Presentation on theme: "16-1 Chapter 16 Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior."— Presentation transcript:
16-1 Chapter 16 Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior
16-2 Understanding Culture Culture Culture is the Accumulation of Shared Meanings, Rituals, Norms, and Traditions Among the Members of an Organization or Society and Determines: Overall Priorities A Consumer Attaches to Different Activities and Products Overall Priorities A Consumer Attaches to Different Activities and Products Success or Failure of Specific Products and Services Success or Failure of Specific Products and Services
16-3 Aspects of Culture Social Structure Way in Which Orderly Social Life is Maintained Social Structure Way in Which Orderly Social Life is Maintained Ecology Way a System is Adapted to Its Habitat Ecology Way a System is Adapted to Its Habitat Ideology Way in Which People Relate to Their Environment and Social Groups Ideology Way in Which People Relate to Their Environment and Social Groups Cultural System A Cultural System Consists of 3 Functional Areas:
16-4 Other Aspects of Culture Although Every Culture is Different, 4 Dimensions Appear to Account for Much of This Variability. Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity/ Femininity Individualism How Interpersonal Relationships Form When Power Differences Exist. Degree to Which People Feel Threatened by Ambiguous Situations. Degree to Which Sex Roles Are Clearly Delineated. Extent to Which the Welfare of the Individual Versus the Group is Valued.
16-5 Values of a Culture Values are Very General Ideas About Good and Bad Goals Enacted Norms Explicitly Decided On Enacted Norms Explicitly Decided On Crescive Norms Embedded in Culture Crescive Norms Embedded in Culture Customs Mores Conventions
16-6 Myths Metaphysical Psychological Cosmological Sociological Myth A Myth is a Story Containing Symbolic Elements That Expresses the Shared Emotions and Ideals Of a Culture. Myths Serve 4 Interrelated Functions in a Culture:
16-7 Types of Ritual Experience Ritual A Ritual is a Set of Multiple, Symbolic Behaviors That Occur in a Fixed Sequence and That Tend to Be Repeated Periodically. ReligiousReligious Baptism, Meditation, Mass Rites of Passage Festivals, Holidays Parades, Elections, Trials Graduation, Marriage Ritual Type Examples GroupGroup Business Negotiations FamilyFamily PersonalPersonal Grooming, Household Mealtimes, Birthdays Cultural Civic
16-8 Gift - Giving Rituals Gift - Giving Ritual The Gift - Giving Ritual Can Be Broken Down Into the Following Three Distinct Stages: Gestation Giver is Motivated By An Event to Buy a Gift Gestation Giver is Motivated By An Event to Buy a Gift Presentation Process of Gift Exchange Presentation Process of Gift Exchange Reformulation Bonds Between Parties Are Adjusted Reformulation Bonds Between Parties Are Adjusted
16-9 Holiday Rituals Thanksgiving Valentine’s Day Secretaries’ Day Grandparents’ Day Christmas New Year’s Halloween What Rituals Are Associated With the Following Holidays?
16-10 Rites of Passage Stage 1. Separation Detaching From the Original Group Stage 1. Separation Detaching From the Original Group Stage 2. Liminality Person is In-Between Statuses Stage 2. Liminality Person is In-Between Statuses Stage 3. Aggregation Person Reenters Society After Rite-of-Passage is Complete Stage 3. Aggregation Person Reenters Society After Rite-of-Passage is Complete Rites of Passage Rites of Passage Can be Construed as Being Special Times Marked by a Change in Social Status.
16-11 Sacred and Profane Consumption Sacred and Profane Consumption Sacred Consumption Profane Consumption >Involves Objects and Events That Are “Set Apart” From Normal Activities, and Are Treated With Some Degree of Respect or Awe. > Involves Consumer Objects and Events That Are Ordinary, Everyday Objects and Events That Do Not Share The “Specialness” of Sacred Ones.
16-12 Domains of Sacred Consumption Sacred PlacesSacred Places –May have religious or mystical significance. –Others are created from the profane world and given special sacred qualities (i.e. Disney World, or shopping malls) –The home is a particularly scared place. Sacred PeopleSacred People –Memorabilia can take on special meaning, from baseball cards to clothing the special person has touched or worn.
16-13 Domains of Sacred Consumption Sacred EventsSacred Events –Many consumer’s activities (events) have taken on special status. »Examples would include the Super Bowl, the Olympics, the World Series, even family vacations. –Personal mementos from sacred events can include: »Local products (i.e. wine from California). »Pictorial images (i.e. post cards). »“A piece of the event” such as a rock or seashell. »Symbolic shorthand (i.e. a miniature Statue of Liberty). »Markers (i.e. Hard Rock Cafe T-shirts).
16-14 From Sacred to Profane, and Back Again Some sacred things have become profane, and some profane things have become sacred. –Desacralization –Desacralization occurs when a sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in mass quantities, becoming profane as a result. –Examples: Monuments, artwork, American flag, religion. –Sacralization –Sacralization occurs when ordinary objects, events, and even people, take on sacred meaning to a culture or to specific groups within a culture. –Examples: Super Bowl, or Elvis. »Objectification »Objectification occurs when sacred qualities are attributed to mundane objects. »Collecting »Collecting refers to the systematic acquisition of a particular object or set of objects.