Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15, Religion Key Terms. Religion A social process that helps to order society and provide its members with meaning, unity, peace of mind, and."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15, Religion Key Terms
Religion A social process that helps to order society and provide its members with meaning, unity, peace of mind, and the degree of control over events they believe is possible. Cosmology A system of beliefs that deals with fundamental questions in the religious and social order.
Sacred narratives Stories held to be holy and true by members of a religious tradition. Anthropomorphic Having human shape.
Zoomorphic Having an animal shape. Naturalism Endowing features of the natural world with spirit, soul, or other supernatural characteristics.
Anthropopsychic Having thought processes and emotions similar to humans. God A named spirit who is believed to have created or to control some aspect of the world.
Polytheism Believe in many gods. Monotheism Belief in a single god.
Trickster A supernatural entity that does not act in the best interests of humans. Mana Religious power or energy that is concentrated in individuals or objects.
Ritual A patterned act that involves the manipulation of religious symbols. Rite of passage A ritual that marks a person’s transition from one status to another.
Separation The first stage of a rite of passage in which individuals are removed from their community or status. Liminal The stage of a ritual, particularly of a rite of passage, in which one has passed out of an old status but not yet entered a new one.
Reincorporation The third phase of a rite of passage during which participants are returned to their community with a new status. Communitas A state of perceived solidarity, equality, and unity among people sharing a religious ritual, often characterized by intense emotion.
Antistructure The socially sanctioned use of behavior that radically violates social norms. Rite of intensification A ritual structured to reinforce the values and norms of a community and to strengthen group identity.
Totem An animal, plant, or other aspect of the natural world held to be ancestral or to have other intimate relationships with members of a group. Totemism Religious practices centered around animals, plants, or other aspects of the natural world held to be ancestral or to have other intimate relationships with members of a group.
Prayer Any communication between people and spirits or gods in which people praise, plead, or request without assurance of results. Sacrifice An offering made to increase the efficacy of a prayer or the religious purity of an individual.
Magic A religious ritual believed to produce a mechanical effect by supernatural means. Imitative magic The belief that imitating an action in a religious ritual will cause the action to happen in the material world.
Contagious magic That belief that things once in contact with a person or object retain an invisible connection with that person or object. Divination A religious ritual performed to find hidden objects or information.
Scalpulomancy Divination using the shoulder blade of an animal. Shaman Individual who is recognized as having the ability to mediate between the world of humanity and the world of gods or spirits but who is not a recognized official of any religious organization.
Vision quest An individual, emotionally intense search for a special relationship with a particular spirit that will provide protection, knowledge, and power. Pharmacopeia A collection of preparations used as medications.
Priest One who is formally elected or appointed to a full-time religious office. Witchcraft The ability to harm others by harboring malevolent thoughts about them; the practice of sorcery.
Wiccan A member of a new religion that claims descent from pre-Christian nature worship; a modern day witch. Nativism A religious movement that aims to restore a golden age believed to have existed in the past.
Vitalism A religious movement that looks toward the creation of a utopian future that does not resemble a past golden age. Messianic Focusing on the coming of a messiah who will usher in a utopian world.
Millenarian The belief that a coming catastrophe will signal the beginning of a new age and the eventual establishment of paradise. Syncretism The merging of elements of two or more religious traditions to produce a new religion.
Oricha A Yoruba deity identified with a Catholic saint in Vodou and Santeria. Ghost Dance A Native American religious movement of the late nineteenth century.
Native American Church A religious revitalization movement among Native Americans, also known as the Peyote religion. Peyote A small hallucinogenic cactus found in southern Texas and northern Mexico.