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F aceted A pplication of S ubject T erminology A Joint Research and Development Project by OCLC and the Library of Congress Development of a Simplified.

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Presentation on theme: "F aceted A pplication of S ubject T erminology A Joint Research and Development Project by OCLC and the Library of Congress Development of a Simplified."— Presentation transcript:

1 F aceted A pplication of S ubject T erminology A Joint Research and Development Project by OCLC and the Library of Congress Development of a Simplified Subject Heading Schema Ed O’Neill, OCLC International Seminar on Bibliographic Services: Enhancing Academic Library Bibliographic Services in a Changing Environment Hong Kong, August 28, 2006

2 JULAC Team Effort ALA ALCTS/SAC Lois Mai Chan OCLC Eric Childress, Becky Dean, Anya Dyer, Kerre Kammerer, Diane Vizine-Goetz Library of Congress Lynn El-Hoshy

3 JULAC Need for New Approach  Phenomenal growth of electronic resources  Emergence of numerous new metadata schemes  Lack of skilled subject catalogers

4 JULAC Requirements  Simple in structure and syntax  Usable by non-catalogers and in non-library environments  Semantic interoperability  Compatible with MARC, Dublin Core, and other popular metadata schemas  Easy maintainability  Amenable to computer-assisted authority control

5 JULAC Options The ALCTS/SAC/Subcommittee on Metadata and Subject Analysis( ) identified three basic approaches to selecting an indexing/subject heading schema for Internet resources:  Develop a new schema  Use an existing schema(s)  Adapt or modify an existing schema

6 JULAC Issues considered  Vocabulary (Semantics): Terminology and term relationships  Application (Syntax): How words are put together to form subject terms

7 JULAC Adapting LCSH: Advantages  Rich vocabulary covering all subject areas  Synonym and homograph control  Extensive hierarchical and associative references among terms  De facto standard controlled vocabulary, extensively used by libraries, contained in millions of bibliographic records  Long and well-documented history  Strong institutional support of the Library of Congress

8 JULAC Adapting LCSH: Limitations  Incompatible in syntax with most other controlled vocabularies  Not amenable to search engines outside of the OPAC environment  Complex subject heading strings in bibliographic or metadata records are costly to maintain  Does not lend itself to automatic indexing or authority control  Requires highly skilled personnel

9 JULAC LCSH in Card Catalogs  LCSH was originally created for card catalogs—a 3x5 card environment  Cards restricted the number of subject headings per item  Cards required pre- coordinated vocabulary Z693.5 Chan, Lois Mai. U6C48 Cataloging and classification: an introduction / Lois Mai Chan. -- 2nd ed. New York : McCraw-Hill, c1994. xxii, 519 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p ) and index. ISBN Cataloging--United States. 2. Class- ification--Books. I. Title. Classification--Books. Z693.5 Chan, Lois Mai. U6C48 Cataloging and classification: an introduction / Lois Mai Chan. -- 2nd ed. New York : McCraw-Hill, c1994. xxii, 519 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p ) and index. ISBN Cataloging--United States. 2. Class- ification--Books. I. Title. Cataloging--United States. Z693.5 Chan, Lois Mai. U6C48 Cataloging and classification: an introduction / Lois Mai Chan. -- 2nd ed. New York : McCraw-Hill, c1994. xxii, 519 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p ) and index. ISBN Cataloging--United States. 2. Class- ification--Books. I. Title.

10 JULAC LCSH Topical Heading in WorldCat 170,824 (2%) Established 3,390,685 (38%) Used by LC 5,231,613 (60%) Not used by LC 9,032,049 Distinct Topical Headings 5,595,472 (62%) Have Been Assigned Only Once

11 JULAC Valid But Not Established LCSH Established Main heading/free-floating subdivision(s): Burns and scalds—Patients—Family relationships Travel—Early works to 1800 Free-floating phrase headings Woodwind trios (English horn, oboes (2)) Geographic subdivisions Banks and banking—China Multiples United States. Navy—History—War of 1812

12 JULAC LCSH Patterns for Subdivisions Free-floating subdivisions controlled by pattern headings are one example of how an established heading can be expanded. The scope of patterns is limited to particular types (patterns) of headings. Burns and scalds $x Family relationships $x Patients

13 JULAC Complex Rules for Construction Heading Construction Heading Selection

14 JULAC The FAST Solution  Retain LCSH’s rich vocabulary  Develop a simplified faceted syntax  Faceting makes it possible to pre-construct and establish all headings eliminating the need to construct headings  Cataloging/indexing is reduced to selecting appropriate headings from FAST database  Supports faceted searching & retrieval  Individual facets can be combined with other schemas

15 JULAC Sources of FAST Headings  Library of Congress Subject Authority File LC headings that combine different facets are deconstructed into discrete headings, each containing only one facet.  Headings assigned to bibliographic records in OCLC’s WorldCat Many complex headings, i.e., those containing more than one element in the heading string, are based on literary warrant. They are derived from subject fields in the records in OCLC’s WorldCat.  Headings created for FAST In some cases, faceting has required FAST headings to be created when no LCSH equivalents exists.

16 JULAC Eight Facets Topical   ―  Personal Names  Form (Genre)  Chronological  Corporate Names   Events  Geographic  ―  Uniform Titles 

17 JULAC Main headings A FAST main heading contains a word or phrase representing a concept or entity that falls into one— and only one—of the eight FAST facets. Banks and banking Bibliography California Catalogs Chemistry, Organic Emigration and immigration Self-esteem Spain

18 JULAC Subdivisions A heading string may contain one or more subdivisions belonging to the same facet as the main heading Abortion—Law and legislation—Criminal provisions Alcoholics—Services for—Planning Americans—Travel—Historiography Asians—Legal status, laws, etc. Bibliography—Union lists Brain—Cancer—Patients—Family relationships California—San Francisco—Chinatown Michigan—Lake Charlevoix Ohio—Columbus

19 JULAC Modular Approach  Each facet forms a distinct and discrete list of headings in a separate file.  These lists may be used together or separately. In a particular application, not all facets are required. For example, in indexing a collection of naturally occurring objects, the chronological and personal name headings may not be applicable.  One or more of the facets may be used with other standard lists, for instance, using topical headings from FAST and geographic headings from the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN)

20 JULAC All Headings Are Established  FAST uses the MARC 21 authority format  The MARC 21 bibliographic and authority formats were revised to accommodate FAST by authorizing the x48 (Chronological) fields  Assigning FAST headings doesn’t require an understanding of the rules for constructing headings  Authorities can serve as indexes  Automatic and/or machine assisted assignment possible

21 JULAC Topical Headings Secret service Urbanization Hospitals—Administration—Data processing Cataloging—Analytical entry Photoconductivity—Measurement Woodwind trios (English horn, oboes (2)) Sailing—Safety measures

22 JULAC Topical Authority Record                               

23 JULAC Geographic Facet  Geographic names will be established and applied in indirect order, [China—Hong Kong not Hong Kong (China)]  First level geographic names will be limited to names from the Geographic Area Codes table (e.g., Ohio, Victoria, Great Lakes, etc.) Other names will be entered as subdivisions under the smallest first level name in which it is fully contained [Europe—Curzon Line]  Bodies of water (Bays, Gulfs, etc.) that are part of oceans are established under the larger body of water [Atlantic Ocean— Chesapeake Bay not Chesapeake Bay (Md. and Va.)]  Geographic Area Codes are included in all authority records for geographic names

24 JULAC Geographic Headings Queensland [u-at-qn] Mars [zma] Maryland—Worcester County [n-us-md] Slovenia—Maribor [e-xv] Norway—Oslo Metropolitan Area [e-no] England—Chilton (Oxfordshire) [e-uk-en] India—Limbdi (Princely State) [a-ii] New South Wales—Sydney—Bondi [u-at-ne] Pacific Ocean—Rowan Bay [p]

25 JULAC Geographic Authority Record                                 

26 JULAC Uniform Title Headings Anonymous Beowulf Dead Sea scrolls Personal Authors Paradise regained (Milton, John) Killers (Hemingway, Ernest) Corporate Authors Job Training Partnership Act (United States) Basic law (Hong Kong) Uniform titles are entered directly:

27 JULAC Event Headings Tour de France (Bicycle race) World Cup (Soccer) Masters Golf Tournament IBL World Peace Conference Pan-African Conference Pacific Trade and Development Conference Events (Conference & Meetings) are entered without locations or dates; the place and dates are faceted into their own facets.

28 JULAC Form (Genre) Headings Case studies Abstracts Census Rules Dictionaries Folklore Bibliography—Catalogs Periodicals Guidebooks

29 JULAC Personal and Corporate Names Headings for persons: Woodward, Bob Dewey, Melvil, Kennedy family Charles II, King of France, Headings for corporate bodies: OCLC Ford Motor Company Dixie Chicks (Musical group)

30 JULAC Chronological (Period)  FAST chronological headings consist of only a single date or a date range  Limited to a single chronological heading per bibliographic record  Authority records will only be established when needed for references or linkages  Headings consist of either a single date or a starting and ending date but will be formatted for display:  1945  1942 – 1945  Since 1987  221 B.C A.D.

31 JULAC LCSH to FAST Conversion World War, —Influence 650 Reconstruction ( ) 651 China—Hong Kong 651 England 651 Japan 655 Fiction FAST LCSH 650 World War, $xInfluence $vFiction 650 Reconstruction ( ) $vFiction 651 Hong Kong (China) $Fiction 651 England $vFiction 651 Japan $vFiction.

32 JULAC Databases The FAST database is available as an OCLC SiteSearch database at The database may be unavailable for extended periods This version of FAST is being applied and evaluated in a few applications The Subject Analysis Committee has established a Subcommittee on FAST to provide guidance and evaluation

33 JULAC Current FAST Database Personal name headings 510,095 Corporate name headings283,581 Topical headings412,709 Geographic name headings148,960 Form headings 694 Uniform Titles? Events ? Total FAST authorities 1,356,039

34 JULAC Future Development Plans  Update and resynchronize all FAST headings with LCSH  Develop the conference/meetings facet  Develop the uniform titles facet  Expand the geographic names based on usage data and add information from the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)  Revise and expand the form (genre) facet  Complete the FAST manual

35 JULAC Advantages of FAST  Reduces elaborate heading construction rules for catalogers and indexers; heading construction is at vocabulary rather than application level  Is able to accommodate both precoordinate and postcoordinate indexing and retrieval  Is more amenable to computer-assisted indexing and authority control  Is easier and more economical to maintain than a highly enumerative vocabulary  Facilitates mapping of subject data and cross-domain searching  Accommodates different retrieval models

36 JULAC Summary LCSH Vocabulary Faceted Hierarchical Fully established Compatible with LCSH

37 JULAC Questions?


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