Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Daoist Ritual and Meditation Ritual and meditation became two foremost spiritual practices of post-Han Daoism Purposes of ritual and meditation Established.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Daoist Ritual and Meditation Ritual and meditation became two foremost spiritual practices of post-Han Daoism Purposes of ritual and meditation Established."— Presentation transcript:

1 Daoist Ritual and Meditation Ritual and meditation became two foremost spiritual practices of post-Han Daoism Purposes of ritual and meditation Established contact or interaction between humans and divine realms Became ordained Daoists and eventually attained immortality Daoist immortals (transcendents) became objects of popular cult The full formulation of both occurred in the Tang Dynasty ( )

2 “ Eighty-seven immortals “ Eighty-seven immortals (transcendents)” by Wu Daozi, Tang Dynasty An old Daoist today in Jiangxi, China A young Daoist today in Laoshan, Qingdao, China

3 Ritual in The Three Caverns System Consists of complex ritual practices that involve ordination into one of the seven ranks Initial stage seen from the viewpoint of modern anthropologists as the beginning of “the rite of passage” for candidates, which is “separation”

4 Subsequent two stages of the rite: –“Liminal” phase: Candidates received ordinations and entered Daoist community as ordinands, –Reaggregation phase: Became full-fledged Daoists after pledging to uphold Daoist precepts and undergoing a ceremony to pay obeisance to the Heavenly Worthies…

5 A Daoist in historical times Daoist Temple in Laoshan

6 Major Ritual in Post-Han Daoism The purification (zhai) ritual in the Lingbao School is a communal ritual, often referred to as “ festival of purgation ” The purification (zhai) ritual in the Lingbao School is a communal ritual, often referred to as “ festival of purgation ” It involved participants chanting, praying, confessing, presenting offerings and petitions to gods It involved participants chanting, praying, confessing, presenting offerings and petitions to gods A modern Daoist chanting scripture

7 A festival placing a particular emphasis on confession of sins and repentance was called “Mud and Soot Purgation” Some other large-scale ceremonies were for the state and the community: Yellow Register Purgation (huanglu zhai): to create cosmic harmony with the larger universe and ease political and social tensions.

8 Daoist Meditation Preparation: to establish a state of strong health Preparation: to establish a state of strong health Concentration and insight: Concentration and insight: Concentration: to obtain a strong stability of mind Concentration: to obtain a strong stability of mind Insight: “ observation ” : to recover the purity of spirit and physical body Insight: “ observation ” : to recover the purity of spirit and physical body examination of the practitioner ’ s own psychological constitution: spirit (shen), bodily form (xing) examination of the practitioner ’ s own psychological constitution: spirit (shen), bodily form (xing) “ sit and forget ” to reach a state of detachment and new understanding “ sit and forget ” to reach a state of detachment and new understanding Personal transformation Personal transformation

9 Variety of practices Variety of practices ranging from simple breathing exercise to combinations of elaborate ritual and meditation Variety of practices ranging from simple breathing exercise to combinations of elaborate ritual and meditation Ordinary followers: Ordinary followers: Encouraged to set up a sacred space for daily prayers in their own homes Encouraged to set up a sacred space for daily prayers in their own homes

10 The space is often called a chamber of tranquility or oratory (jingshi) The space is often called a chamber of tranquility or oratory (jingshi) Incense burner, incense lamp, a prayer bench or cushion, a brush or writing knife plus paper or bamboo slips Incense burner, incense lamp, a prayer bench or cushion, a brush or writing knife plus paper or bamboo slips Wash hands, put one a clean robe and cap, enter the room with the right foot first while holding a ritual tablet, kneeling on the prayer bench or cushion, swallow the saliva, regulate breathing, close eyes and visualize guardian deities …. Wash hands, put one a clean robe and cap, enter the room with the right foot first while holding a ritual tablet, kneeling on the prayer bench or cushion, swallow the saliva, regulate breathing, close eyes and visualize guardian deities ….

11 Spells and Talismans Practices of ritual and meditation were further developed in the Song dynasty ( ) Practices of ritual and meditation were further developed in the Song dynasty ( ) Demand for religious services rose because of urbanization and commercialization of Song society Demand for religious services rose because of urbanization and commercialization of Song society Development of new printing skills created opportunities for Daoist priests to exert their influences Development of new printing skills created opportunities for Daoist priests to exert their influences Merchant-orient society helped increase the application of Daoist rites and spells, as well as the use of Daoist talismans Merchant-orient society helped increase the application of Daoist rites and spells, as well as the use of Daoist talismans Knowledge about Daoist immortals spread widely Knowledge about Daoist immortals spread widely

12 Ritual Masters and New Daoist Schools Ritual masters flourished in the beginning of the 12 th century Ritual masters flourished in the beginning of the 12 th century Played an important role in new Daoist schools that used spells and talismans in the rituals aimed at healing, exorcism, and salvation Played an important role in new Daoist schools that used spells and talismans in the rituals aimed at healing, exorcism, and salvation Three schools associated with these practices emerged and became prominent under emperor Huizong; each had its new gods: Three schools associated with these practices emerged and became prominent under emperor Huizong; each had its new gods:

13 The Heavenly Heart (Tianxin) School The Heavenly Heart (Tianxin) School God worshipped: Northern Emperor and his assistants: Black Killer, Dark Warrior, and Heavenly Protector God worshipped: Northern Emperor and his assistants: Black Killer, Dark Warrior, and Heavenly Protector Founder: Rao Dongtian Founder: Rao Dongtian The Divine Empyrean (Shenxiao) School The Divine Empyrean (Shenxiao) School God worshipped: the Great Emperor of Long Life God worshipped: the Great Emperor of Long Life Founder: Lin Lingsu Founder: Lin Lingsu The Lingbao School The Lingbao School Rose in prominence again Rose in prominence again

14 Revival of the Lingbao School Developed in three branches: Developed in three branches: The Thunder Rites Sect The Thunder Rites Sect Used “ Thunder Rites ” to perform exorcism Used “ Thunder Rites ” to perform exorcism The Ni Benli Sect The Ni Benli Sect Mixed elaborate rituals used in Divine Empyrean Mixed elaborate rituals used in Divine Empyrean The Jin Yunzhong Sect The Jin Yunzhong Sect Made the Duren jing the center of his system, which reduced the use of talismans and focused on fewer but more efficacious deities Made the Duren jing the center of his system, which reduced the use of talismans and focused on fewer but more efficacious deities

15 Inner Alchemy School Known as Southern School Known as Southern School Followed an earlier tradition known as Zhong- L ü School (L ü refers to the Patriarch L ü, Zhong refers to L ü’ s master Zhongli Quan) Followed an earlier tradition known as Zhong- L ü School (L ü refers to the Patriarch L ü, Zhong refers to L ü’ s master Zhongli Quan) Practiced meditation and concentration to conserve, generate, and strengthen qi Practiced meditation and concentration to conserve, generate, and strengthen qi Practice “ reverting the semen to nourish the brain ” through sexual activities Practice “ reverting the semen to nourish the brain ” through sexual activities

16 Taoist Immortal Patriarch Lü Patriarch Lü (Master Chunyang, named Yan, styled, Dongbin) Patriarch Lü (Master Chunyang, named Yan, styled, Dongbin) In the ten-century literary and folk traditions, he appeared as a Daoist, a calligrapher, a poet, an alchemist, a healer, a soothsayer, a drug peddler, and an ink seller and was highly popular with different social groups In the ten-century literary and folk traditions, he appeared as a Daoist, a calligrapher, a poet, an alchemist, a healer, a soothsayer, a drug peddler, and an ink seller and was highly popular with different social groups The later Daoist and theatrical texts associated with him made him even more popular The later Daoist and theatrical texts associated with him made him even more popular

17 One of the “ Eight Immortals ” One of the “ Eight Immortals ” Known for the tradition of the spirit-writing cult Known for the tradition of the spirit-writing cult Patron god of drug merchants Patron god of drug merchants Main deity in Wong Tai Sin temple in Hong Kong Main deity in Wong Tai Sin temple in Hong KongWong Tai Sin temple Wong Tai Sin temple

18 Daoism and the State Daoism became formal state religion under a foreign dynasty of Hunnish origin, the Toba-Wei, who conquered China in 386. Ruler of foreign origin adopted Chinese idea of sacralized government –Emperor, or Son of Heaven, enjoyed unchallenged authority and power –He uses heaven’s mandate and his absolute power to keep universe on its track and the world in proper order

19 The emperor could use any religion to his advantage. The “Daoist Theocracy” was established –The Daoist Kou Qianzhi claimed that he received two revelations from Lord Lao, who empowered him to take the place of the Celestial Master and told him to reform Daosim. Abolished practices such as “five pecks of rice” tax and the sexual initiation rituals (the techniques of harmonizing the male and female energies). His program focused on rituals and longevity techniques based on ingestion of longevity drugs

20 Supported by the prime minister Cui Hao and the emperor, Kou became the head of a state-sponsored Daoism and emperor’s teacher. His power reached apogee when the emperor accepted Daoist initiation at Kou’s Daoist palace-cum-temple and claimed to be the new ruler of Great Peace with his, his reign title changed to “Perfect Lord of Great Peace,” (Taiping zhenjun)

21 This short-lived Daoist theocracy is characterized by the following beliefs, rules, and practices: –Sickness is a cause for cosmic concern and is treated through public confession –Daoist priests collect taxes for the state, serving as civil servants and bureaucrats –People have to be loyal to the ruler, obedient to their parents and elders, live a life of contentment when they are poor

22 Observe, recite, and copy code of conduct prescribed in Kou’s “Scripture of Lord Lao’s New Code of Precepts” (New Code), many of which are based on Confucian thoughts. Be conscious of the “Transmigration between the Six Realms” and perform good deeds by building Daoist temple, cultivating merit and virtue, reciting Daoist scriptures, and upholding precepts etc.

23 Daoism in the Tang Dynasty Honored as state religion because the founder of the dynasty claimed that he was the descendant of Laozi, who shared with him the same family name, Li. Daoist priests were given extensive privileges and Daoist temples lavish gifts Daoist track of imperial bureaucracy was established Daoist track of imperial bureaucracy was established Daoist canon was compiled under the auspices of emperors

24 Lord Lao was honored with the title “Sovereign Emperor of Mysterious Origin” ( Xuan’yuan huangdi 玄元皇帝 ) Two imperial ancestral temples in the capital were converted to Daoist temples by Emperor Xuanzong, a great supporter of Daoism and Laozi, in the 8 th century. Several imperial princesses became ordained Daoist priestesses Emperor Xuanzong wrote a commentary on the Daode jing.

25 Spirit-Writing Cult to Patriarch Lü Texts that represent the spirit-writing cult, e.g., the Longmen Lineage (Dragon Gate), indicate that some Daoist schools advocated salvation of the people, wishing to save the world. Schools associated with Spirit-writing advocated transmission of teaching trough communication with the Patriarch ( Lüzu)

26 Spirit-writing Cults in Modern Time Spirit-writing movements occurred in the 19th century China. Spirit-writing movements in Guangdong and Hong Kong formed part of the ecumenical movements The purposes of the practice: –Relief work: providing free medical service, funeral services, and self-cultivation based on the moral and religious ideas of the three teachings, particularly Taoism.

27 Cult involves the worship of the Three Benevolent Masters: Lord Guan, Patriarch L ü, and Rulers of Fate Or Five Benevolent Masters including the above three plus King Mu and Dark Warrior Cantonese spirit-writing cults are more Taoist, many worship Patriarch Lü There are many Lüzu centers in Guangdong and Hong Kong, a development since the beginning of the 19th century

28 Many social groups worship L ü zu today, particularly drug merchants –Pharmacies made “prescriptions of immortals” gained through spirit-writing associated with L ü zu Children are among the groups –Worship demonstrates in the games they play, such as “Descent of the Eight Immortals,” which involves spirit-writing


Download ppt "Daoist Ritual and Meditation Ritual and meditation became two foremost spiritual practices of post-Han Daoism Purposes of ritual and meditation Established."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google