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SPINA BIFIDA Presentation and Management of

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Presentation on theme: "SPINA BIFIDA Presentation and Management of"— Presentation transcript:

1 SPINA BIFIDA Presentation and Management of
Patients at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children Dallas, TX Susan McGuire, DDS April 19, 2013

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatric
Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX Assistant Director, Special Needs Dental Clinic, Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, TX

3 SPINA BIFIDA Overview of Condition
Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children Medical Management Dental Management

4 Spina Bifida One of most common congenital birth defects
1-2 per 1000 births worldwide births in USA annually Prevalence Hispanics>Caucasians>African Americans Girls>Boys Overview

5 Formation of Neural Tube
During the first 3-4 weeks, specific cells form a narrow tube that becomes the foundation of the spinal cord, brain bone and tissues. At 28 days of gestation, neural tube closed. If the tube does not close properly anywhere along its entire length, then a neural tube defect will form at the open location. Overview

6 Etiologies 95% do not have any family history Maternal
Age Obesity Diabetes Seizure medications Folic acid deficiencies 0.4 mg/day Overview 6

7 Diagnosis in utero Measurement of maternal serum alpha- fetoprotein (MSAFP) If elevated at weeks of gestation can indicate defects Ultrasound examination 18 weeks Amniocentesis Use amniotic fluid alpha fetoprotein (AFAFP) and acetylcholinesterase (AFAChE) to confirm Overview

8 Neural Tube Defects Affect the brain’s development and leave the spinal cord vulnerable to damage Paralyze or weaken associated muscles and affect organs Two Types Closed Open Overview

9 Closed Neural Tube Defects
Localized and confined to the spine; brain rarely affected Neural tissue not exposed; spinal defect fully covered by skin May remain undetected for years, especially in absence of cutaneous markers Types: Lipomyelomeningocele Lipomeningocele Tethered cord Overview

10 Open Neural Tube Defects
Involve the entire CNS Neural tissue exposed with associated CSF leakage Skin covering not intact Visible at birth; majority discovered during pregnancy Overview

11 Spina Bifida Characterized by the incomplete development of the brain, spinal cord and/or meninges Nerves located below malformation are affected, resulting in loss of sensation and paralysis. Complications may be minor physical problems to severe physical and mental disabilities. Types: Anencephaly Occulta Meningocele Myelomeningocele Overview

12 Spina Bifida Occulta Mildest and most common form
One or more vertebrae are malformed Opening in spine is covered by a layer of skin. Rarely causes disabilities or symptoms Often undetected unless visible exterior sign is present Tuft of hair, dimple, birthmark, bulge at site of malformation Overview

13 Meningocele Meninges protrude from the spinal opening
May or may not be symptomatic Noticeable bulge on back Repaired surgically Usually no resultant paralysis Overview

14 Myelomeningocele Most severe and rarest form
Occurs when the spinal cord is exposed through the opening in the spine Results in partial or complete paralysis of the parts of the body below the spinal opening Overview

15 Treatment of Spina Bifida
Surgery to close defect within 24 to 48 hours of birth Medical Management 15

16 Treatment of Spina Bifida
Before surgery, the child must handled carefully to reduce further damage to exposed spinal cord Lifelong treatment for other organ system disturbances secondary to damage to spinal cord or spinal nerves Medical Management 16

17 Team Approach to Management at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital (TSR)
Neurosurgeon Developmental Pediatrician Neurologist Urologist Orthopedic Surgeon Dentist Other services involved: Psychology, Child Life, Orthotics, PT, OT, Dietary, Family Services Medical Management

18 Associated Impairments
Arnold-Chiari II malformation Hydrocephalus Seizure disorders Bladder and bowel incontinence Musculoskeletal Deformities Learning disabilities Altered wound healing Latex allergy/risk Medical Management

19 Arnold-Chiari II Malformation
Downward displacement of the cerebellum, cerebral tonsils, brainstem, and 4th ventricle through the foramen magnum and into cervical space Results in compression and elongation of nerves and tissue responsible for vital functions including respirations and protective reflexes Medical Management

20 Arnold-Chiari II Malformation
Normal Malformation Medical Management

21 Arnold-Chiari II Malformation
Symptomatic in about 33% of affected persons Difficulty swallowing Inspiratory stridor Stiffness or spasticity of arms or hands Poor balance and coordination Leading cause of death in spina bifida population Medical Management

22 Hydrocephalus 80-90% develop hydrocephalus
Abnormal accumulation of CSF Increased intracranial pressure Progressive enlargement of the head Convulsion Mental disability Medical Management

23 Hydrocephalus Shunts Placed to relieve intracranial pressure Types:
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) Ventriculoatrial (VA) Ventriculopleural Ventriculo-gall bladder VP shunts empty CSF directly into the abdominal cavity, bypassing the venous circulation. Hypersensitivity to loud noises Medical Management 23

24 Hydrocephalus Seizure Disorders Occur in approx 15% of patients
Usually generalized tonic-clonic type Responds well to anticonvulsant medication Recurrent seizure activity may indicate shunt blockage or infection. Medical Management

25 Hydrocephalus Learning Disabilities At least 80% have
normal intelligence Cognitive dysfunctions correlated to: Hydrocephalus and related complications Level of lesion Upper level lesions associated with mental retardation Medical Management

26 Hydrocephalus Learning Disabilities Dysfunctions include:
Short attention span Decreased arm and hand function Poor eye-hand coordination Memory deficits Medical Management

27 Bladder and Bowel Incontinence
Urinary complications - Hydronephrosis, incomplete emptying of the bladder, urinary reflux, infections and incontinence - May lead to renal damage Patients frequently use catheters and antibiotics. Altered GI motor and sensory function Impairs peristalsis Leads to constipation, impaction and bowel incontinence Patients frequently require added fiber to diet. Medical Management

28 Musculoskeletal Deformities
Paralysis may lead to deformities 90% of patients with defect above sacral level develop: Scoliosis Kyphosis Surgery often required to correct spinal curvatures. Loss of muscle strength and inactivity may lead to pathological fractures. Medical Management

29 Obesity 40% of patients Due to Impaired mobility
Decreased energy expenditure High carbohydrate food “rewards” Medical Management

30 Altered Wound Healing Altered skin integrity over spine and cord
Altered sensory function below the level of the lesion results in risk of skin breakdown throughout life Common risk factors Reduced mobility Nutritional status Bowel and urinary incontinence Medical Management

31 Latex Allergy/Risk 70% exhibit symptoms
Predisposition to latex allergy unknown Increased need for health care shunts other allergies. Medical Management

32 Dental Management As dentists, how do we manage all of these medical complications in providing dental care to the spina bifida patient? Dental Management

33 Obtain Medical History
Medical conditions Allergies Latex, Drugs Past surgical history Shunt Spinal instrumentation Medications Antibiotics, anticholinergics, sympathomimetics, anticonvulsants and stool softeners Family history Appropriate consults Dental Management

34 Dental Implications of Spina Bifida Associated Impairments
Latex Allergy/Risk Requires latex-free environment Medications Anticonvulsants Make sure patient has taken Rx to minimize risk of seizure Antibiotics May need to switch ABX if required for shunt (VA) or spinal instrumentation Dental Management

35 Dental Implications of Spina Bifida Associated Impairments
Shunt Avoid putting pressure on shunt while treating patient May exhibit sensitivity to loud noises Seizures Make sure anticonvulsant medication taken Nausea, drowsiness Gingival hyperplasia Anxiolysis/Sedation medications may need to be reduced Know proper protocol to manage seizure Broken teeth, tongue lacerations Dental Management

36 Dental Implications of Spina Bifida Associated Impairments
Bladder and Bowel Incontinence Empty prior to dental treatment Scoliosis/Kyphosis Spinal instrumentation requires ABX Paralysis Postural hypotension likely, best not to treat patient supine If chair-bound, treat in chair, tilt chair back Dental Management

37 Dental Implications of Spina Bifida Associated Impairments
Obesity For anxiolysis/sedation, use ideal weight for patient Feeding/Swallowing Issues Gastrostomy tube: Increased calculus formation Tracheostomy: Protect airway if patient unable to respond protectively Minimize use of water Use suction judiciously Dental Management

38 Oral Complications Poor oral hygiene Dental caries
Involuntary movements Lack of motor skills Vomit reflex during brushing Dental caries Poor nutrition Reduced salivary flow Long-term use of medications Dental Management

39 Oral Complications Gingivitis Gingival hyperplasia Periodontal disease
Increased plaque Gingival hyperplasia Anticonvulsant medications Periodontal disease Increased calculus Dental Management

40 Treating patients Wheelchair bound patients
Can be left in wheelchair Sliding board can help with supporting the patient’s head Wheelchair transfer to dental chair 2-person lift Under arms Legs Dental Management

41 Anticipatory Guidance
Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash for gingival/periodontal issues May use as rinse or brush on tissues Fluoride for decreasing caries incidence Apply fluoride at all prophylactic appointments Preventive Restorations Sealants effective to reduce occlusal caries Dental Management

42 Recall Schedule Individualized for patient’s needs
Close observation of patients and regular dental exams are important 2, 3 or 4 month recall schedule can be beneficial Dental Management

43 Home Care Common Positions
Child positioned in front of adult. Adult cradles the child’s head with one hand and uses other to brush. Child in wheelchair. Adult sits behind it. Lock the wheels and tilt chair into the lap. Dental Management

44 Oral Hygiene Tips Horizontal scrub toothbrushing technique recommended. Electric toothbrush Customized toothbrush handles Toothettes Use of floss holders assists with flossing Dental Management

45 Behavior Management Behavior management techniques become more important in these patients! Patients and their families generally exhibit anxiety due to frequency of medical interventions. It is important to spend additional time with parent and child to establish rapport. Dental Management

46 Behavior Management Parental Anxiety
Talk to the parent and find out their expectations Tour the office Introduce staff Dental Management

47 Behavior Management Patient Anxiety Schedule early in day
Actively listen to patient Verbal/Non-verbal Speak at patient IQ level Keep appointments short Gradually progress to more complicated procedures Reward patient after successful completion of procedures Dental Management

48 Delivery of Care Immobilization
Effective way to diagnose and deliver dental care Helps protect patient, dentist, and staff Make sure parents have clear understanding of use Make sure you obtain proper informed consent Includes parental assistance, extra personnel, mouth props, papoose board Dental Management

49 Sedation Neurologically handicapped patients may be unable to cope with dental treatment Individualized for each patient Review any changes in medical history Review allergies Review medications Confirm patients have taken regular medications the morning of procedure. Dental Management

50 Sedation All medication doses determined by weight
Obese patients, use ideal body weight/height Calculation: Height cm2 X 1.65 / 1000 = Kg Consider decrease in dosage of sedative agent by 1/3 for patients taking benzodiazepines, barbiturates, valproic acid, MAO inhibitors, elective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors Must include reversal agent and doses Dental Management

51 General Anesthesia Sedation is contraindicated for ASA Type III and IV patients, or any other patient not cleared by his/her physicians. Amount of dental work needed would require more than 2 sedation appointments. Failed sedation attempt Dental Management

52 General Anesthesia Complete physical work-up for each patient prior to general anesthesia Must follow NPO guidelines Benefits must outweigh risks! Dental Management

53 General Anesthesia More aggressive treatment Ext vs. Endo therapy
SSCs vs. Class IIs Amalgam vs. composite Limit occlusal anatomy Plaque accumulation Sealants Dental Management

54 Summary Know your patient’s medical history Obtain necessary consults
Surgeries Medications Allergies Obtain necessary consults Need for ABX Be aware of patient’s anxiety level Consider sedation/GA Emphasize prevention. MOST OF ALL, be patient, understanding, and compassionate.

55 Thank you Questions

56 References ADAM Images. Available at Accessed April 3, 2013. Batshaw ML ed., Children with Disabilities, 4th ed., Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 2nd printing, May 1998, p Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Spina Bifida. Available at Accessed March 25, 2013. Ekmark EM. Risky Business: Preventing skin Breakdown in Children with Spina Bifida. Journal Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine. 2009; 2:37-50. Foster MR. Spina Bifida. Available at Accessed March 26, 2013. Jaccarino J. The Patient with Special Needs: General Treatment Considerations. Available at Accessed March 16, 2013. Jackson PL, Vessey JA eds., Primary Care of the Child with a Chronic Condition. Mosby-Year Book, Inc., St. Louis, MO, 1992, p Mayo Clinic. Spina Bifida. Available at Accessed February15, 2013. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Spina Bifida. Available at Accessed March 15, 2013. Practical Oral Care for People with Developmental Disabilities. Available at Queiroz AM, Saiani RA, Rossi CR, Gomes-Silva JM, Belson-Filho P. Oral Findings and Dental Care in a Patient with Myelomeningocele: Case Report of a 3-Year Old Child. Brazilian Dental Journal, 2009, 20(5), p Spina Bifida Association. Available at Accessed February 15, 2013. Scofield, JC, Campbell, PR. Integrating the Spina Bifida Patient into the General Dental Practice. The Journal of Practical Hygiene, May/June 2001, p Steifel, DJ. Dental care Considerations for Disabled Adults, Special Care Dentistry, 2002, 22(3), p

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