Presentation on theme: "Rite of Passage Ceremonies that mark a person’s progress from one phase to another They correspond with important events in human life Birth, puberty,"— Presentation transcript:
Rite of Passage Ceremonies that mark a person’s progress from one phase to another They correspond with important events in human life Birth, puberty, mating, old age, death
Rite of Passage 3 Stage Process 1. Segregation 2. Transition 3. Reintegration
3 Stages of Rite of Passage Segregation (Separation) Person is separated from rest of society Transition Person is becoming his or her new self and learning the new role. Guides, mentors may be available Reintegration Person is reintegrated into society with a new role
Consequences of Rite of Passage Produce Cognitive Dissonance in the Individual Produces conformity among new members Helps in the transition to full group membership Links individuals to the community Initiates who feel more rewarded show stronger group identity
Examples: Rites of Passage Birth Adulthood Marriage: ex. Bride Kidnapping Death
Ritual Analysis Rite of Passage and Ritual
Ritual Sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, designed to influence forces on behalf of those who practice it.
Manifest Function of Rituals Intended and recognized consequence Consequences that people observe and expect Manifest Function of Rain Dance: produce rain
Latent Function of Rituals Unintended and unrecognized consequence Not explicitly stated Latent Function of Rain Dance: Reinforces group identity by providing a regular opportunity for members of group to meet and engage in a common activity.
Can rituals be dysfunctional? Dysfunctions can be either manifest or latent Dysfunctions have a negative effect on society Manifest Dysfunction of a festivity: Disruption of transportation and excessive production of garbage.
Symbolism in Ritual Symbol: anything that represents something else. What symbolisms are described in this ritual? What do these symbols represent? ded&v=HtE7eFcKvvs ded&v=HtE7eFcKvvs
Ritual Analysis in Sports Can you find this ritual’s …….? Manifest Function Latent Function Symbolisms Is it possible that this ritual could be dysfunctional in some way? Chicago Bulls Players’ Introduction ded&v=rYFlzJyxWlw ded&v=rYFlzJyxWlw
One More Time: Ritual Analysis in Sports Can you find this ritual’s …….? Manifest Function Latent Function Symbolisms Is it possible that this ritual could be dysfunctional in some way? All Blacks’ Haka: New Zealand Pre-Game tradition
Ritual Analysis Who exercises control in rituals? Do rituals exercise control upon their participants or do the participants have control over the ritual? Do the participants have control over this particular ritual? ded&v=hGFDF96hwTE ded&v=hGFDF96hwTE
Human Beings, Rituals and Religion Rites of Passage and the Sacred
Questions to Think About What is religion? What is the role of religion in society today? What do you think will be the role of religion in the future?
Religion Religion: System of roles and norms organized around the sacred, binding people in social groups. According to Sociology, Religion is a social creation Things are sacred if people define it as sacred Religion is related to a culture’s worldview: beliefs regarding the natural and supernatural, and the manner of perceiving and interpreting the world. How does religion affect our worldview? Provide an example
The Sacred and the Profane Sacred (Religious)Profane (Secular) Supernatural world Inspires awe, respect, reverence Ordinary world Commonplace, familiar
Animism Most primitive form of religion Beliefs in a supernatural power based on the natural world Animals, plants, mountains, etc. contain spirits Might have been way to understand dreams and other phenomena
Forms of Animism ShamanismShamanism Video Spirits communicate with one person of the group (shaman). Magic: Attempt to understand, experience and influence the world using rituals, symbols, and language /watch?v=xTxlaNhA6K4 /watch?v=xTxlaNhA6K4 Describe both rituals performed by the Chinese shaman. Is the reporter biased towards shamanism?
Forms of Animism: Totemism Belief in spiritual connection or kinship between humans and animals or plants. Totem (spirit-being) is a symbol representing a family or clan.
Theism: belief in a god or gods MonotheismPolytheism Belief in one God Judaism, Christianity, Islam Organizational structure Sacred Writings Organized priesthood Belief in a number of gods Hinduism Usually powerful gods over lesser gods Lesser gods have different spheres of influence
Ethicalism Idea that moral principles have a sacred quality Based on truth, honor, tolerance Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto Goal: reach highest human potential
Ethicalism – Ex. Confucianism The master said, "A young man's duty is to behave well to his parents at home and to his elders abroad, to be cautious in giving promises and punctual in keeping them, to have kindly feelings towards everyone, but seek the intimacy of the Good.“ The master said, "Govern the people by regulations, keep order among them by chastisements, and they will flee from you, and lose all self-respect. Govern them by moral force, keep order among them by ritual, and they will keep their self-respect and come to you of their own accord." Document-Based Questions: 1. How did Confucius feel people should behave toward others? 2. What might Confucius think about criminal laws and prisons in the modern world? 3. On a personal level, do you respond better to strict rules regarding behavior, or to good examples of proper behavior?
4 Different Religious Bodies Ecclesiae Denominations Cults Sects
Ecclesia State Church Large and all-encompassing religious body that tolerates no religious competition. Often highly connected to the economic market and political system of a society. Officials are highly trained and have a lot of power Fundamentalism: strict adherence to the religion’s rules and practices. Belief that religion should be the primary force in one’s life.
Denomination Exist in societies where churches do not hold a religious monopoly- they are one religion among many. More tolerant of other religions, acknowledging rights of other religions. Ex. Religions in the United States.
Sect Relatively small religious organization that typically has split off from a denomination because of differences concerning beliefs. Sects are found in all religions. It is a subjective term and can be thought off as branches of different religions.
Cults New religious group whose beliefs and practices differ a lot form those of society’s major religions Group advocates for belief in something new Followers are usually disillusioned by traditional religions. Likely to have a charismatic leader
Functions of Religion 1.Social Solidarity Strengthens bond between people and creates sense of community Creates a sense of belonging Makes you feel less alone in the world Provides support and purpose
Functions of Religion 2. Social Control Encourages conformity to norms Keeps social order by making it divine Rituals like confession serve as emotional release and contribute to unity of the group
Functions of Religion 3. Emotional Support Helps endure disappointment and suffering Gives hope in the worst of times. Provides answers for ultimate questions. Lessens anxiety and alleviates doubts that may arise from circumstances beyond our control
Functions of Religion Write an example for each of the different functions of religion we have mentioned before: Social Solidarity Social Control Emotional Support
Conflict Theory Perspective Religion as the “Opium of the People” Karl Marx Faith in the promise of rewards in the afterlife prevent people from seeking out the sources of their hardships and from taking action to better their lives. Sport acts as a distraction for people not to see the inequality among social classes. It distracts people from their suffering.