired mother who left Anna alone, locked in the attic. Anna’s mother had kept her locked up in an attic room to avoid Anna’s grandfather’s anger at her birth. Aside from brief visits to bring food, she had almost no human contact. When found, she was unable to walk or to speak. Her hearing and vision were normal. She seemed to show potential to learn and did desire human contact. She died at age 10Before her death, Anna learned to walk, understand simple commands, feed herself, and achieve some neatness. Although she seemed to show some potential to learn language, she spoke only in phrases, rather than complete sentences.She could bounce and catch a ball, string beads, identify a few colors, and build with blocks.When found, Anna had the mental capacity of a newborn infant. At her death she had achieved a mental level of approximately 2 to 3 years…
7GENIE: A more recent case from the 1970s teaches us a lot GENIE: A more recent case from the 1970s teaches us a lot. This is the case of Genie written about in your text. Extensive tests showed that in many ways Genie was highly intelligent.But her language abilities never advanced beyond that of a 3rd grader. Genie never became a truly social being. Eventually the scientists who worked with her concluded that the most severe deprivation that caused her to fail at language was her lack of emotional learning and her feelings of loss and lack of love. Genie was never fully capable of living independently and spent her life in a home for developmentally disable adults. (Genie was showcased, along with the famous case of Victor from France, in a video entitled “Secrets of a Wild Child,” available in our college library.)
8ISABELLE was 6½ years old when she was found ISABELLE was 6½ years old when she was found. Isabelle’s mother was a deaf mute (could not hear or talk) who stayed in a dark room with Isabelle, shut off from the rest of the family. Like Anna, Isabelle was in bad shape both physically and mentally. She spent most of her life in a room with her mother.For speech she made a strange croaking sound. (secret language?)She reacted to strangers, especially men, with much fear. She behaved like a deaf child, and her mental capacity was no more than that of a 6-month of baby.An intensive training program was started right away and gradually Isabelle began to respond. Then suddenly she began to learn rapidly.Two months – full sentences and Sixteen months - a vocabulary of 1,500-2,000 wordsHer I.Q. tripled in a year and a half.
9Spitz ResearchComparison of those raised in nursing home with those in orphanageMuch higher death rates for those left in the orphanages
10Skeels and Dye Research IQs increased by 28% over time with mentally disabled womenIQs decreased by 30% for those left in the Orphanage --Teaches us that cognitive development depends upon healthy socialization
11Stimulating interaction is essential for the development of “self” Socialization into a full sense of “self” requires group experience and social interaction to develop a normal human personality.Language (any kind we create) allows us to internalize and make sense of the culture surrounding us
12Social Psychological perspectives on the development of self Informed by sociology as well as psychology
13“totality of our beliefs and feelings about our selves” Self concept“totality of our beliefs and feelings about our selves”physical “I’m wrinkled”active “I’m good at soccer”social “I’m nice to dogs and elderly people”psychological “I am opposed to war”
14Self develops in three social stages MeadSelf develops in three social stagesImitation, play, game
15Mead“Without language there is no mind, therefore the mind itself is a social product.”Through socialization we learn to take the role of the “significant” other and then the “generalized” other.results in …..“I” and “Me”
16Cooley Looking Glass Self Society is internalized & becomes part of the self through the interaction
21Goffman We have virtual selves…… “If I were ever in a room with everyone I have ever known, I would not know who to be”…..Some call it “flexible”, others “mutable”
22Freud Civilization is dependent upon the control of impulse!
23impulsive drives and is present at birth Idimpulsive drives and is present at birththe id is supposed to be the instinct which gives rise to our more brutish, irrational behaviors
24Egolinks the self to the real world, mediating the drives of the id and the control of the superego.The ego is our cognitive system - i.e., our perceptions - it's what controls action and organizes our personalities
25Superego has three jobs to do – 1 - to inhibit the impulses of the id 2 - to persuade the ego to substitute moral goals for realistic ones3 - to strive for perfection.
26Erickson Life course socialization is about ego identity development is based on how we resolve our crisesFrom trust to integrity….
27Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust Positive outcome: If their needs are met consistently by the parents, infants not only will develop a secure attachment with the parents, but will learn to trust their environment in general as well.
28Negative outcome: If not, infant will develop mistrust towards people and things in their environment, even towards themselves.
29Crisis: Autonomy (Independence) vs. Doubt (or Shame) Description: Toddlers learn to walk, talk, use toilets, and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage.
30Positive outcome: If parents encourage their child's initiative and reassure when she makes mistakes, the child develop the confidence needed to cope with future situations
31Negative outcome: If parents are overprotective, or disapproving of the child's acts of independence, he/she may begin to feel ashamed doubt his/her abilities.
32Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt Description: Children have newfound power at this stage as they have developed motor skills and become more and more engaged in social interaction with people around them.
33Positive outcome: If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept without guilt, that certain things are not allowed, but at the same time will not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in make-believe role plays. .
34Crisis: Competence (aka. "Industry") vs. Inferiority Description: secondary socialization -- school is the important event at this stage. Children learn to make things, use tools, and acquire the skills to be a worker and a potential provider.
35Positive outcome: If children can discover pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being productive, seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence.
36Negative outcome: If not, they will develop a sense of inferiority.
37Crisis: Identity vs. Role Confusion Description: This is the time when we ask the question "Who am I?" Here, we must integrate the healthy resolution of all earlier conflicts. Did we develop the basic sense of trust? Do we have a strong sense of independence, competence, and feel in control of our lives? Adolescents who have successfully dealt with earlier conflicts are ready for the "Identity Crisis", which is considered by Erikson as the single most significant conflict a person must face. Positive outcome: come out of this stage with a strong identity, and ready to plan for the future. Negative outcome: sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices, especially about vocation, sexual orientation, and general roles.
38Crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation Description: In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. No matter how successful you are with your work, you are not complete until you are capable of intimacy. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship and may retreat into isolation.Positive outcome: close relationships and share with others if they have achieved a sense of identity.Negative outcome: fear commitment, feel isolated and unable to depend on anybody in the world.
39Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation Description: ability to look outside oneself and care for others --- adults need children as much as children need adults, and that this stage reflects the need to create a living legacy. Positive outcome: nurturing children or helping the next generation in other ways.Negative outcome: person remains self-centered and experience stagnation later in life.
40Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair Important Description: Old age is a time for reflecting upon one's own life and its role in the big scheme of thingsthe healthy adult will not fear death
41Note how each stage of Erickson’s Ego Identity Model is associated with varying agents of socialization (family, peers, education, media, etc...)
42Piaget’s “cognitive development” or “stages of learning” Sensorimotor - no symbolic thought “out of sight, out of mind”preoperational - begin to use to words as mental symbols to describe but not translatableconcrete operational – begin to take the role of others but limitedformal operational – moral reasoning – can think abstract thought, impute motives, consider justice
43Summary of Mead, Cooley, Freud, Erickson and Piaget Mead and Cooley - personality/self develops through role-taking and interaction (development is social)Freud - personality develops as inborn desires clash with social constraints (development is social but in response to biological drives)Erickson - stages of personality development change according to social constraints (highlights the development of self via stages)Piaget - learning occurs in stages as our ability to reason increases, i.e., moral reasoning (highlights the stages of learning - also very dependent upon socialization)
44Other seemingly natural aspects are also products of socialization Moral Reasoning…….Emotions……..
45“It’s our nature to nurture?” Couric Sociobiology?
46Kohlberg - moral development Pre-conventional Levelslittle concern for views of others - based on punishmentConventional Levelbehavior is dependent upon approvalwide approval is interpreted as right (significant others, peers)Looking glass self
47Post-conventional Level (few adults reach this stage) Morality is viewed in terms of individual rightsMoral conduct -- the final stage is judged byprinciples based on human rights that transcendgovernment and laws.
48Gender roles influence morality as well GilliganGender roles influence morality as well
49Men – often make decisions using notions of justice – What’s Fair? Women – often make decisions using notions of relationships -- who gets hurt the least?
50She identified Justice based reasoning as male Care-based reasoning as femaleStudies that have compared male and females have found examples of both. Some have found one factor is education.
51Gender Socialization (What is it to be male? Female?) The role of parents and schools in gender socialization
53Recent survey found….. Boys and Men are called upon more frequently College remains a “chilly” climate for women
54Gender Stereotypes associated with Men: AggressiveNo EmotionsLoudMessy??Are Men really Messy?AthleticMath and Science OrientedCEOMoney Maker
55Gender Stereotypes associated with Women: SubmissiveEmotionalQuietNeat/CleanClumsyArtsyHousewifeChild rearing
56Some quizzes to check out!! Early socializationKids say the funniest things....GenderRole ReversalRole reversal
57Racial SocializationWhat is it to be African American, Jewish, Italian, Hispanic, Asian, German, Scotch, Irish, Native American, etc..Rituals, Festivals, Food, Pop culture, Religion – all facilitate racial socialization – some facilitate negative racial socialization
58We Socialize our Children into the worlds we know Some children are taught early to demonstrate the following:obedience, neatness, cleanlinessWhich Social Class might this represent?
59Some children are taught early to demonstrate the following: Curiosity, happiness, and self-controlWhich Social Class might this represent?
60Instead, he looked closer at the occupations the parents held…. Kohn found that social class by itself was helpful but didn’t explain it all.Instead, he looked closer at the occupations the parents held….And sure enough…..
61Those with jobs that had autonomy… encouraged self expression etc.. Those heavily supervised encouraged obedience, promptness, etc..
62Agents of socialization: family -- the primary agentreligion sportsschools mass mediapeer groups workplace
63Family – Primary Socialization 1 - primary locus for procreation and socialization as well as the primary source of emotional support (functionalist might focus on this) 2 - family is where we acquire our specific social position in society (symbolic interaction might examine role-taking)3 - the socialization reproduces the class structure as it is passed to next generation (conflict theorists look at this)
64Education: secondary socialization 1 - teaches specific knowledge, skillsaffects self-image, beliefs, values2 - transmission of culture, social control selection, training, tracking3 - “hidden curriculum” poor schools versus wealthy schools –cultural capital in action
65Media – informal agentThe most pervasive form is TV / Facebook / Video gamesBook reports children (24.85) hours per weekNielson new report says new average is 5 hours a day per household and 151 hours per month!!98 percent of U.S. households have at least one TVStory Telling through mediaCultivation through the media creates a predispositionCultivation through MediaProvides information and introduces us to variety, an array of viewpoints, norms available in culture, entertainment……Kids who watch 28 hours of TV a week will see 16,000 simulated murders and 200,000 acts of violence by the time he/she reaches 18 years of age!
66Facebook http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics) : There are over 800 million membersUp to 50% of the members are online at any given timeApproximately 250 million photos are uploaded everydayAverage user is connected to 80 community pages and groups75% of members are not American350 million users access facebook through mobile devices
67Media Critics argue…..Advertising is an informal agent of socialization and can lead to unrealistic, even destructive, gender role images. Kilbourne (1990)AdvertisementStereotypes in Advertising
68Yet they constitute more than 30 percent of the population Distortion of reality?Working class and poor are disproportionately represented with only 1.2% of the characters portrayedYet they constitute more than 30 percent of the population
69Minorities on TVEither under represented or presented as very rich or very poor
70Women?As women age, they get less roles and those they get are of stereotypes, e.g.,Witches, Mothers, Nuns, etc…
71“Class Dismissed” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVu6ojB-cMg See all 8 episodes
721 - contribute to our sense of belonging -- self-worth PeersPeople linked by common interests, equal social position and usually, similar ages1 - contribute to our sense of belonging -- self-worth 2 - normative -- peer groups can have their own norms, attitudes, speech, and dress codes....
73Technology Socialization – and technology – A good thing?????
77What isre-socialization (voluntary - involuntary)?“rite of passage”
78Anticipatory & Resocialization Rites of passage…..Say something about our social structure – VoluntaryRites of passage can create a sense of belonging….. Durkheim:“They hold society together and are oftenthe site of the sacred in a given society.”
79Rites of passage help ease our changes in status
80Rites of Passage Involuntary De-socialization often occurs beforere-socialization“total institution”
81Emotions Why do they fit in discussions about socialization? Have you ever felt one way but expressed something different?
82Emotions Defined “a bodily cooperation with an image, a thought, a memory—a cooperation of which the individuals is usually aware.”
83Structural ViewKemper’s model: within social structures we have varying degrees of (power) authority and status (prestige or honor). Kemper essentially uses Weber’s notion of power. Changes in relative power result in the arousal of negative and positive emotions.
84More power = satisfaction, security, and confidence Less power = anxiety, fear and loss of confidenceStatus Shields
85Result from situations that bring about physiological arousal Primary EmotionsResult from situations that bring about physiological arousal
86Social Structure May Inhibit Certain Emotions…… Emotions are social objectsexperienced in public but felt in privateThere are emotion norms just as there are behavioral norms and we learn these via socialization“feeling rules”
87Emotions are……responses that have been institutionalized by society and transmitted through culture