2What We Will Learn What is religion? What functions does religion perform for the individual and the society as a whole?What different forms does religion take among the societies of the world?What role does religion play in the process of culture change?
3Defining ReligionA set of beliefs in supernatural forces directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve problems.All forms of religion are founded on a belief in the supernatural.
4Religion in Societies All societies have: Religious rituals that appease supernatural forcesSets of beliefs concerning what we would call the soulNotions about life after death
5Religion in SocietiesEvangelist Timothy J. Keller thrives in Manhattan by embracing the city and identifying with its culture.
6ReligionAnimismBelief that people have souls or spirits in addition to physical, visible bodies.PolytheismThe belief in the existence of many gods.MonotheismThe belief in only one god.
7ReligionAnimatismBelief in a generalized, impersonal power over which people have some measure of control.ManaAn impersonal supernatural force, inhabiting certain people or things, which is believed to confer power, strength, and success.
8Question______ is a set of beliefs in supernatural beings and forces directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve important problems.BeliefReligionRitualSuperstition
9Answer: bReligion is a set of beliefs in supernatural beings and forces directed at helping people make sense of the world and solve important problems.
10Supernatural HealingA traditional healer from Jamaica uses supernatural powers.
11MagicVodoo, a form of imitative magic, is practiced in Togo.
12MagicSupernatural beliefs that involve manipulation of supernatural forces to intervene in human activities and natural events.Imitative magicBased on the idea that the procedure performed resembles the desired result.Contagious magicBased on the premise that things, once in contact with a person continue to influence that person after separation.
13Sorcery and Witchcraft Witchcraft is an inborn, involuntary, and often unconscious capacity to cause harm to other people.Sorcery is the performance of certain magical rites for the purpose of harming other people.
14Wicca A modern-day movement of witches and pagans. Covens are local groups of witches found in major cities in the United States, which are presided over by high priestesses.Satanists are individuals belonging to a group of people who worship Satan.
15WiccaLed by Amy Krinner, a coven of Wiccans practices magic in Bayshore, New York.
16Question_______ involves the manipulation of supernatural forces for the purpose of intervening in a wide range of human activities and natural events.MagicWitchcraftSorceryReligion
17Answer: aMagic involves the manipulation of supernatural forces for the purpose of intervening in a wide range of human activities and natural events.
18QuestionUnlike magic or witchcraft, ________, stories of a culture's gods, their origins, and such, serve to explain the large questions surrounding human existence.legendsmythsreligiontales
19Answer: bUnlike magic or witchcraft, myths, stories of a culture's gods, their origins, and such, serve to explain the large questions surrounding human existence.
20Myths Sacred literature that states certain religious truths. Include stories of the gods, their origins, their activities, and the moral injunctions they teach.A culture’s mythology is closely connected to its moral and social order.
21Social Functions of Religion Social controlConflict resolutionIntensifying group solidarity
22Psychological Functions of Religion CognitiveProvides an intellectual framework for explaining parts of our world that we do not understand.EmotionalHelps reduce anxiety by prescribing straightforward ways of coping with stress.
23QuestionBy helping individuals cope with the anxieties often accompanying deaths, accidents, illnesses and other misfortunes, religion serves a/an:group identity function.cognitive function.positive function.emotional function.
24Answer: dBy helping individuals cope with the anxieties often accompanying deaths, accidents, illnesses and other misfortunes, religion serves a/an emotional function.
25Classifying Religions: Anthony Wallace Wallace identified four principal patterns of religious organization based on what he calls cults.Wallace uses the term cult to refer to forms of religion that have their own set of beliefs, rituals, and goals.This use of the term should not be confused with the definition used to refer to an antisocial religious group that brainwashes its members before leading them to mass suicide.
26Classifying Religions: Anthony Wallace Four forms of religious organization:Individualistic cultsShamanistic cultsCommunal cultsEcclesiastical cults
27Individualistic Cults The least complex form of religious organization in which each person is his or her own religious specialist.Vision questA ritual found among a number of Plains Indian cultures wherein through visions people establish special relationships with spirits who provide them with knowledge, power, and protection.
28Shamanistic CultsForms of religion in which part-time religious specialists called shamans intervene with the deities on behalf of their clients.ShamanA part-time religious specialist who is thought to have supernatural powers by virtue of birth, training, or inspiration.
29ShamansPiaroa Indian shaman Miguel Ochoa is pictured here with medicinal plants gathered from the jungle village of Aska aja, near Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela.
30Communal CultsSocieties in which groups of ordinary people conduct religious ceremonies for the well-being of the total community.Rites of passageAny ceremony celebrating the transition of a person from one social status to another.Rites of solidarityAny ceremony performed for the sake of enhancing of social integration.
31Ecclesiastical CultsHighly complex religious systems employing full-time priests.Ecclesiastical cults are characterized by full-time professional clergy, who are formally elected or appointed and devote all or most of their time to performing priestly functions.Unlike shamans who conduct rituals during times of crisis or when their services are needed, these full-time priests conduct rituals that occur at regular intervals.
32QuestionThe most complex form of religion is the ________, which is commonly found in societies with state systems of government.individual cultcommunal cultecclesiastical cultshamanistic cult
33Answer: cThe most complex form of religion is the ecclesiastical cult, which is commonly found in societies with state systems of government.
35Rabbi Naamah KelmanRabbi Naamah Kelman, the first female rabbi to be ordained in Israel, is a full time religious specialist who works within a hierarchical organization.
36Number of Adherents of Major World Religions MillionsChristian2106Roman Catholic1105Protestant369Orthodox218Anglican79Independent416
37Number of Adherents of Major World Religions MillionsBahai7.5Buddhist375Hindu851Jewish15Muslim1283New Religionists107
38Characteristics of Different Religious Organizations Role SpecializationSubsistenceExampleIndividualisticNoneFood collectorCrow vision questShamanisticPart-timeFood collector PastoralismTungus shamanism
39Characteristics of Different Religious Organizations Role SpecializationSubsistenceExampleCommunalPerform rites for communityHorticultureTotemistic ritualsEcclesiasticalFull-timeHorticulture/ PastoralismChristianity and Buddhism
40Religion in the U.S.Summary of the findings of two recent surveys on religion in America:Roman Catholicism is the largest single religious group, comprising 24% of the adult population.Anglicans, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant churches, comprising some 220 denominations, represent 36% of the adult population.
41Religion in the U.S.Summary of the findings of two recent surveys on religion in America:Approximately 1.5% of the population is Jewish.The Islamic religion is the fastest-growing organized religion in the United States.The percentage of adults identifying with a religious group dropped from 90% in 1990 to 81% in 2001.The fastest-growing group in the U.S. Is those who do not identify with any specific religion; this group went from 14.3 million in 1990 to 29.4 million in 2001.
42Globalization of Religion Cardinal Bernardin Gantin represents a part of the world that is growing rapidly in the number of people practicing Catholicism.
43Liberation TheologyA form of Catholicism found throughout South and Central America in which priests and nuns became actively involved in programs for social justice for the poor.
44Religious Forces of Social Change Nativistic movements, found among American Indians.Cargo cults, found in Melanesia.Separatist Christian churches are small-scale churches that break away from the dominant church to gain greater political, economic, social, and religious autonomy.
45Religious Forces of Social Change Mahdist movements is a term to describe revitalization movements in the Muslim world.Millenarian movements found in Christian areas of the world.
46Revitalization Movements Aim to add new life and purpose into the society.Tend to occur during times of cultural stress brought about by:rapid changeforeign dominationperceived deprivation
47Religious Nationalism A phenomenon that is occurring in many parts of the world today in which traditional religious principles are merged with the workings of government.
48Religion and Nationalism On July 4, 2006, this Statue of Liberation Through Christ was consecrated at a fundamentalist church in Memphis, Tennessee, as a way of demonstrating their belief that Christianity is the foundation of American society.