Presentation on theme: "Hydrosphere 7 th Period. The Water Cycle How our planet quenches its thirst."— Presentation transcript:
Hydrosphere 7 th Period
The Water Cycle How our planet quenches its thirst.
Precipitation Water Molecules travel between the atmosphere and earths surface. Water Molecules travel between the atmosphere and earths surface. A.K.A. RAIN,SNOW,SLEET,HAIL… A.K.A. RAIN,SNOW,SLEET,HAIL…
Evaporation Water evaporates and leaves behind salts and other impurities on the surface. Water evaporates and leaves behind salts and other impurities on the surface. Transpiration is the evaporation of water from parts of plants, especially leaves, also stems, flowers and roots. evaporationplants leavesstems flowersroots
Condensation Water vapor, which is a gas, rises into the air. As it cools and condenses into drops of liquid water it forms clouds.
The Four Oceans Pacific 165,640,000 square km The deepest point is the Challenger deep, which is 11,033 m below sea level The currents move clockwise in the north of the equator and counterclockwise in the south of the equator. Atlantic 81,630,000 square km It covers 22% of the Earth’s surface Located between the continents of North and South America, Europe, Africa and Antarctica Often referred to as “The Pond” Rachel Brown
Indian and Arctic Indian- 73,420,000 square km Average depth-3,890m Carries a heavy traffic of petroleum Arctic- 14,350,000 square km Smallest of all the oceans Much of the surface is covered by floating ice Rachel Brown
Salinity Salinity is the concentration of all the dissolved salts. The average salinity of ocean water is approximately 3.5 percent. Rachel Brown
There are 3 main layers of the ocean! 1. Surface 2. Thermocline 3. Deep zone
Surface Zone; * The surface layer… is the warm, top layer. Sunlight heats the top 100 m of the surface zone. * Surface currents mix warm water with the cooler water from below.
Theremocline; * Temperature in zone drops faster with increased depth than it does anywhere else. Deep Zone; * extends from base of middle layer (thermocline) to the bottom of the ocean * Temperature averages to about 2 degrees celcius.
Donovan Waryold Hydrosphere The ocean makes the temperature of the atmosphere change much slower that it normally would. If the ocean didn’t regulate atmospheric and surface temperatures it would be to extreme for life to exist on earth.
Donovan Waryold local temperatures all local temperatures all around the world around the world are regulated by the are regulated by the world ocean. world ocean.
Surface Currents Surface currents occur when water at the ocean’s surface is moved by winds that blow in certain patterns because of the Earth’s spin and Coriolis effect. The Coriolis effect makes moving objects appear to curve toward the right in the N. hemisphere and toward the left in S. hemisphere. Modifie from MapQues t.com Blacie Hunt
Surface Currents Surface currents are primarily driven by the wind. Currents flowing toward the equator are generally cool, and currents flowing away are warm. Temperature helps us determine the speed and direction of surface currents and about heat stored in ocean. Blacie Hunt
Surface Currents Oceanographers often divide the pacific and south pacific based on direction of surface current flow in each half of the pacific. Surface currents in the Pacific move in a clockwise direction north of the equator. Whereas surface currents flow in a counter clockwise direction south of the equator. The Atlantic ocean is also divided in to halves, north half and south half based on directions of surface current flow. Blacie Hunt
Formation of Deep Ocean Currents This picture represents the oceans different temperatures. This picture was found at: Deep ocean currents form when the cold water from the north and south poles sinks below warmer, less dense ocean water and flows toward the equator. Underwater currents are sixteen times stronger than all of the earths rivers combined Sierra Lewis
Antarctica’s coast is where the worlds densest and coldest water can be found. Sierra Lewis
How much of the world’s water is fresh? About 70% of the Earth’s surface is made of water Only 3% is fresh water Jordan Brown
Ice caps and glaciers - Only one percent of the earth’s fresh water is drinkable - The biggest amount of drinkable water is stored in ice caps or glaciers Jordan Brown
River Systems By: Matt Murphy Rivers systems consist of rivers and streams that drain a river basin. They also contain all the landscape drained by a river.
Tributaries By: Matt Murphy Tributaries are small creeks or rivers that flow into larger bodies of water. Tributaries do not empty into the sea but rather rivers.
Hydrosphere: Groundwater Groundwater – The water beneath the earth’s surface. Groundwater accounts for a little under one 1% of all the water on earth. Andrew Peters-Greer
How is ground water important? Groundwater supplies water for many agricultural and industrial uses 40% of people living in the United States use Ground water for drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.
Hydrosphere Aquifer – A rock layer that stores and allows the flow of ground water Much Of the United States is underlain by aquifers Robbie Alexander
Recharge Zone A recharge zone is the land where the water enters an aquifer Recharge is the process of water refreshing an aquifer This happens when rain filters through the rock or soil Robbie Alexander