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Michael Hogan Deputy Director-General Community Engagement Division

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1 Michael Hogan Deputy Director-General Community Engagement Division
The Community Engagement Strategy Rebuilding trust in Government in Queensland, Australia Michael Hogan Deputy Director-General Community Engagement Division Professor Robert Bush, Karin Finsterle and Anne Johansson At the outset I’d like to point out that Queensland’s Community Engagement initiative is broader than policy improvement. What I’m going to present here today is the Queensland Government’s attempt to modernise democracy by enhancing citizen’s participation in Government institutions. Community Engagement Division

2 Outline Part one: The Queensland Context Part two: Benchmarking Trust
Part three: An Improvement Strategy Part four: Critical Observations So why engage with the community? Evidence from Queensland and around the world indicates that throughout democracies we are witnessing a decline in public trust in Government, its processes and its institutions. This includes the public sector and Government agencies. I’ll talk more about the evidence for that later, but certainly part of the Community Engagement agenda is about restoring integrity in the political process through greater public trust - thereby increasing legitimacy and accountability. But the Queensland Premier also stated that if you deepen and broaden the level of Community Engagement, it will follow that better, more informed decisions result - for better community and client outcomes - including effective policies and services. It’s also about valuing, acknowledging and tapping the many fine community efforts. It involves informed judgments, by all concerned, not just Government decision-makers. Community Engagement Division

3 Queensland, Australia And so here is the predicament - this fellow on his roof sort of says it all. A clear crisis, affecting probably thousands of people, and he’s actually reached the right number - but no-one is listening. The problem highlighted I think, is that Government is perceived to be, and is all too often, unresponsive. Community Engagement Division

4 Queensland, Australia Details
Population size: 3.6 million(2001 Census) Indigenous population size: 113,000 (3.1%)(2001 Census) Size 1,727,000 square km or 5 times size of Japan or UK; greatest length 2,100km greatest breadth 1,450km Main economic activities: Mining Agriculture (including cattle trade; fresh and processed foods) Government: Single house of Parliament with elections every 3 years Public Service: 177,000 staff in 23 Departments So this then is what we’re attempting to do. As I mentioned, it’s about public participation in Government institutions, and through that the theory, the “leap of faith” if you will, is that better policy, services, programs and outcomes will result. Community Engagement Division

5 Key Issues in the Construction of ‘Trust’ in Government and its Measurement
Single dimension Construct V Multidimensional Construct Values Construct V Action Construct Socially / Economically Structured Construct V Neutral Construct Universal Construct V Culturally and Nationally Bound Construct Community Engagement covers a wide range of processes. It requires access to information that’s relevant - and access for all Queenslanders. - so that the interaction is informed as possible. It includes consultation processes, where Government takes the lead and the public is essentially passive or responsive in the equation. But it also includes the next step of where people help shape the policy debate - where people can initiate consideration and action, and where they are actively involved. This move to more active participation starts to shift the balance about where decisions are made - but does so within the representative system - so that the whole system supports representative democracy. In such an environment, the role of public servant becomes more “enabler” of collaborative links and processes - and less the traditional “negotiator” between the Government and external interests. Community Engagement Division

6 Queensland Approach to the Measurement of Levels of Public Confidence in Government Institutions
Use of Recognised Standard Measures – World Values Survey Focus of Action rather than Passive Constructs Link Action resources to Strategic Interventions in the Representative, Executive and Administrative System Annual Report to Parliament and citizens And so we move to Queensland’s Community Engagement agenda - which takes a variety of forms that cover Queensland’s Government institutions in a range of different ways - from a number of different angles. I’ll go through some of these examples in more detail later. But in particular I’d like to draw your attention to the third dot point. The Premier’s “Restoring Integrity” Plan for Queensland sets out a number of initiatives to improve public access to, and participation in, Government institutions - including Queensland’s e-democracy initiative and regional sitting of Parliament. Meredith said - one of State priorities Interestingly - budget time - Treasury. Community Engagement Division

7 Queensland Approach to the Measurement of Levels of Public Confidence in Government Institutions (Cont.) Adopt a Multidimensional Approach Participation Confidence Knowledge Social exclusion In January 2001, the Premier announced the establishment of an entire Division of his department - - 150 people or a third of the entire department - dedicated to addressing this issue of dissatisfaction and cynicism in the community by building productive and trusting relationships with the community and business. Community Engagement Division

8 Levels of Public Confidence in Institutions, Australia
Source: Adapted from Papadakis, E. (1999), ‘Constituents of confidence and mistrust in Australian institutions’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 34(1) p. 76. The World Values Survey 1983 and 1995, population sample (n=2,048) +1 68 67 Armed Forces +2 26 24 Trade Unions -26 35 61 Legal System -29 55 Federal Government -9 30.5 38 N/A 47 National Parliament Public Service Difference % 1995 % 1983 % “Great Deal / A Lot” The Premier’s statement essentially aligns Queensland with the worldwide trend of addressing the notion that people are not losing interest - they’re just turning away from traditional institutions. Further that people actually expect to be involved, but only when they feel that such involvement will lead to real outcomes, or at least that their involvement is respected, reciprocated and they can see the results of their efforts through feedback. Community Engagement Division

9 Levels of Public Confidence in Institutions, Queensland State, 2001
27 Trade Unions 38 Legal System 57 Local Government 45 Government Agencies 52 State Parliament 58 Electoral System “Great Deal / A Lot” % In Queensland we’ve also conducted surveys of our own (not only relying on United States and overseas) - realising the importance of an evidence-based approach. The surveys focussed on (a) (b) and (c) - - based on a stratified population sample of 3000 Queenslanders conducted by the Queensland Office of Economic and Statistical Research in 2000 and 2001. Source: Queensland Household Survey, Office of Economic and Statistical Research, Queensland Treasury Stratified population sample (telephone) (n=3,000) Community Engagement Division

10 Levels of Public Knowledge about the Workings of Queensland Government and Parliament, 2001
19 How to become involved in the planning work of local government 12 How to become involved in the planning work of a government department 30 How to make a representation to a Government Minister 37 How to make a representation to a Member of Parliament 22 How to make a representation to Parliament 28 What Queensland Government Ministers do How the Queensland Parliament works 35 How the Electoral System works Very Good / Good % Minister Assisting the Premier on Women’s Policy Minister Assisting the Premier in North Queensland Parliamentary Secretary for Multicultural Affairs Parliamentary Secretary for Far North Queensland. Lead and Facilitate The Division is not about doing other agencies consultations for them - Or telling agencies or the community how they should engage. There are already many fine examples of engagement that achieves real outcomes - - we want to identify and highlight those examples - and facilitate improvements across Government and the community. Community Engagement Division Source: Queensland Household Survey, Office of Economic and Statistical Research, Queensland Treasury Stratified population sample (telephone)(n=3,000)

11 Levels of Social and Civic Participation in Queensland, 2000
12 Self-help group 15 Hobby group 40 Join social / sport club 67 Contact neighbours 86 Contact friends / family Social Participation (per month) 6 Join a Political Party / Trade Union 9 Campaign 10 Join Community Action Group 7 Attend Protest Meeting 16 Contact with State MP Write to Local Councillor 19 Contact with Local Councillor Civic Participation (per annum) % When the Division was established in April it brought together a number of existing units with a long history of engaging communities, building their capacity to engage and making sure certain disadvantaged groups were being heard. - CYCU - Partnerships and property planning - CPQ - Queensland’s Crime Prevention strategy - MAQ - Queensland’s Multicultural Policy - OFW - WIL - Regional Communities Also E-Democracy - Premier’s E-Democracy communication unit. And and Innovation Unit - promote evidence-based learning, information sharing. Community Engagement Division Source: Queensland Household Survey, Office of Economic and Statistical Research, Queensland Treasury Stratified population sample (telephone)(n=3,000)

12 Participation, Knowledge and Confidence is Socially and Economically Structured
More women participate than men, except in sport Lower income and education participate more with neighbours than in civic affairs Participation changes across the life cycle High income earners participate more in civic activities Community Engagement Division

13 Participation, Knowledge and Confidence is Socially and Economically structured
Women have slightly lower levels of knowledge than men do Knowledge increases with age Low income and education have lower levels of knowledge People born overseas (other than United Kingdom or New Zealand) or with home language other than English have slightly lower levels of knowledge Community Engagement Division

14 Participation, Knowledge and Confidence is Socially and Economically Structured
Women have slightly lower levels of confidence than men do Confidence increases with age Low income and education have lower levels of confidence People born overseas (other than United Kingdom or New Zealand) or with home language other than English have slightly lower levels of confidence Community Engagement Division

15 Outcomes of Social and Civic Participation
Informal social participation Social activities in public Group activities Social participation Personal Well being Collective Civic Participation Individual Civic Participation Civic Participation Confidence / Community Control Activities Participation Outcomes .47 .82 .81 .71 .88 (.12) (.18) (.02) (.08) ( ) = Path co-efficient .N = Correlation co-efficient Vision - means working with communities and Government. Sets out principles of engagement - Inclusiveness - connecting with those hardest to reach. - Reaching out - actively improving the ways Government and Communities work together. - Mutual Respect - listening, understanding, acting on experience different from our own. - Integrity - of process, with ethical principles of conduct. - Affirming Diversity - changing the processes of Government to incorporate diverse values and interests. Sets out Goals for the Division - Working with communities - supporting learning, providing information and opportunities, linking with communities hardest to reach. - Working with Government - enabling change in the way Government engages. - Creating new and effective ways to engage - such as e-Democracy. - Realising benefits of diversity. Range of Innovations - showcasing, building new ways to engage, local solutions, putting democracy on line. Source: Bush, R. & Baum, Fran (2001) ‘Health, Inequities. Community and Social Capital’, Eckersley, R., Dixon, J., & Douglas, B. (Eds) The Social Origins of Health and Well-being’, p. 201 Community Engagement Division

16 Relationship Between Civic Knowledge and Confidence in Government Institutions
.29 .31 Local Government .25 .26 Government Agencies - Ministers .39 .42 Parliament .38 .41 Electoral System Contingency Coefficient (0 to approx 1) Phi Coefficient (0 to approx 2.45) Source: Queensland Household Survey, Office of Economic and Statistical Research, Queensland Treasury Stratified population sample (telephone) (n=3,000) Community Engagement Division

17 Summary Trust is: Multidimensional construct that focuses on actions and values, including a new measure of access to resources and decision makers The social and economic structures of participation, knowledge and confidence means inclusion strategies are needed Knowledge is only moderately associated with confidence in government institutions. Is there an important role for critical appraisal that comes with increased knowledge as well? Increasing civic engagement leads to a greater sense of confidence and control over destiny Community Engagement Division

18 Options for Increased Citizen Participation within Representative Democracies
Models Responsive Model Participation Model Deliberation Model Critical Success Factors Responses Self Development System and Subjective Legitimacy Community Engagement Division

19 Integrated Multi-level Initiative
Strengthens Representative Democracy Widening and deepening Citizen Participation Building Community capacity and Public Sector Capability Community Engagement Division

20 The integrated multi-level initiative
Target > all state citizens and elected representatives Specific initiatives > A1 The Parliament: Making the Parliament more accessible A2 Community Cabinet: Taking the Cabinet to local communities Target> all state citizens, the public service Specific Initiatives > B1 Regional Forums: Establishing regional citizen forums attended by Ministers B2 e-Democracy: Using e-technologies to engage new and marginal communities Target> disadvantaged communities Specific initiatives > C1 Community Renewal: Targeting capacity building in fragmented and disadvantaged communities C2 Partnerships with Indigenous communities through negotiating tables: Building partnerships with Indigenous communities C3 Beyond geographical communities: Integrating other communities into governance arrangements, particularly women and ethnic communities C4 Public Sector Improvement A Strengthening representative democracy B Widening and deepening citizen participation The Division’s work (and Government generally) is aimed at improving public participation in Government institutions at three levels. Firstly - building community capacity. C Building community capacity and Public Sector capability Community Engagement Division

21 The Parliament - Representative Democracy
Limited knowledge about Parliament Lack of regional access Moves beyond one-off event by creating new ongoing opportunities by using e-technologies and a support team to address social exclusion Community Engagement Division

22 E-Parliament - Key Features
Three strategies strengthen the relationship between citizens and Parliament by providing enhanced access: In 2002, the Queensland Parliament will sit for a week in a regional centre Parliament will be transmitted over the Internet with a team working with communities to build support E-petitioning system for citizens being introduced Community Engagement Division

23 Community Cabinet – Representative Democracy
Mt Isa Cairns Townsville Mackay Rockhampton Toowoomba Bring the Cabinet to local areas on a regular basis Giving time for formal and informal delegations and meetings with the Premier, Ministers and senior officials Community Engagement Division

24 Key Features Policy and case study evaluation
People want to meet their government Those who come tend to have high education and incomes Deals with local issues and concerns Community Engagement Division

25 Regional Communities: strengthening participatory democracy
Building partnerships with regional communities to provide greater community participation in government decision making $27.5 million in 4 years Runs Regional Conferences and Forums Has 8 Regional Offices Community Engagement Division

26 Key Features External Policy and Program Evaluation with Government, Community and Business Very strong community and business support Demonstrates ability to deal with more complex issues Ministerial involvement is very important to Regions Potential to be more future solutions orientated Community Engagement Division

27 E-Democracy - Representative / Participatory Democracy
Few early attempts at e-democracy have integrated the technology within a community engagement agenda A policy that requires equity of access to be considered, is superior Community Engagement Division

28 Key Features To address equity issues, e-technologies are being linked to regional forums and other citizens’ networks so that policy deliberations can involve a wider range of people across Queensland A trial of community consultation on selected issues and policy matters via the Internet Post Government consultation documents relevant to nominated issue Accept public comment on these issues Government response posted on site Community Engagement Division

29 Community Renewal – Building Capacity
A partnership between Government and people living in renewal areas to promote safety, healthy and confident communities Established 1998 $45 million in 14 areas Community Engagement Division

30 Key Features Under multi-site case evaluation
Involves communities in planning and development Works with networks of citizens and groups Minister approves funds on advice from community committees Trials new models It takes a lot of time and energy to negotiate ways through the issues of many groups

31 Cape York Partnerships – Participatory Democracy
A commitment by Government to work in partnership with the Indigenous Communities of Cape York to improve economic and social conditions

32 Key Features Not yet evaluated
Directly addresses governance issues through negotiations at round-tables between community representatives and government departments Learning new ways to do business for communities and for public servants Struggles to overcome the limits of the administrative arrangements in government agencies Address dependence on welfare, lack of economic infrastructure and major health and social issues

33 CE Improvement Strategy: Purpose
4 year Government endorsed improvement strategy Whole-of-Government approach Focus on better skilled public servants improved engagement tools stronger engagement management systems development of inclusion strategies new forms of accountability Community Engagement Division

34 CED: The Role of the Division
Advise and support the Premier Lead and facilitate: Whole-of-Government approach to community engagement. Capacity-building across Government and community for community engagement. Community engagement policy, projects and networks. Select strategic policies & initiatives. Community Engagement Division

35 Critical Conclusions ‘Trust’ is a multidimensional construct related to actions, values and access to decision-making Trust may not be enough - Is there a role of critical appraisal that comes with increased knowledge? Dimensions of ‘trust’ are socially and economically structured so social inclusion strategies are important Community Engagement Division

36 Critical Conclusions The Queensland initiative set out to modernise democracy by: Strengthening representative democracy Widening and deepening citizen participation Building capacity in communities Building capability of the public sector There is strong political and central agency leadership Public accountability Community Engagement Division

37 The Challenge Getting the right balance between reforming the institutions of government and bringing citizens closer to existing processes of Government policy making and service improvement. Community Engagement Division

38 How you can be involved The Division is keen to engage with anyone with experience or an interest in community engagement. visit our website at - us at - Community Engagement Division


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