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Rivers and Streams Jacob Brent, Selin Yenibahar, and Jacob Klein.

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1 Rivers and Streams Jacob Brent, Selin Yenibahar, and Jacob Klein

2 ● The world’s largest river is the Nile River in Egypt Rivers and Streams!

3 ●Rivers: bodies of water with a current that flows in one general direction. ●A stream: a body of water that flows across the Earth's surface via a current and is contained within a narrow channel and banks.body of water ●Narrower at the beginning ●Temperature: ranges from below freezing (0°C) to around 25°C. ●Depth varies from ankle deep to the deepest being the Congo at around 700 ft! ●The average salinity is.5 ppt (part per thousand) ○ for every thousand kilograms of water, there is half a gram of salt. ●A river gets recharged by the discharge of groundwater aquifers. ●A stream gets recharged by precipitation and runoff. Characteristics

4 Importance of Rivers and Streams ●Importance to the Water Cycle: ●When precipitation falls on land, some of it seeps into the ground and becomes part of the ground water, which feeds wells, springs, lakes, and rivers. Much of the precipitation flows over the ground as surface runoff and joins rivers flowing back to the ocean. ●Snow melts ->runoff ->flows into rivers and oceans ->into the ground (groundwater) ●Importance to Biotic Factors: ●When the water freezes it floats to the surface and traps the heat in which benefits the organisms in the winter time ●The rocks in the river provide hiding places for organisms ●Many animals are guided by the stream flow ●Rivers are a big source of freshwater ●the habitat of mammals, bacteria, amphibians, and various birds species

5 autotrophs: -algae such as phytoplankton and periphyton -mosses/liverworts (attach themselves to solid objects) -duckweed/water hyacinth (plants that float at the surface) Organisms of Rivers and Streams heterotrophs: -amphibians (salamanders) -reptiles(turtles/snakes) -fish (brook trout) -mammals (beavers/hippos/river dolphins) scavengers/decomposers -crayfish, catfish, snails, and flatworms are all scavengers -bacteria and fungi are decomposers

6 The Salmon is a threatened and very important species to rivers. Ecological value: Salmon function as enormous pumps that push vast amounts of nutrients upstream to the headwaters of low productivity rivers. Salmon carcasses are the primary food for invertebrates and fish, as well as marine mammals to birds--eagles, ducks and songbirds--to terrestrial mammals, especially bears and humans. Indus River Dolphin: Only about 1,100 exist today in the lower parts of the Indus River in Pakistan. Numbers declined dramatically after the construction of an irrigation system. Most dolphins are confined to a 750 mile stretch of the river and divided into isolated populations by six barrages. They have adapted to life in the muddy river and are functionally blind. Keystone Species of Rivers/Streams

7 ● Temperature-Hottest in summer and coldest in winter. ● Level-The level depends on the location because much of the level has to do with the amount of rainfall to the region where the river or stream is located. ● Adaptations- Plants such as the Lotus are common in the floodplain of the nile. Due to the high change in water levels it adapted to be able to lie dormant after the water receded. ● Salinity- the salinity is low during rainy seasons Seasonal Changes

8 ● Agriculture, urbanization, and industrialization are all leading causes to degradation of the Nile River. The nile crosses through several LDCs in Africa, the cleaning of the used water used by humans becomes costly and inefficient for the country. ● Water pollution alters the physical environment, threatens the wildlife habitat, and commercial/recreational fisheries. ● Future/Current Problems: Dams cause water to back up, flooding large areas of land and forming a reservoir, which destroys terrestrial habitats. Dams turn powerful rivers into trickles, altering water temperature, sediment transport, and prevents fish migrations. ● There are preserves for rivers such as Yukon Charley Rivers National Preserve, the Ventura River Preserve, the Hassayampa River Preserve, and more! Problems for Rivers and Streams

9 ● RPW-The River Protection Workgroup is a community project out of Colorado that came together to preserve natural development and water development. ● TRPA -Texas River Protection Agency ● California Urban Water Council ● (FOR) Friends of The River ● (PARC) Protect American River Canyons ● River Management Society ● And many, many more! Groups

10 ● http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/river.htm http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/river.htm ● http://echo2.epfl.ch/VICAIRE/mod_2/chapt_5/main.htm http://echo2.epfl.ch/VICAIRE/mod_2/chapt_5/main.htm ● http://www.min-travel.com/egypt_maps.asp http://www.min-travel.com/egypt_maps.asp ● http://geography.about.com/od/physicalgeography/a/streamorder.htm http://geography.about.com/od/physicalgeography/a/streamorder.htm ● http://www.mapsofworld.com/thematic-maps/world-river-map.html http://www.mapsofworld.com/thematic-maps/world-river-map.html ● http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle-kids.html http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle-kids.html ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_ecosystem#Biotic_Factors http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_ecosystem#Biotic_Factors ● http://books.google.com/books?id=PQcgDM2rkHAC&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=decomposers+and+scavengers+of+rivers&source=bl&ots=gkwOfNEQgH &sig=XQ4BERIBQFXTQ73erct_sUI9SBA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5wAWVMLiFs- zyATm3oDgDg&ved=0CFkQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=decomposers%20and%20scavengers%20of%20rivers&f=false http://books.google.com/books?id=PQcgDM2rkHAC&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=decomposers+and+scavengers+of+rivers&source=bl&ots=gkwOfNEQgH &sig=XQ4BERIBQFXTQ73erct_sUI9SBA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5wAWVMLiFs- zyATm3oDgDg&ved=0CFkQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=decomposers%20and%20scavengers%20of%20rivers&f=false ● http://sitemaker.umich.edu/sec004_gp5/pollutionhttp://sitemaker.umich.edu/sec004_gp5/pollution ● http://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/about/whySalmon.php ● http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/indus-river-dolphin http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/indus-river-dolphin ● http://ovlc.org/preserves/ventura-river-rancho-el-nido/ http://ovlc.org/preserves/ventura-river-rancho-el-nido/ ● http://www.nps.gov/yuch/index.htm http://www.nps.gov/yuch/index.htm ● www.ocs.fortlewis.edu www.ocs.fortlewis.edu Bibliography

11 Lakes and Ponds David Geng, Emily Wang, Jon Jon

12 Lakes and Ponds Lake and Pond biomes can be found around the world. They cover only 2 percent of the land surface but are used as vital water supplies for many areas. The largest lake is the Caspian Sea. It has a surface area of 143,200 sq mi. Although it is called a “Sea” it is actually a lake. It is located between Iran and Russia.

13 Physical Characteristics To be classified as a lake, it has to meet these requirements: -Land locked -Standing or slow water movement In addition, ponds have to have to be shallow enough for rooted plants to grow. A standing water ecosystem is characterized by zonation. A lake has three zones: littoral, limnetic, and profundal zones Characteristics Average Temperature: Top - 20 C / Middle - 12 C / Bottom - 6 C Average Depth: 350m A freshwater lake/pond must have less than 500 ppm of dissolved salt (salinity) Lakes are recharged by rain water and through runoff from watersheds

14 Importance of Lakes and Ponds Lakes and ponds are important locations for the evaporation process. Lakes and ponds are essential parts of the water table that is above ground. Most importantly, lakes and ponds are home to a variety of life forms. These forms range from: -Fish -Microbes -Rooted plants -Insects Lakes and ponds are especially important when temperatures drop below freezing. As the top layer freezes, the ice floats. This protects and insulates the animals underneath allowing them to survive the cold temperatures.

15 Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Autotrophs -Phytoplankton -Grassy pondweed -Cattails Phytoplankton is very significant because it does ~50% of the photosynthesis on the planet. Heterotrophs -Zooplankton -Common carp -Minnows -Mallard DucksMallard Ducks

16 Decomposers and Scavengers - Fungi -Slugs -Termites

17 Seasonal Patterns of Lakes Thermal Stratification -layers of different temperatures -Summer: sunlight warms surface waters, making them less dense. Cold water is more dense and remains at the bottom. Temperature transition = thermocline -Fall: fall turnover where layers mix. Surface water cools, becomes more dense, and sinks to bottom. -Winter: the top layer freezes allowing fish and other animals to survive -Spring: spring turnover where surface water sinks to bottom, bringing nutrient minerals to surface

18 State of the Great Lakes Invasive species have steadily increased in amount over the decades. Bioaccumulative toxic chemicals have decreased significantly Plastic pollution - Great Lakes “Garbage Patch”

19 Preservation groups Sustain Our Great Lakes - group of private and public organizations that rewards on-the-ground habitat restoration with competitive grants. From ‘06 - ‘13 has awarded 193 grants worth $37.1 million for lake habitat restoration. Evaluates programs that have been sponsored by SOGL.

20 Bibliography "4 Heterotrophs & 4 Autotrophs in the Freshwater Biome." EHow. Demand Media, 22 May 2011. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. "Biology Reference." Lakes and Ponds. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. "New Concerns About Plastic Pollution in Great Lakes 'Garbage Patch'" News Watch. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. "Sustain Our Great Lakes Home." Sustain Our Great Lakes Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014.Raven, Peter H., David M. "Freshwater Biome." Freshwater Biome. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. Hassenzahl, and Linda R. Berg. Environment / Peter H. Raven, David M. Hassenzahl and Linda R. Berg. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2013. Print.

21 Estuaries Sarah Goodman, Olivia Roth, Lekha Mukkamala and Laura Vojak

22 ESTUARIES Estuaries are found when the freshwater rivers flow into the ocean, mixing with the salt water. They are partially enclosed. The St. Lawrence River is the largest estuary.

23 Types of Estuaries Estuaries provide food, recreation, and economic opportunities to human communities, as well as habitats, food, and protected breeding areas for many species. Because of these benefits, many human communities are located in or near estuaries. 4 types: ● coastal plain ● tectonic ● bar built ● fjord

24 Characteristics ● The different estuaries have different physical characteristics. ● Rivers provide a continuous flow of sediment into estuary. ● Turbidity = measure of the amount of suspended particles, which includes fine sediments, in the water. ● Circulation within the estuary redistributes the suspended sediment and a turbidity maximum usually is located in the region of the estuary where fresh water from the rivers contacts the more saline coastal waters.

25 Characteristics ● The depth and location of an estuary affects and changes conditions such as temperature and number of organisms present. The temperature is anywhere from 5 degrees Celsius to 26 degrees Celsius. ● Water is usually brackish, and can be anywhere from less than 4 m to more than 300 m deep. ● The salinity of an estuary can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt.

26 Water Cycle & Biotic Factors ●They serve as a place where evaporation occurs and can recharge groundwater. ●Some biotic factors include: marsh grasses, salmon, sea trout, flounder, seahorses, crabs, and oysters ●Estuaries provide habitats for these organisms.

27 Species found in estuaries ● Autotrophs: Plankton, Shellfish, Mangroves, Sea Grass. ● Heterotrophs: Mussels, seals, various species of crabs and fish, ducks, herons. ● Decomposers: Bacteria, Fungi, Flies, Snails. ● Endangered species: Coho Salmon, Nassau Grouper, Steelhead Trout.

28 Seasonal Changes ● They will grow in height during Spring ● Can dry up during Summer ● Can freeze over during Winter ● Floods = reduced salinity ● Draught = increased salinity ● The Earth’s increasing temperature is causing glaciers to melt and the ocean to expand causing the flooding of estuaries

29 Pollution ● Many estuaries are seriously degraded ● Since they span fresh and salt water, they can be degraded by a large number of activities ● Large-scale draining, filling, damming or dredging has hurt them ● People see them as dumping ground for pollution ● There are many groups put in place to help them, but they are in bad shape from previous human activities

30 Protection Groups Florida State South Florida Water Management District Environmental Protection Agency US Fish & Wildlife Service Estuary Protection Act National Estuarine Research Reserve System

31 Bibliography ● http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/estuary/?ar_a=1 http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/estuary/?ar_a=1 ● http://water.epa.gov/learn/kids/estuaries/index.cfm http://water.epa.gov/learn/kids/estuaries/index.cfm ● http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluviu_Sf%C3%A2ntul_Lauren%C8%9Biu#mediaviewer/File:Grlakes_lawrence_map 2.png http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluviu_Sf%C3%A2ntul_Lauren%C8%9Biu#mediaviewer/File:Grlakes_lawrence_map 2.png ● http://estuaries.noaa.gov/About/Default.aspx?ID=223 http://estuaries.noaa.gov/About/Default.aspx?ID=223 ● https://sites.google.com/site/estuarybiomechowilawu/what-is-an-estuary https://sites.google.com/site/estuarybiomechowilawu/what-is-an-estuary ● "Estuary." World of Earth Science. 2003. Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2014.Estuary.http://www.encyclopedia.com ● http://prezi.com/6vnqdmc9pgz5/estuary-biome-maddy-sutton/http://prezi.com/6vnqdmc9pgz5/estuary-biome- maddy-sutton/ http://prezi.com/6vnqdmc9pgz5/estuary-biome-maddy-sutton/http://prezi.com/6vnqdmc9pgz5/estuary-biome- maddy-sutton/ ● http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html ● https://freshwatertuttle.wikispaces.com/BrennanEstuaries https://freshwatertuttle.wikispaces.com/BrennanEstuaries ● https://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/Resourcelaws.html https://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/Resourcelaws.html ● http://my.sfwmd.gov/portal/page/portal/xweb%20protecting%20and%20restoring/other%20everglades http://my.sfwmd.gov/portal/page/portal/xweb%20protecting%20and%20restoring/other%20everglades ● http://www.dep.state.fl.us/everglades/neepp.htm http://www.dep.state.fl.us/everglades/neepp.htm ● https://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/ESTUARY.HTML https://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/ESTUARY.HTML ● http://estuaries.noaa.gov/About/Default.aspx?ID=251 http://estuaries.noaa.gov/About/Default.aspx?ID=251 ● http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries09_humandisturb.html http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries09_humandisturb.html ● http://estuaries.noaa.gov/About/Default.aspx?ID=230 http://estuaries.noaa.gov/About/Default.aspx?ID=230

32 Seagrass Beds By: Shaunt Torosian and Harkanwal Ghuman

33 Seagrass Beds Locations ●Some of the largest seagrass beds are located in Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, as well as parts of Australia. ●Some specific areas in Australia would be by Shark Bay (western coast), Encounter Bay (southern coast), Spencer Gulf (southern coast), etc.

34 Seagrass Beds ●Flowering plants adapted to complete submersion in salty ocean water. ●Leaves are long and narrow ●Seagrass beds look like Grasslands ●Depths to 10 meters (33 feet) ●4-24 degrees celsius average temperature ●Salinity of 20 parts per thousand

35 Seagrass Beds continued ●Seagrasses get their energy from photosynthesis (converting sunlight into energy). ●Seagrasses reproduce by pollinating flowers and sending out seeds.

36 Impact on the Water Cycle and its Biotic Factors ●A single acre of seagrass can produce over 10 tons of leaves per year. ●This as well as the plants themselves provide food and shelter for a wide variety of sea creatures. ●The seagrass beds also act as a filter for the water, trapping fine sediments and particles that get trapped in the water column.

37 Species in Seagrass ●Seagrass beds are highly productive areas and provide critical habitat for many species of invertebrates and fishes. ●Seagrasses are important primary producers (organisms that generate biomass through photosynthesis) generating large quantities of carbon, which helps drive the coastal food web ●A single acre of seagrass may support as many as 40,00 fish, and 50 million small invertebrates. ●Seagrass beds support many threatened and endangered species such as manatees and sea turtles. They are also important areas for juvenile fish, shore and wading birds. o They provide food for turtles, manatees and a variety of fish and habitat for filter-feeding organisms.

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39 Species in Seagrass Cont. ●Blue crabs, shrimp and other sea creatures depend on seagrass in order to survive, whether its for food or shelter. ●One such fish would be the caesar grunt, a fish caught fairly commonly for fisheries and aquariums. ●Endangered species such as the dugong and green turtle also depend on seagrass as a source of food. ●There are multiple types of seagrass, such as the Amphibolis, the Halophila, and the Posidonia. ●When seagrass die, they are consumed by decomposers such as worms, sea cucumbers, filter feeders, etc.

40 Seagrass Patterns ●During spring and early summer, eelgrass biomass increased, with a high production. ●In contrast, in August eelgrass production ceased and its biomass subsequently decreased. ●Therefore, the major primary production periods switched seasonally from high in spring and early summer to quite low in late summer and autumn. ●As a result, one would expect a low population during the late summer and autumn periods due to the low amounts of seagrass readily available. ●Seagrasses can survive exposure to lower salinities but growth is impacted. If low-salinity conditions continue for an extended period, seagrass beds health will suffer and dieback(dying from tip of roots) is likely.

41 Seagrass Threats ●The most important threats to seagrasses are damages from boat anchors, pollution and dredging. Careless boaters in shallow waters may run over and shred seagrass as it moves over it. ● There are all types of pollution that can affect seagrasses, some invisible and some visible. -Chemicals, sometimes invisible, can kill the plants from inside out when the plants absorb the harmful substances. -Pollution like plastic bags can also kill seagrasses. When a plastic bag covers a grass patch, sunlight cannot reach the grass and they die. ● It’s estimated that 29% of the world’s seagrass meadows have died off in the past century, with 1.5% more disappearing each year. ● When people remove fish from seagrass beds, it can lead to seagrass death.

42 Preservations and Protection ●Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary is one of many places that protects seagrass as well as other sea life. ●The Office of Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas (CAMA) is working with other agencies, such as the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC), to find better ways to protect and restore seagrass. ●Marine Discovery Center staff and volunteers, (with support from the St. Johns River Water Management District), have been making surveys of seagrass in the Indian River Lagoon. ●In the 1996 the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) made several goals for habitat restoration and protection were set. One long term goal being to increase and preserve seagrass communities.

43 Bibliography ● "Aquatic Ecosystem Solutions, Inc. || SAV Resources Important Seagrass Organizations." Aquatic Ecosystem Solutions, Inc. || SAV Resources Important Seagrass Organizations. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Explore Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary." Explore Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "The Importance of Seagrass." Nature Foundation St. Maarten. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Important Seagrass Organizations." Seagrass Recovery. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Jewels of the Sea - Seagrass Meadows." Jewels of the Sea - Seagrass Meadows. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Lemon Shark." Ocean Wildlife Pictures Nature Photos Underwater Images. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Restoration Methods - Seagrass." Restoration Methods - Seagrass. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Seagrass Beds Showing Signs of Recovery." Marine Discovery Center RSS. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Seagrass Restoration Efforts." Seagrass Restoration Efforts. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Seagrasses of Australia." Seagrasses of Australia. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Seasonal Shifts in Seagrass Bed Primary Producers in a Cold-temperate Estuary: Dynamics of Eelgrass Zostera Marina and Associated Epiphytic Algae." ResearchGate. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "SeaWeb - Ocean Briefing Book." SeaWeb - Ocean Briefing Book. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Tampa Bay Watch." Tampa Bay Watch. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Seagrass - Learn about - Teach Ocean Science." Seagrass - Learn about - Teach Ocean Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● Seagrass Habitat." Seagrass Habitat. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Importance of Seagrass." Importance of Seagrass. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Seagrass Beds." - Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Seagrasses - National Wildlife Federation." Seagrasses - National Wildlife Federation. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● WorldWildlife.org. World Wildlife Fund, n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "Importance of Seagrass." Importance of Seagrass. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. ● "SeaWeb - Ocean Briefing Book." SeaWeb - Ocean Briefing Book. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2014.

44 Kelp Forests Peter and Dan “The Coral Reef of colder waters”

45 Note Remember that spongebob episode with the magic conch? Yeah they crash in a kelp forest.

46 Kelp Forests Biggest Kelp Forest

47 Kelp Forests Description ● Typically found on rocky coastlines ● Found in 6-90 ft in depth ● Waters vary from 42-72 degrees fahrenheit ● Salinity in typically found ● Uses sunlight to cause photosynthesis to grow and regrow plants ● They also reproduce sexually and make million of offspring

48 Kelp Forests Factors Biotic Factors ● Sea Urchins ● Invertebrates ● Sunflower Starfish Water Cycle ●Coriolis Effect ●Keeps air above kelp to keep Algae floating on surface

49 Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Autotrophs ● Algae ● Seaweed ● Kelp Heterotrophs ●Sea Lions ●Seals ●Grey Whales ●Sea Otter

50 Decomposers, Scavengers and Others Decomposers and Scavengers ● Plankton ● Moon Jellies ● Sea Urchins Endangered-Lots because of it’s proximity to high fishing areas. Examples include: ● Marine Otters + Leatherback Sea Turtle

51 Growing Season There is actually a season in which kelp experiences a large growth spurt. This is caused by Upwelling, which takes nutrients from below the kelp forests to them, causing them to grow a lot during one season.

52 Environmental Status ● Due to it’s proximity to high fishing areas, Kelp forests are prone to overfishing - A change in one species population will cause a change in all. (Decrease in fish, less fish to eat for seals, seals decrease, etc) ● Also prone to recieveing freshwater runoff, which carries pesticides from surface

53 Pollution Problems ● CO2 + too much nutrients are causing negative effects to Australia’s Kelp Forests. - Too much turf algae ● With the future climate changes, CO2 is expected to increase. This means nutrient pollution needs to subside.

54 How we can help ● Reduce global warming ● Know what chemicals you use + don’t spill\ ● CCKA (California Coastkeeper Alliance) -Launching initiative to restore + re- establish California's kelp beds ● PISCO (Partnership for interdisciplinary studies of coastal oceans) - Continuously monitered Kelp since 1999

55 Works Cited ● http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5 a/Kelp_forest_distribution_map.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5 a/Kelp_forest_distribution_map.png ● http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/about/ecosystems/kelpd esc.html http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/about/ecosystems/kelpd esc.html ● http://www.usc.edu/org/cosee-west/Mar7- 10_2012/Lesson%20Plans%20and%20Actvities- Workshop/Kelp_curric_oceanglobe.pdf http://www.usc.edu/org/cosee-west/Mar7- 10_2012/Lesson%20Plans%20and%20Actvities- Workshop/Kelp_curric_oceanglobe.pdf ● http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/1307 17095215.htm http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/1307 17095215.htm ● http://inchinapinch.com/hab_pgs/marine/kelp/kelp.h tm

56 Coral Reefs By: Katie, Julia, and Maria

57 The largest coral reef in the world is the Great Barrier Reef.Great Barrier Reef. Location: Coral Sea near Australia Coral Reefs

58 ● Length: 1,553 miles (2,500 km) ● Depth: an average depth of 35 metres in its inshore waters, while on outer reefs there can be depths of more than 2000 metres ● Temperature: ranging from 23 degrees Celsius in Winter and 29 degrees Celsius in summer ● Salinity: salinity levels average at approximately 35 parts/1000 ● Recharge: the corals and surrounding areas help to recharge the reef Characteristics of the GBR

59 ● The Great Barrier Reef and coral reefs in general are very important in the water cycle because the coral filters the water and also feeds the organisms living in and around it. The flow of the water in the great barrier reef also moves the nutrients around. ● Biotic factors refer to the organisms that live in the sea and the relationships that exist between them. For example, sessile marine organisms can be found on the seafloor. These are organisms that stay in one in place and generally don’t move about. Some examples are sponges, corals, giant clams, sea anemones and ascidians (tunicates and sea squirts). Coral is what creates the Great Barrier Reef. The water currents help to bring the nutrients in and through out the coral which feeds the organisms living in it. Water Cycle and Biotic Factors

60 Autotrophs (organisms producing complex substances from simple substances of its surrounding): plankton, sea weeds and sea grasses Heterotrophs (organisms that can’t produce their own substances; therefore, eat whats made by the autotrophs): sea turtles, coral trout, whale shark, and manta ray Decomposers (bottom feeders/eat the leftovers): Fan worms, sea cucumbers, snails, crabs, bristle worms and bacteria Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

61 ● Keystone species- the dominant species of the biome in this case the reef. It’s usually a single species that controls the population of the reef, such as a predator preventing any intrusions from another species. One keystone species is the Damsel Fish who eat algae and expose the coral, but they also keep other coral predators, such as parrotfish, from chewing up the coral. Another species is the Giant Titron snail that controls the starfish population. ● Endangered Species- 6/7 of the world's endangered sea turtles can be found in the Great Barrier Reef, as well as blue whales, and threatened dugongs (sea cows). Keystone and Endangered Species

62 ● As said before, the temperature can range anywhere between 23-29 degrees celsius. With increasing temperatures from the rising greenhouse gases, the coral reefs (one of the most vulnerable ecosystems) have already show how sensitive they are to this warmer water. Not only does the temperature affect the reefs but so does the water quality, light intensity and other physical disturbances. When the coral gets stressed it releases important algae that protects it, this is called bleaching, and has been a result of warmer water. The reef is home to many organisms and marine life so they will be impacted too. ● Two distinct seasons: o winter period=”dry season”, begins in May and ends in October warm temperatures & low rainfall o summer period= “wet season”, begins in November and ends in April, balmy temperatures & higher rainfall Seasonal Patterns/General Trends

63 ● The Great Barrier Reef is preserved and protected by many laws and regulations (including water quality protection, yearly outlook reports, etc.) but here are two important pieces of federal legislation: o the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975 (regulates activities) o the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (protects nationally significant matters- the Great Barrier Reef) ● The rising climate is a current environmental problem because it is hurting the coral. This could be a future problem unless global warming goes down. ● Humans have also increased the pollution in the water due to fertilizers, pesticides, and sewage from the mainland. State of the Great Barrier Reef

64 ● Great Barrier Reef Coastal Wetlands Protection Program: Put in place in 2003 by the Australian government to help protect and preserve the wetlands included/attatched in the Great Barrier Reef. ● NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Coral Reef Conservation Program: Main association that has many programs and connected groups helping the ocean and the atmosphere... a very general group. ● Local Help: You can get educated and learn what not to do, as well as go and sign up for volunteer clean ups and conservation projects. Protection Groups and Programs

65 ● https://biomesfifth10.wikispaces.com/Coral+Reef+Home https://biomesfifth10.wikispaces.com/Coral+Reef+Home ● http://coralreeftkohli.weebly.com/great-barrier-reef.html http://coralreeftkohli.weebly.com/great-barrier-reef.html ● http://geography.about.com/od/lists/a/The-Worlds-10-Largest-Coral-Reefs.htm http://geography.about.com/od/lists/a/The-Worlds-10-Largest-Coral-Reefs.htm ● http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-the-reef/facts-about-the-great-barrier-reef http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-the-reef/facts-about-the-great-barrier-reef ● http://www.travelonline.com/great-barrier-reef/weather-and-climate.html http://www.travelonline.com/great-barrier-reef/weather-and-climate.html ● http://www.the-great-barrier-reef-experience.com/endangered-animals-of-the-reef.html http://www.the-great-barrier-reef-experience.com/endangered-animals-of-the-reef.html ● http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/water/water-our-environment/wetlands/wetlands- programs/queensland-wetlands-program/great http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/water/water-our-environment/wetlands/wetlands- programs/queensland-wetlands-program/great ● http://www.gpem.uq.edu.au/climate-variability-great-barrier-reef http://www.gpem.uq.edu.au/climate-variability-great-barrier-reef ● http://www.great-barrier-reef.com/great-barrier-reef-weather.html http://www.great-barrier-reef.com/great-barrier-reef-weather.html ● http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/marine/great-barrier-reef/protecting-reef http://www.environment.gov.au/topics/marine/great-barrier-reef/protecting-reef ● http://sitemaker.umich.edu/gc2sec7labgroup3/pollution http://sitemaker.umich.edu/gc2sec7labgroup3/pollution Citations


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