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Alien aquatic biota: patterns and current issues Dan Minchin Dan Minchin INVASIVE SPECIES IN IRELAND Belfast, 22 March 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Alien aquatic biota: patterns and current issues Dan Minchin Dan Minchin INVASIVE SPECIES IN IRELAND Belfast, 22 March 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alien aquatic biota: patterns and current issues Dan Minchin Dan Minchin INVASIVE SPECIES IN IRELAND Belfast, 22 March 2007

2 I gratefully acknowledge: Dr Cathy Maguire IRELAND: EHSNI, EPA, MI, NPWS, NRFB, SRFB, SRBD, UL, WI, WRFB, ELSEWHERE: CAWTHRON & NIWA-NZ, CRIMP-CSIRO, EU-ALARM, EU-DAISIE, Friday Harbour, ICES-BWSG, ICES- WGITMO, IUCN-ISSG, PICES, Queensland Museum, NCMCC, Plymouth ML, SAMS …and many good friends

3 1. EU projects ALARM & DAISIE 2. Some case histories 3. Species on the move

4 EU FW6 Integrated Project - ALARM http://www.alarmproject.net/alarm/ Environmental risk assessment Modules: climate, pollination, socio-economics, chemicals, bioinvasions Bioinvasions - pathways - ecosystem invasibility & risk assessment assessment - traits of invaders - management issues

5 Invasions – Socio-economics Management of zebra mussels on the Ebro River – National not regional problem Binimelis et al. 2005 ALARM Report

6 Invasions - Chemicals Organotin (TBT) toxicity in ports 1987-1993-1999-2005 Overall decline of TBT Similar trend in France Minchin & Oehlman (in prep)

7 Toolkits Rapid assessments Rapid assessments Minchin 2007 Aquatic Invaders (in press) Minchin 2007 Aquatic Invaders (in press) Biopollution index Olenin et al. 2007 Marine Pollution Bulletin (in press) Olenin et al. 2007 Marine Pollution Bulletin (in press) Community/habitat/ecosystem Community/habitat/ecosystem

8 Principle human activities Minchin 2007. Marine Pollution Bulletin (in press) Minchin et al. (in prep.) 1. Shipping 2. Wild fisheries 3. Culture 4. Ornamental 5. Live food 6. Leisure 7. Research/edu. 8. Biocontrol 9. Flow change 10. Others

9 “Invasion corridors” in Europe Expansion of Ponto- caspian species Northern corridor special study area

10 Records of alien species in European coastal waters reported in Aquatic Invasions in 2006 Charybdis feriata Rapana venosa Mytilopsis leucophaeata Hemimysis anomala Neogobius melanostomus Platax teira Cardites akabana Aplysia dactylomela Parupeneus forsskali Callinectes sapidus Chromodoris quadricolor Percon gibbesi Cercopagis pengoi Eriocheir sinensis Diadema setosum

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12 EU FW6 Strategic Targeted Research Project DAISIE www.europe-aliens.org Linked to ALARM Linked to ALARM Register of experts Register of experts Alien species register Alien species register Invasive species Invasive species documentation documentation Mapping European Mapping European distributions distributions Join the European Alien Species Expertise Registry ! http://daisie.ckff.si

13 Irish database Alien & Cryptogenic Alien & Cryptogenic Freshwater (~101) Freshwater (~101) Marine and brackish (~75) Marine and brackish (~75) 6 ‘new’ species in last year 6 ‘new’ species in last year ca 40 new localities in last year ca 40 new localities in last year UK marine & brackish (~142) UK marine & brackish (~142)

14 1 Decommissioned vessels “Ghost ships”

15 US naval vessels 71 ships Idle for many years In oyster area Oysters fouling hulls? US to Europe

16 Breaking up yard in Britain Idle while being dissembled Idle while being dissembled Opportunities for colonisation Opportunities for colonisation

17 Commercial species on hulls Minchin & Gollasch 2003 Biofouling 19: 111-122 Blue mussel 19% Blue mussel 19% Pacific oyster 10% Pacific oyster 10% Horse mussel 3% Horse mussel 3% Flat oyster 2% Flat oyster 2% Olympic oyster 2% Olympic oyster 2% Soft shell clam 2% Soft shell clam 2% Surf clams 2% Surf clams 2%

18 Oysters can carry diseases Minchin & Mann 2003 ICES ITMOWG Risk of transporting Perkensis and MSX Risk of transporting other biota

19 Decommissioned vessels Mytilus galloprovincialis Styela clava Minchin 2006 In: The ecology of transportation. Springer

20 2 Movements of fishes

21 European fish movements García-Berthou et al. 2005. Introduction pathways and establishment rates of invasive aquatic species in Europe. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Science 62, 453-463.

22 Pseudorasbora parva ! Orfe fish farms # Wild Gudgeon The top-mouthed gudgeon Gozlan et al. 2005 Nature 435: 1046

23 Adverse Impact of intron on native speciesAdverse Impact of intron on native species Mass Mortalities Rosette Agent Rosette-like Agent Identical Mass Mortalities Recreational fishing Aquaculture industry Global scale Threat to biodiversity Coarse fish Salmonids Adverse impact of an introduction on native species

24 3 An aquaculture story

25 Japanese eel imports Parasite escapes to the wild Parasite infects native eels Native eels suffer organ damage Atlantic eel stock alreading declining Anguillicola a “coffin nail”

26 Pacific parasite of eels Spread: Adult eel movements in tanks Infected intermediate stages, ballast water Natural spread Paratenic hosts (insects?)

27 4 Oysters move other species – again!

28 Pressed for trade Oyster movements have a long history Since 1960’s Ireland prevented entry EU trade in pacific oysters January 1993 – half-grown imports Minchin 1996 Aquatic Conservation, Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 4: 229-244

29 Pacific oysters are imported Trade agreement enter Ireland - 1993 Mytilicola orientalis becomes established Oyster summer mortalities appear Slipper limpets may be introduced with bottom cultured oysters or mussels

30 5 A gardner’s faut pas

31 The gardener’s hand

32 Garden centres Introductions of plants

33 Ornamental pond plants rapidly speading Lough Corrib Country-wide Lough Derg, Shannon

34 Nuttall’s pondweed 2005 2006 Absen t Prese nt Moder ate Dens e Figure 5 : Abundance of Nuttall’s pondweed, Lough Derg 2005 Absen t Prese nt Moder ate Dens e Figure 6 : Abundance of Nuttall’s pondweed, Lough Derg 2006

35 Water violet 2005-06 2006 Figure 11: Abundance of Water Violet, Hottnia palustris, 2005 - 2006 Moderate Dense 2006 <2002-2006 o o o o o o Minchin & Boelens 2005 Irish Naturalists’ Journal

36 6 The cryptogen

37 Didemnum sp – a sea squirt Likely to impact aquaculture and fisheries Photo: Damien Offer Photo: Liz Sides Minchin & Sides 2006 Aquatic Invasions 1: 143-147

38 Potential impact on aquaculture

39 St Georges Bank @80m, 140km 2 Potential impact on benthic resources Potential impact on benthic resources Likely impact on benthic food chains

40 Species on the move

41 Corbicula spp Asian clam Now spreading from SE Britain Can survive in air long periods A small number can create a new population Very invasive Likely to arrive in Ireland

42 Pacifastacus leniusculus a freshwater crayfish Moved for culture AmbulatoryPredatory Interferes with bait angling Competes with ‘native’ crayfish Likely to arrive in Ireland

43 Undaria pinnatifida Japanese kelp Introduced for culture to Brittany In southern Britain Excludes native algae May be transported with small craft

44 Eriocheir sinensis Chinese mitten-crab Photo: Stephan Gollasch Marlin Minchin 2006 Irish Naturalists’ Journal 28: 303-4

45 Mitten-crabs could spread throughout Ireland Cyst in lung Prey on fish eggs and insects

46 Future scenarios facing Ireland Unexplained and crisis events Further expansion of unwanted species New routes – new risks Human economy/health issues Rapid transport – high risk Managing secondary spread from Britain New industry: aquaculture biotechnology Leisure activities Imported live foods

47 So how do we manage? Pro-active management Risk assessments Pre-border controls Rapid assessment monitoring

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49 Join the European Alien Species Expertise Registry ! http://daisie.ckff.si


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