Presentation on theme: "Emmaus Revisited: A Look at the Eucharist Norman R. Guivens, Jr. ’79 Presentation to Tech Catholic Community’s “TCC Monday Night” 17 October 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Emmaus Revisited: A Look at the Eucharist Norman R. Guivens, Jr. ’79 Presentation to Tech Catholic Community’s “TCC Monday Night” 17 October 2011
NRG/17Oct2011/2 Motivation for Topic – Second Vatican Council, Sacred Constitution Sacrosanctum concillium, No. 14 Mother Church earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that fully conscious, and active participation in liturgical celebrations which is demanded by the very nature of the liturgy. Such participation by the Christian people as "a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people (1 Pet. 2:9; cf. 2:4-5), is their right and duty by reason of their baptism. In the restoration and promotion of the sacred liturgy, this full and active participation by all the people is the aim to be considered before all else; for it is the primary and indispensable source from which the faithful are to derive the true Christian spirit; and therefore pastors of souls must zealously strive to achieve it, by means of the necessary instruction, in all their pastoral work.
NRG/17Oct2011/3 The Emmaus Narrative (Luke 24:13-35)
NRG/17Oct2011/4 Background – Gospel of Luke Addressed to “Theophilus” –Meaning: “Beloved of God” –A specific individual or an appellation of the reader or listener? Writer –Physician (Colossians 4:14) and companion of St. Paul (Colossians 4:14, 2 Timothy 4:11, Philemon 1:24) –Apparently not first-hand witness to historical life of Jesus Written c. 75-85 A. D. Apparent Source Material –Gospel of Mark (written c. 65 AD) – contains about half verbatim –Additional unknown source shared with Gospel of Matthew, called “Q” (from German “Quelle”=“Source”), which may be oral
NRG/17Oct2011/5 Outline of Emmaus Narrative Setting –Road out of Jerusalem –Day of resurrection Apparent Chance Encounter –Two disciples who know of the empty tomb –Apparent stranger who seems unaware Journey Together –“Stranger” explains texts of scripture to disciples who did not understand them Arrival at Emmaus –“Stranger” apparently going on until invited to stay Dinner –“Stranger” took bread, gave thanks (“eucharist”), broke it, and gave it to them –Recognized stranger as Jesus, who then vanished (“Aha!” moment) “Go Forth,” Returning to Jerusalem, to Tell Others of Event/Experience
NRG/17Oct2011/6 Basic Structure – Eucharistic Liturgy The Mass is made up, as it were, of two parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist. These, however, are so closely interconnected that they form but one single act of worship. For in the Mass the table both of God's word and of Christ's Body is prepared, from which the faithful may be instructed and refreshed. There are also certain rites that open and conclude the celebration. – General Instructions to the Roman Missal (GIRM), 3 rd Ed., No. 28
NRG/17Oct2011/7 Exegetical Nuances… “Emmaus” –Meaning of name: “warm spring” –Described in text as “60 stadia” (~7 miles) from Jerusalem –Curiously, no known location that fits description Disciples – NOT Apostles (!) –“Cleopas,” who curiously appears nowhere else in scripture (but sometimes confused with “Clopas”…) –Unnamed disciple (reader/listener?) “Breaking of the Bread” or “Breaking Bread” –Scriptural Term for the Celebration of the Eucharist Phrase “Eyes Were Opened” –Appears eight times in new testament –Always indicates deeper understanding of spiritual matters
NRG/17Oct2011/8 Gathering to Celebrate the Eucharist
NRG/17Oct2011/9 The Gathering [Jesus said,] “For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.” – Matthew 18:20 Now that same day two of them were going to a village called Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem. They were talking with each other about everything that had happened. As they talked and discussed these things, Jesus came up and walked along with them; but they were kept from recognizing him. – Luke 24:13-15
NRG/17Oct2011/10 Who Gathers? Fundamentally, Gathering of Disciples as Body of Christ –Custom of crossing one’s self with baptismal water, accompanied by silent “In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,” when entering oratory –First spoken words of mass: “In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.” Catechumens in Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA) –Customarily dismissed before general intercessions Visitors Sometimes Present –Members/representatives of other Christian denominations –Non-Christians, sometimes including representatives of non- Christian religious bodies
NRG/17Oct2011/11 Normal Introductory Rites Entrance of Ministers –Either simple or procession Sign of the Cross Greeting & Introduction Act of Penance & Kyrie [Gloria] Opening Prayer (“Collect”) –Pause after “Let us pray[…].” for silent individual intentions –Prayer “collects” individual intentions Their purpose is to ensure that the faithful who come together as one establish communion and dispose themselves to listen properly to God's word and to celebrate the Eucharist worthily. – GIRM, 3 rd Ed., No. 46 Note: Often Omitted, per Liturgical Directives, when Combining Mass with Another Celebration.
NRG/17Oct2011/13 Proclamation of the Word of God Beginning, then, with Moses and all the prophets, [Jesus] interpreted for them every passage of scripture that referred to him. – Luke 24:27 For in the readings, as explained by the homily, God speaks to his people, opening up to them the mystery of redemption and salvation and offering them spiritual nourishment; and Christ himself is present in the midst of the faithful through his word. – GIRM, 3 rd Ed., No. 55
NRG/17Oct2011/14 Who Is the Word of God? “For just as from the heavens the rain and snow come down and do not return there until they have watered the earth, making it fertile and fruitful, giving seed to those who sow and bread to those who eat, so shall my word be that goes forth from my mouth. It shall not return to me void, but shall do my will, achieving the end for which I sent it.” – Isaiah 55:10-11 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was in God’s presence, and the Word was God.… The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us, and we have seen his glory: the glory of an only Son coming from the Father, full of enduring love. – John 1:1,14
NRG/17Oct2011/15 The Liturgy of the Word First Reading Responsorial Psalm [Second Reading] [Sequence] [Alleluia Verse (Verse Before the Gospel during Lent)] Gospel Procession Gospel Reading Homily [Creed] [Dismissal of Catechumens] General Intercessions (“Prayers of the Faithful”)
NRG/17Oct2011/16 Organization of the Lectionary for Mass Sunday Sequence –Semicontinuous reading of epistles or Revelation (second reading) and gospels over cycle of 3 years, with appropriate texts set aside for major festivals and privileged seasons –First reading from Acts during Easter season; otherwise chosen from old testament to complement the gospel reading Weekday Sequence –Semicontinuous reading of all four gospels every year –Semicontinuous reading of the rest of the old and new testaments (first reading) over two years Special Readings Provided for Festivals and for Ritual and Votive Masses –Often not used on minor occasions to preserve continuity of regular readings in regular cycle
NRG/17Oct2011/17 Manner of Proclamation of the Word The Liturgy of the Word is to be celebrated in such a way as to promote meditation, and so any sort of haste that hinders recollection must clearly be avoided. During the Liturgy of the Word, it is also appropriate to include brief periods of silence, accommodated to the gathered assembly, in which, at the prompting of the Holy Spirit, the word of God may be grasped by the heart and a response through prayer may be prepared. It may be appropriate to observe such periods of silence, for example, before the Liturgy of the Word itself begins after the first and second reading, and lastly at the conclusion of the homily. – GIRM, 3 rd Ed., No. 56
NRG/17Oct2011/18 Other Elements – Liturgy of the Word Homily –Should explain scriptures of the day and relate to daily life –“Not to be omitted without serious reason on Sundays and holy days of obligation” (Council of Trent) Profession of Faith –Customarily Nicene Creed –May use Apostle’s Creed in “masses with children” Dismissal of Catechumens General Intercessions (“Prayers of the Faithful”) –Should reflect both global vision and local needs of congregation –Wording to permit universal affirmation –Wording also to be consistent with response of congregation –Specific petitions for marriages, baptisms, etc., within the mass
NRG/17Oct2011/20 The “Breaking of the Bread” When he had seated himself with them to eat, he took bread, pronounced the blessing, then broke the bread and began to distribute it to them. – Luke 24:30 [At the last supper, our] Lord (1) took bread; (2) ‘gave thanks’ over it; (3) broke it, (4) distributed it, saying certain words. Later, he (5) took a cup, (6) ‘gave thanks’ over that; (7) handed it to his disciples, saying certain words…. With absolute unanimity the liturgical tradition reproduces these seven actions as four: (1) The offertory;… (2) The prayer;… (3) The fraction;… (4) The communion. – Dom Gregory Dix, The Shape of the Liturgy, A&C Black, London, 1945 (Reprinted 1986), p.48.
NRG/17Oct2011/21 The Liturgy of the Eucharist 1. At the Preparation of the Gifts, the bread and the wine with water are brought to the altar, the same elements that Christ took into his hands. 2. In the Eucharistic Prayer, thanks is given to God for the whole work of salvation, and the offerings become the Body and Blood of Christ. 3. Through the fraction and through Communion, the faithful, though they are many, receive from the one bread the Lord's Body and from the one chalice the Lord's Blood in the same way the Apostles received them from Christ's own hands. – GIRM, 3 rd Ed., No. 72 (red color added)
NRG/17Oct2011/22 What Is the Body of Christ? You are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it. – I Corinthians 12:27 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you: The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, "This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me." – I Corinthians 11:23-24
NRG/17Oct2011/23 The Liturgy of the Eucharist Preparatory Rites (“Offertory”) –Bread and wine brought to altar and prepared –Washing of Hands –Prayer Over the Offerings Anaphora (“Eucharistic Prayer”) –(See Next Chart) Communion Rite –Lord’s Prayer, with embolism and doxology –Sign of Peace –Fraction (actual breaking of the bread for distribution) –Distribution of communion –Prayer after communion
NRG/17Oct2011/24 Standard Form of the Anaphora Opening Dialog Prefacio (“Coming Before”) Sanctus Veri Sanctus Epiclesis [over Gifts] Institution Narrative Memorial Acclamation Anemnesis Offering [Epiclesis over People] Petitions Doxology Great Amen “Berakah” (Jewish Blessing) –Address God –Recount God’s deeds of past –Ask God to do deeds of past again “Center and Summit of Celebration” (GIRM No. 78) Prayer of Whole Church –Said aloud by principal celebrant, except petitions by assigned concelebrants –Prayed silently by others, except acclamations aloud
NRG/17Oct2011/25 Distribution of Communion It is most desirable that the faithful, just as the priest himself is bound to do, receive the Lord's Body from hosts consecrated at the same Mass and that, in the instances when it is permitted, they partake of the chalice, so that even by means of the signs Communion will stand out more clearly as a participation in the sacrifice actually being celebrated. – GIRM, 3 rd Ed., No. 85 Holy Communion has a fuller form as a sign when it is distributed under both kinds. For in this form the sign of the eucharistic banquet is more clearly evident and clear expression is given to the divine will by which the new and eternal Covenant is ratified in the Blood of the Lord, as also the relationship between the Eucharistic banquet and the eschatological banquet in the Father's Kingdom. – GIRM, 3 rd Ed., No. 281
NRG/17Oct2011/26 Tangent: The Eucharist as Sacrifice
NRG/17Oct2011/27 Sacrifice in the Jewish Tradition Manner of Offering –Animal slaughtered and blood poured out, then meat cooked –More succulent (that is, fattier) parts burned as God’s portion –Those offering sacrifice partake of offering in ritual meal Theological Concept: Atonement (At-One-Ment) –Healing of rift due to sin, which allows… –Table fellowship with God in sacrificial meal Blood of Animal NOT Consumed –Blood = life; forbidden to take on life of animals! Note Special Character of Passover Sacrifice (Exodus 12:1-11) –Offered by family in homes; NOT in temple –No priests –Blood of animals sprinkled on doorposts
NRG/17Oct2011/28 Sacrificial Aspects of The Eucharist Calvary = Ultimate Sacrifice (See Hebrews 9:11-15) –Fruits: flesh and blood of Christ, made present in Eucharist Greek Concept of Anamnesis –No real equivalent in English, so often inadequately translated as “memorial” or “remembrance” –Embodies concept of “making present” – past event becomes present reality in the recounting and retelling –Thus, represents present participation in past event –Bread => flesh (“body”) of Christ, wine => blood (“life”) of Christ in present reality (classical philosophy: “transubstantiation”) Communion = Sacrificial Banquet of Jewish Tradition –But major difference: blood consumed => taking on the life (temporal ministry, eternal life) of Jesus
NRG/17Oct2011/30 The Conclusion Then… he disappeared from their sight.… They got up and returned at once to Jerusalem.… Then the two told what had happened on the way, and how they recognized Jesus when he broke the bread. – Luke 24:31-35 “Go in peace to love and serve the Lord.” – Dismissal, form C, in Roman Missal
NRG/17Oct2011/31 Normal Concluding Rite Announcements Blessing –May use “solemn blessings” and “prayers over the faithful” as appropriate, especially on Sundays and major festivals –Concludes with “… in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” Dismissal Departure of Ministers Note: May Be Omitted, per Liturgical Directives, when Combining Mass with Another Celebration. Character should be that of empowering faithful to go forth and bear witness to the gospel.
NRG/17Oct2011/33 Observations Clear Parallel Between Emmaus Narrative and Modern Eucharist (Mass, Divine Liturgy, etc.) –Same basic elements in same order –Many good theological insights But Several Unanswered Questions for Further Reflection… –What is significance of “warm spring” (Emmaus)? –What is significance of journey during sharing of Word of God? –Why are scriptures explained to “disciples” rather than apostles? –What is significance of Jesus vanishing from the disciples’ sight? –What is significance of disciples running back to Jerusalem? –Why no mention of chalice/wine in Emmaus narrative?