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Examining Cultural Domains.  The Intercultural Development Continuum  Ethnocentric and Transitional Stages  Case Studies  Cultural Domains: A Framework.

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Presentation on theme: "Examining Cultural Domains.  The Intercultural Development Continuum  Ethnocentric and Transitional Stages  Case Studies  Cultural Domains: A Framework."— Presentation transcript:

1 Examining Cultural Domains

2  The Intercultural Development Continuum  Ethnocentric and Transitional Stages  Case Studies  Cultural Domains: A Framework for Recognizing Cultural Similarities  Back to the Intercultural Development Continuum  Culturally Relative Stages  Case Studies  Developing Culture-General knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) Overview

3 The Intercultural Development Continuum (IDC) Denial Polarization Defense/Reversal Minimization Acceptance Adaptation

4  Little to no recognition of complex cultural differences  Disinterested in or avoid cultural differences altogether  Tend to be narrow-minded and inward-looking as it relates to cultural differences Denial of Difference

5  Defense  Uncritical view of own cultural values and practices; overly critical view of cultural values and practices of others  Tend to see cultural differences as obstacles to overcome  Tend to have a sense of superiority that can lead to overconfidence Polarization

6  Reversal  Overly critical view of own cultural values and practices; uncritical view of other cultural values and practices  Tend to think that they are the “good guys” Polarization

7  Highlight common practices and universal values while masking cultural differences  Assume commonalities without fully recognizing cultural differences when present  May accurately recognize cultural commonalities and differences but may not fully deal with the differences  May overestimate own competence in dealing with cultural differences Minimization

8 Case Studies

9 FGM is generally defined as the practice of modifying the genitals of adolescent girls to remove parts of the clitoris and/or labia, although the definition covers many other practices such as constricting the vaginal opening through some type of stitching. Reasons cited for conducting FGM range from maintaining cleanliness, limiting female sexual pleasure (and thus limiting sexual activity outside marriage), controlling female virginity, raising or maintaining social status, and symbolically separating men and women through a rite of passage (where men also undergo genital modification, such as circumcision). In most cultures where FGM is practiced, older women (mothers, aunts, grandmothers) perform the modification on younger women, and it is often embraced by the women themselves. Due to international attention to FGM by human rights groups, the practice is receding in some cultures where it has been traditionally practiced, but it has become more deeply entrenched in other cultures as a symbol of traditional values. Female Genital Modification (FGM)

10 Socialism is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods are controlled substantially by the government rather than by private enterprise, and in which cooperation rather than competition guides economic activity. There are many varieties of socialism. Some socialists tolerate economic individualism (capitalism), as long as the government maintains the dominant influence over the economy, but others insist on an abolition of private enterprise. Socialism

11 Child beauty pageants are contests of beauty and talent held for girls up to age 12 (after which they may participate in “teen” pageants). In these pageants—which are modeled on adult beauty pageants—children are judged on appearance in several outfits, poise, self-confidence, and performance in activities such as dancing and singing. Child pageants in this form began in the United States and have become popular in many other cultures, particularly in Western Europe. Reasons parents cite for participation in this practice include the benefits gained from learning self- presentation skills and from learning about competition at an early age. Critics of the practice believe that pageants reward girls for their beauty, but not their intelligence, and that pageants encourage girls to act more mature than the culture perceives as normal for children of their age. Child Beauty Pageants

12  Universal categories of knowledge, beliefs, and behavior across all populations  Family  Marriage  Religion  Art  Political System  Sport and Recreation  Language / Communcation  Economic Systems Cultural Domains

13  Similarities related to family  Marriage  Where we live when we leave home  Who our children marry  Who we do business with  Who we work for  Who we socialize with Family

14  What people want from religion  Explanation for the unknown  To find meaning for life  Reduction in fear and anxiety  Hope and inspiration  A playbook for conduct and behavior  Similarities related to religion  Supernatural agents  Concept of taboo  Sacred places  Religious specialists  Rituals  Rites of passage Religion

15  Religious Specialists  Priests or priestesses  Preachers  Bishops  Elders  Shaman  Mediums  Sorcerers  Witches Religion

16  Similarities among political systems  Organizational patterns  State systems  States vs. nations  Ways cultures are organized politically  Centralized vs. decentralized  Band  Tribe  Chiefdom Political Systems

17 Denial Polarization Defense/Reversal Minimization Acceptance Adaptation Back to the IDC

18  Recognize/appreciate patterns of cultural difference/commonality in own and other cultures  Curious and interested in cultural differences  Acknowledge relevance of culture and cultural context but are unclear on how to appropriately adapt to cultural difference  Aware of cultural differences, but are still developing intercultural skills Acceptance

19  Able to shift cultural perspectives and change behavior in culturally appropriate ways  Tend to have an increased repertoire of cultural frameworks and behaviors  Function effectively and appropriately in situations that call for cross-cultural competence. Adaptation

20 Case Studies

21 The marriage of what Americans define as “first cousins”—the children of one’s aunts or uncles—is an accepted cultural practice in many cultures, including some European cultures. On the one hand, people of those cultures do not believe that such marriages produce more children with physical or mental disabilities than other marriages, and scientific research shows little statistical differences in the disability rates of children from both kinds of marriages. On the other hand, there are also cultural reasons for practicing first cousin marriage. Some of these reasons include the desire to maintain or increase alliances, to maintain family wealth through the mother’s lineage or the father’s lineage, or to maintain specific bloodlines (such as “royal” bloodlines). In addition, in some languages, the people whom we call “cousin,” “aunt,” and “uncle” are called by distinct terms depending on whether they are from one’s mother’s or father’s side of the family. For example, the sisters and brothers of one’s mother’s brother may have a different title than a girl born to one’s father’s brother, etc. These naming rules usually help people determine who is a possible marriage partner according to their particular cultural traditions. First Cousin Marriage

22 Also called polytheism, this practice refers to the belief in and/or worship of more than one deity who is believed to control aspects of nature and human behavior. The practice has variations between cultures, such as those who believe that many gods are a part of a supreme being, those who worship one god but accept the existence of many gods, those who hold that gods are synonymous with natural forces, and those who hold that gods have human personality traits or are spirits of one’s ancestors. It is often contrasted with monotheism, which is the belief in one omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being. Approximately 30% of the world’s population practices some form of polytheism. Belief in and Worship of Multiple Gods

23 In many cultures, people are defined as sex offenders if they have been convicted of “sexually violent offences against adults and children and certain sexual contact and other crimes against victims who are minors” ( Sex offenders in these countries are often required to register with local and national government authorities so the authorities can keep track of their residence and activities. Some local governments restrict the activities of registered sex offenders, defining where they can live and whether they can participate in certain activities, such as using the internet. This practice may reflect the growing public awareness about sexual crimes and the value placed on the justice system as a means of controlling society. Registration of Sex Offenders

24  Relationship between IDC and cross-cultural competence  Relationship between cultural domains and cross-cultural competence Developing KSAs

25  The Intercultural Development Continuum  Cultural Domains: A Framework for Recognizing Cultural Similarities  Back to the Intercultural Development Continuum  Developing Culture-General KSAs Summary

26  Prepare for Lesson # 10  Setting the World Stage Homework

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