Presentation on theme: "Spirituality, Religion, and the Supernatural"— Presentation transcript:
1Spirituality, Religion, and the Supernatural Chapter 13Spirituality, Religion, and the Supernatural
2WorldviewThe collective body of ideas that members of a culture generally share concerning the ultimate shape and substance of their reality.
3Religion Organized belief in the supernatural. Fulfill numerous social and psychological needs.No known group of people anywhere on the face of the earth, at any time over the past 100,000 years, have been without religion.
4What Are Religion and Spirituality? Religion is an organized system of ideas about spiritual reality, or the supernatural, along with associated beliefs and ceremonial practices.Spirituality, which also concerns the supernatural, involves less formalized spiritual beliefs and practices and is often individual rather than collective.
5Religion All cultures have religion Deals with supernatural on some levelSome cultures do not have a specific word for religion, it is tied to everyday lifeReligion is tied to the natural world
6Religion and Symbols Religion has symbols Actions, words, ideas, objects that represent something elseSymbols put together become a system of knowledge
7Myths Sacred stories with supernatural explanations A culture will see their myths as realUsually concerns ideology and worldview
8Rituals Anything you do in a repetitive nature Religion has rituals 2 types of ritualsCalendricCrisis
9SupernaturalThe supernatural is around you all of the time, especially in non-industrialized societiesIn a lot of cultures, health, wealth and daily things are related to supernatural.
10Forms of ReligionAnimatism – impersonal – impersonal power that exists out there – does not care about peopleDeitys – Cares about peopleDifferent formsAnthropomorphicZoomorphicBiomorphicMost cultures are polytheistic
11Dealing with Supernatural Religion per se system – supernatural very removed and powerfulMagic per se system – deals with things on a small scaleUses recipes2 ways to use magic –Contagious – obtain something from a personImitative – imitate desired effect
12Functions of Religion Explain things Establish order Justifies things Provides supportSocializes peopleVehicle for passage
13Theories of ReligionCognitive – give sense of meaning and purpose to the worldPsychological – how people cope with stressSocial Function – Looks at socialization and cohesiveness. Promotes conformity.
14Non-industrial Cultures Supernatural intervenes all of the timeBreaking a tabooAngered ancestor spiritSomeone using magic
15Levels of ReligionIndividualistic – individual has direct contact with supernaturalShamanistic – Shaman(s) deals with supernaturalCommunal system – a lot of part-time specialistsAncestor worshipTotem worship
16Levels of Religion (con’t) Ecclesiastical – religious bureaucracy. Full-time religious specialists
17Examples of Religion Australian Aborigines and Dream Time Maori of New Zealand
19Anthropological Approach to Religion Religion is an organized system of ideas about the spiritual sphere, along with ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and/or influence aspects of the universe otherwise beyond their control.Spirituality is also concerned with the sacred, as distinguished from material matters, but it is often individual rather than collective and does not require a distinctive format or traditional organization.
20PolytheismBelief in several gods and/or goddesses (as contrasted with monotheism–belief in one god or goddess).PantheonThe several gods and goddesses of a people.AnimismA belief in spirit beings thought to animate nature.
21Judeo-Christian Theology The patriarchal nature of Euramerican society is expressed in its Judeo-Christian theology, in which a supreme male deity gives life to the first man, as depicted here on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. Only later is the first woman created from the first man.
22Sacred PlacesPilgrims at Mount Kailash in Tibet. Rising 22,000 feet, this mountain has been held sacred for thousands of years by Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and followers of Bön.Year after year pilgrims follow the ancient tradition of circling the mountain on foot, a holy ritual they believe will remove sin and bring good fortune.
23Rites of PassageArnold Van Gennep rites of passage into the following:Rites of separationRites of transitionRites of incorporation
24Rites of Passage Rites of separation Rites of transition In rites of passage, the ritual removal of the individual from society.Rites of transitionIn rites of passage, isolation of the individual following separation and prior to incorporation into society.
25Rites of Passage Rites of incorporation Rites of intensification In rites of passage, reincorporation of the individual into society in his or her new status.Rites of intensificationReligious rituals enacted during a group’s real or potential crisis.
26Rites of Intensification Rituals to mark occasions of crisis in the life of the group.Functions:Unite people.Allay fear of the crisis.Prompt collective action.
27WitchcraftAn explanation of events based on the belief that certain individuals possess an innate psychic power capable of causing harm, including sickness and death.DivinationA magical procedure for determining the cause of a particular event, such as illness, or foretelling the future.
28Functions of Witchcraft Effective way for people to explain away personal misfortune without having to shoulder any of the blame themselves.Provides an outlet for feelings of hostility and frustration without disturbing the norms of the larger group.
29Revitalization Movements Social movements, often of a religious nature, with the purpose of totally reforming a society.
30SufismA Sufi sema (prayer dance) in Istanbul, Turkey. Sufism, a mystical Muslim movement that emerged in the late 10th century, borrowing ideas from Buddhism, Christianity, and Neoplatonism, emphasizes the surrender of individual ego and attachment to worldly things in order to be receptive to God’s grace.
31Cargo CultSpiritual movements in Melanesia in reaction to disruptive contact with Western capitalism promising resurrection of deceased relatives, destruction or enslavement of white foreigners, and the magical coming of utopian riches.