Presentation on theme: "Rite of Passage Rite of Passage"— Presentation transcript:
1Rite of PassageRite of PassageCeremonies that mark a person’s progress from one phase to anotherThey correspond with important events in human lifeBirth, puberty, mating, old age, death
2Rite of Passage3 Stage Process1. Segregation2. Transition3. Reintegration
33 Stages of Rite of Passage Segregation (Separation)Person is separated from rest of societyTransitionPerson is becoming his or her new self and learning the new role. Guides, mentors may be availableReintegrationPerson is reintegrated into society with a new role
4Consequences of Rite of Passage Produce Cognitive Dissonance in the IndividualProduces conformity among new membersHelps in the transition to full group membershipLinks individuals to the communityInitiates who feel more rewarded show stronger group identity
5Examples: Rites of Passage BirthAdulthoodMarriage: ex. Bride KidnappingDeath
7RitualSequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, designed to influence forces on behalf of those who practice it.
8Manifest Function of Rituals Intended and recognized consequenceConsequences that people observe and expectManifest Function of Rain Dance: produce rain
9Latent Function of Rituals Unintended and unrecognized consequenceNot explicitly statedLatent Function of Rain Dance: Reinforces group identity by providing a regular opportunity for members of group to meet and engage in a common activity.
10Can rituals be dysfunctional? Dysfunctions can be either manifest or latentDysfunctions have a negative effect on societyManifest Dysfunction of a festivity: Disruption of transportation and excessive production of garbage.
11Symbolism in RitualSymbol: anything that represents something else.What symbolisms are described in this ritual? What do these symbols represent?ded&v=HtE7eFcKvvs
12Ritual Analysis in Sports Can you find this ritual’s …….?Manifest FunctionLatent FunctionSymbolismsIs it possible that this ritual could be dysfunctional in some way?Chicago Bulls Players’ Introductionded&v=rYFlzJyxWlw
13One More Time: Ritual Analysis in Sports Can you find this ritual’s …….?Manifest FunctionLatent FunctionSymbolismsIs it possible that this ritual could be dysfunctional in some way?All Blacks’ Haka: New Zealand Pre-Game tradition
14Ritual AnalysisWho exercises control in rituals?Do rituals exercise control upon their participants or do the participants have control over the ritual?Do the participants have control over this particular ritual?ded&v=hGFDF96hwTE
15Rites of Passage and the Sacred Human Beings, Rituals and Religion
16Questions to Think About What is religion?What is the role of religion in society today?What do you think will be the role of religion in the future?
17According to Sociology, Religion is a social creation Religion: System of roles and norms organized around the sacred, binding people in social groups.According to Sociology, Religion is a social creationThings are sacred if people define it as sacredReligion is related to a culture’s worldview: beliefs regarding the natural and supernatural, and the manner of perceiving and interpreting the world.How does religion affect our worldview? Provide an example
18The Sacred and the Profane Sacred (Religious)Profane (Secular)Supernatural worldInspires awe, respect, reverenceOrdinary worldCommonplace, familiar
19AnimismMost primitive form of religionBeliefs in a supernatural power based on the natural worldAnimals, plants, mountains, etc. contain spiritsMight have been way to understand dreams and other phenomena
20Forms of AnimismShamanismShamanism VideoSpirits communicate with one person of the group (shaman).Magic: Attempt to understand, experience and influence the world using rituals, symbols, and language/watch?v=xTxlaNhA6K4Describe both rituals performed by the Chinese shaman.Is the reporter biased towards shamanism?
21Forms of Animism: Totemism Belief in spiritual connection or kinship between humans and animals or plants.Totem (spirit-being) is a symbol representing a family or clan.
22Theism: belief in a god or gods MonotheismPolytheismBelief in one GodJudaism, Christianity, IslamOrganizational structureSacred WritingsOrganized priesthoodBelief in a number of godsHinduismUsually powerful gods over lesser godsLesser gods have different spheres of influence
23EthicalismIdea that moral principles have a sacred qualityBased on truth, honor, toleranceBuddhism, Confucianism, ShintoGoal: reach highest human potential
24Ethicalism – Ex. Confucianism The master said, "A young man's duty is to behave well to his parents at home and to his elders abroad, to be cautious in giving promises and punctual in keeping them, to have kindly feelings towards everyone, but seek the intimacy of the Good.“ The master said, "Govern the people by regulations, keep order among them by chastisements, and they will flee from you, and lose all self-respect. Govern them by moral force, keep order among them by ritual, and they will keep their self-respect and come to you of their own accord." Document-Based Questions: 1. How did Confucius feel people should behave toward others? 2. What might Confucius think about criminal laws and prisons in the modern world? 3. On a personal level, do you respond better to strict rules regarding behavior, or to good examples of proper behavior?
254 Different Religious Bodies EcclesiaeDenominationsCultsSects
26EcclesiaState ChurchLarge and all-encompassing religious body that tolerates no religious competition.Often highly connected to the economic market and political system of a society.Officials are highly trained and have a lot of powerFundamentalism: strict adherence to the religion’s rules and practices. Belief that religion should be the primary force in one’s life.
27DenominationExist in societies where churches do not hold a religious monopoly- they are one religion among many.More tolerant of other religions, acknowledging rights of other religions.Ex. Religions in the United States.
28SectRelatively small religious organization that typically has split off from a denomination because of differences concerning beliefs.Sects are found in all religions.It is a subjective term and can be thought off as branches of different religions.
29Group advocates for belief in something new CultsNew religious group whose beliefs and practices differ a lot form those of society’s major religionsGroup advocates for belief in something newFollowers are usually disillusioned by traditional religions. Likely to have a charismatic leader
30Functions of Religion1.Social SolidarityStrengthens bond between people and creates sense of communityCreates a sense of belongingMakes you feel less alone in the worldProvides support and purpose
31Functions of Religion2. Social ControlEncourages conformity to normsKeeps social order by making it divineRituals like confession serve as emotional release and contribute to unity of the group
32Functions of Religion3. Emotional SupportHelps endure disappointment and sufferingGives hope in the worst of times.Provides answers for ultimate questions.Lessens anxiety and alleviates doubts that may arise from circumstances beyond our control
33Functions of ReligionWrite an example for each of the different functions of religion we have mentioned before:Social SolidaritySocial ControlEmotional Support
34Conflict Theory Perspective Religion as the “Opium of the People” Karl MarxFaith in the promise of rewards in the afterlife prevent people from seeking out the sources of their hardships and from taking action to better their lives.Sport acts as a distraction for people not to see the inequality among social classes.It distracts people from their suffering.