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VATICAN COUNCIL II THE 21 ST ECUMENICAL COUNCIL WHAT’S AN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL? COMMUNION OF PARTICULAR CHURCHES PATRIARCHATES RITES E-W/ IN COMMUNION NICAEA.

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Presentation on theme: "VATICAN COUNCIL II THE 21 ST ECUMENICAL COUNCIL WHAT’S AN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL? COMMUNION OF PARTICULAR CHURCHES PATRIARCHATES RITES E-W/ IN COMMUNION NICAEA."— Presentation transcript:

1 VATICAN COUNCIL II THE 21 ST ECUMENICAL COUNCIL WHAT’S AN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL? COMMUNION OF PARTICULAR CHURCHES PATRIARCHATES RITES E-W/ IN COMMUNION NICAEA I THE FIRST SEVEN THE (WESTERN) 21 TRENT VATICAN I VATICAN II How different? The major documents Some Effects Resources/websites

2 EFFECTS OF VATICAN COUNCIL II PART OF THE STORY IS HISTORICAL “19 TH AND 20 TH CENTURY “RESOURCEMENT” Biblical studies, historical studies, archaeology, globalization, technological development… PART OF THE STORY IS THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTER OF VATICAN COUNCIL II

3 WHAT’S AN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL? An assembly (Gk. synodos; Lat. concilium) of representatives (episcopoi) of the whole (i.e., catholic) church for consultation and decision regarding ecclesial matters.

4 What is the ‘catholic’ ‘church’ A church (ekklesia) is a community of Christians who assemble for public worship A particular church is such an assembly, ususally in a particular geographical location, presided over by a “supervisor” (i.e., episkopos (Gk.)= ‘bishop’)

5 What is the ‘catholic’ ‘church’ “catholic” refers to a relationship among particular churches called (Gk.) koinonia, “communion.” The first recorded use of the term “catholic” in this way is from c. 100 AD in Ignatius of Antioch’s Letter to the Smyrneans

6 REGISTERS AN ANCIENT GREEK EXPERIENCE KATA-HOLIKOS “kata”- a preposition that is roughly equivalent to the English “through” or “through-out” (or “together with” An example: “kata Johannen” meaning (the good news) “through John.” “holos, holikos”- a noun meaning, the whole (world), everything, all

7 kata-holike: “through-out-the-whole” Modern use of this term as a denominational label (a sect) is the opposite of “sectarian” A particular church is ‘catholic insofar as it is “in communion” with the “whole” Synods (Gk., synods) and councils (Lat. Concilium) are called to achieve or confirm communion in or among patriarchates

8 PATRIARCHATES an autonomous, self-governing federation of particular churches (dioceses) under the jurisdiction of a chief bishop called a “patriarch” and his “synod.” Early Christian Patriarchates: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandra, Antioch, Jerusalem Additional Patriarchates have been added in modern times

9 RITES E-W/ IN COMMUNION Based on the regional differences of the patriarchates, distinct liturgical traditions developed (leiturgia=“public work”, “work of the people” (i.e., the worshipping assembly) Traditionally, “catholicity” of particular churches has been ensured by being “in communion with” the Bishop of Rome in his function as “president of the college of bishops”

10 What’s in a name? Confusion often occurs because the Bishop of Rome actually has several titles and functions: Here are a few: – Bishop of Rome (local bishop for city of Rome) – Patriarch of the West (chief bishop of churches of the Roman Latin Rite) – Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church (Lat., pontifex= “bridge”-“maker”.

11 RITES AT PRESENT THERE ARE 21 RITES OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. THE MOST WELL KNOWN ARE: LATIN (ROMAN)ETHIOPIAN ARMENIANMARONITE BYZANTINEEAST-SYRIAN COPTIC WEST- SYRIAN

12 WHAT’S AN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL? An assembly (Gk. synodos; Lat. concilium) of representatives (episcopoi) of the whole (i.e., catholic) church for consultation and decision regarding ecclesial matters. Gk.: oikoumenikos fr. oikumene, “the whole (inhabited) world”, fr. oikos=“household”

13 WHY ECUMENICAL COUNCILS? TABLE 1.1 Christian Growth Projected at 40 Percent per Decade Year Number of Christians Percent of Population a 40 1, , , , , ,171, ,299, ,882, a Based on an estimated population of 60 million.

14 NICAEA I AD 325- THE FIRST ECUMENICAL COUNCIL EDICT OF MILAN 313:LEGALIZED CHRISTIANITY CALLED BY ROMAN EMPEROR CONSTANTINE TO RESOLVE THE “ARIAN” CONTROVERSY ATTENDED BY BISHOPS PROFESSION OF FAITH (NICENE CREED) NICENE-CONSTANTINOPOLITAN CREED Academic.regis.edu/rlumpp

15 THE FIRST SEVEN COUNCILS (named for location) NICAEA I 325 CONSTANTINOPLE I 381 EPHESUS 431 CHALCEDON 451 CONSTANTINOPLE II 553 CONSTANTINOPLE III NICAEA II 787

16 21 ECUMENICAL COUNCILS Recognized by the Catholic Church Only First Seven Recognized by Orthodox Churches Eastern Rites typically have two Forms— Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic They are distinguished principally by whether or not they are “in communion” with Rome

17 COUNCIL OF TRENT THREE SESSIONS: , , RESPONDED TO THE CHALLENGES POSED BY THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION (NB: 1517) DEALT MAINLY WITH WESTERN CONCERNS (No Reformation in East) FIXED WESTERN (LATIN) CHURCH FOR 400 YRS PARADIGM EXPANDED GEOGRAPHICALLY WITH EUROPEAN COLONIZATION MADE THE WESTERN (ROMAN) UNIFORM

18 VATICAN COUNCIL I (1/3 Italians-2/3 Europeans) 48 US UNIFICATION OF ITALY (NB: Regis) – END OF PAPAL STATES (1861) – END OF CONTROL OF ROME (1870) – CREATION OF VATICAN CITY STATE (1929) THREE MAIN FACTIONS: – INFALLIBILISTS – GENERAL SUPPORTERS OF PAPL AUTHORITY – DECENTRALISTS

19 VATICAN COUNCIL II IMMEDIATE BACKGROUND PIUS XII PAPAL NUNCIO TO GERMANY 1917 ff. PAPAL SECRETARY OF STATE TRIED TO PREVENT WAR THROUGH DIPLOMACY PERHAPS NAÏVE ABOUT HITLER WANTED TO PROTECT CHURCH VS. FASCISM, NAZISM & COMMUNISM ENCOURAGED BIBLICAL AND LITURGICAL SCHOLARSHIP

20 VATICAN COUNCIL II IMMEDIATE BACKGROUND POPE JOHN XXIII PAPAL DIPLOMAT—ACCESSIBLE AND FRIENDLY EXPECTED TO BE A CARETAKER ASTONISHED THE WORLD BY CALLING COUNCIL: AGGIORNAMENTO PASTORAL IN CHARACTER ECUMENICAL CONCERN FOR PEACE (Missile Crisis)

21 VATICAN COUNCIL II FOUR SESSIONS: 1962, 1963, 1964, ,600 BISHOPS (Vat I 737) – 1089 European – 489 South American – 404North America – 374 Asia – 296Africa – 84 Central America – 75Oceania

22 VATICAN COUNCIL II SOME FIRSTS OBSERVERS FROM EVERY MAJOR CHRISTIAN GROUP ELECTRICITY, TELEPHONES,TYPEWRITERS, TRANSPORATION MEDIA COVERAGE LAY WOMEN AND MEN

23 VATICAN COUNCIL II THE PROCESS AGENDA ITEMS (9300) SOUGHT FROM – ALL BISHOPS – RELIGIOUS ORDERS – UNIVERSITIES AND THEOLOGICAL FACULTIES

24 VATICAN COUNCIL II – PREPARATORY COMMISSIONS DRAFTED – BISHOPS REJECTED AND REDRAFTED MUCH OF WHAT THEY WERE GIVEN – CHURCH BUREAUCRACY UNDERMINED

25 VATICAN COUNCIL II WHAT THE COUNCIL PRODUCED DOGMATIC CONSITUTION ON DIVINE REVELATION DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CHURCH CONSTITUTION ON SACRED LITURGY PASTORAL CONSTITUTION ON CHURCH IN THE MODERN WORLD

26 VATICAN COUNCIL II WHAT THE COUNCIL PRODUCED DECREES ON SOCIAL COMMUNICATION ECUMENISM EASTERN CATHOLIC CHURCHES BISHOPS’ PASTORAL OFFICE

27 VATICAN COUNCIL II PRIESTLY FORMATION RENEWAL OF RELIGIOUS LIFE APOSTOLATE OF THE LAITY MINISTRY AND LIFE OF PRIESTS MISSIONARY ACTIVITY CHRISTIAN EDUCATION RELATIONSHIP TO NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

28 VATICAN COUNCIL II THE TRADITION IS THAT IT TAKES 100 YEARS FOR A MAJOR COUNCIL TO BE FULLY IMPLEMENTED. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE EFFECTS OF VATICAN II SO FAR?

29 KEY THEMES IN VATICAN II 1.CHURCH IS PRIMARILY MYSTERY/SACRAMENT RATHER THAN ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION 2.CHURCH IS WHOLE PEOPLE OF GOD NOT JUST HIERARCHY, CLERGY, RELIGIOUS 3.CHURCH’S MISSION INCLUDES WORK FOR PEACE AND JUSTICE 4.CHURCH INCLUDES ALL CHRISTIANS NOT ONLY CATHOLIC CHIRSTIANS (Degree)

30 KEY THEMES IN VATICAN II 5. CHURCH IS COMMUNION OF LOCAL CHURCHES NOT JUST UNITS OF UNIVERSAL 6. CHURCH IS ESCATOLOGICAL COMMUNITY, NOT YET THE KINGDOM OF GOD 7. LAY PEOPLE HAVE THEIR OWN INTRINSIC MISSION, NOT JUST AGENTS OF HIERARCHY 8. THERE ARE LEVELS OF TRUTH—NOT ALL TEACHINGS ARE OF EQUAL IMPORTANCE

31 KEY THEMES IN VATICAN II 9.GOD USES OTHER CHRISTIAN CHURCHES AND NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS TO OFFER SALVATION TO ALL HUMANKIND 10. THE DIGNITY OF THE HUMAN PERSON AND THE FREEDOM OF FAITH ARE FOUNDATIONS OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY FOR ALL HUMANS

32 SOME EFFECTS OF VATICAN II CHANGE FROM LATIN TO VERNACULAR IN THE ASSEMBLY ENHANCED LOCAL IDENTITIES OF PARTICULAR CHURCHES (Constitution on Liturgy) ATTENTION TO “INCULTURATION” (Constitution on Church) EMPHASIS ON THE PEOPLE VS. INSTITUTION (Constitution on Church)

33 SOME EFFECTS OF VATICAN II FOCUS ON ISSUES OF PEACE AND JUSTICE AS CENTRAL TO CHURCH’S MISSION (Constitution on Church in Modern World) INCLUSION OF LAY PERSONS IN KEY LITURGICAL ROLES EMPOWERS PERSONS TO SEE THEMSELVES AS ACTORS(Readers, ministers of communion, prayer leaders, musicians) DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY ROLLS (DRE’s, liturgists, administrators, teachers)

34 SOME EFFECTS OF VATICAN II COLLABORATION WITH PERSONS OF OTHER FAITHS AND COLLABORATION WITH OTHER CHURCHES AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS FOR PEACE AND JUSTICE WORK ENCOURAGEMENT OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL ACTIVISM MORE ACTIVE ROLES FOR WOMEN


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