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‘Cultural and creative industries’ The Cultural Economy

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1 ‘Cultural and creative industries’ The Cultural Economy
Presentation to UNESCO experts meeting Cape Town 21 – 26 October 2012 UNESCO EXPERT: Avril Joffe

2 The Approach Cultural Economy
Acknowledge the complex links between sectors Policy dimensions

3 UNESCO: Cultural Economy (based on UNESCO’s Framework for Cultural Statistics

4 Unesco cultural economy
Cultural Domains Related domains A: Cultural & Natural Heritage B: Performance & Celebration C: Visual Arts & Crafts D: Books & Press E: Audio Visual & Interactive Media F: Design & Creative Services A: Tourism A: Sports & Recreation Intangible cultural heritage Intangible cultural heritage Education and training Education & Training Archiving & Preserving Archiving & Preserving Equipment & Support Materials Equipment & Support Materials


6 1. Cultural Economy Those products and services whose primary economic value derives from their cultural value. Need economic interventions and innovations (markets, production, entrepreneurship) Need Public and Private Sectors Need protection, development and transmission of all aspects of cultural life: heritage and contemporary

7 2. Cultural Economy as Complex
Acknowledge the complex links between sectors One size does not fit all Need to address specific needs but keep connections to wider cultural economy Cultural and creative industry products and services as Experiences Services Originals Content

8 Post-production, facilities
Online/mobile services Publishing TV/radio broadcast/distribution Games publishers Film studios/distribution Recorded music Merchandise Designer fashion PR, Marketing Architecture Design Advertising Post-production, facilities Heritage & tourism services Exhibitions, attractions (design & build) Cinemas Live music Performing arts Spectator sports Visitor attractions Galleries Museums Heritage Antiques Designer-making Crafts Visual arts Web/mobile development Photography TV & radio production Games development Contract publishing Agents Services Originals Experiences Content

9 Cultural and creative industries
Next step up the value chain? Replace manufacture? Generate IPR through direct creative input Increased symbolic value of goods and services

10 Local cultural identity Globalisation
Economic Significance Distinctiveness Employment Wealth Income & Turnover Foreign exchange Local cultural identity Globalisation Social Impact Why are Cultural Industries Important? Identity Personal development Common Culture Heritage Nation building Image Values The “creation of meaning” Marketing Tourism Innovation & Creativity Communication Non-conventionality Ideas & information Problem solving Forum for debate Creativity Ideology

11 Financial and Other Services Emerging Knowledge Economy
Economic History – eg Gauteng, South Africa Financial and Other Services Manufacturing Mining Emerging Knowledge Economy 1886 2003 TIME

12 3. Policy Dimensions Sustainable and competitive creative and cultural economy needs effective policy-making Government interventions help shape the structure around which the creative and cultural economy develops IP regulations Local of Cultural infrastructure and cultural facilities Technology, internet and other telecommunications quality and access Tax regimes Education policies from school to tertiary Local and regional government involvement Rights and status of artists Financial and administrative support Creative and cultural economy is both a global and local phenomenon

13 Cultural Economy Policy areas
Tourism Lifestyle/ wellness Agriculture and Agribusiness Cultural Economy Policy areas Consumer Product Technology Adapted from NGA Centre for Best Practice, Arts and the Economy,

14 Cultural Economy Tourism Lifestyle/ wellness
Agriculture and Agribusiness Niche Products, spiritual art Cultural tourism Cultural Economy Cuisine, landscaping, Consumer Product Technology Design & Manufacturing Animation, graphic, web design Adapted from NGA Centre for Best Practice, Arts and the Economy,

15 Elements of technical assistance in supporting and strengthening cultural and creative industries


17 Africa wide Concept of culture Making of culture Governance of culture
How it intersects with cultural economy

18 Africa wide Concept of culture not uniform,
diverse, ethnic-religious, heritage based, ways of life, not about arts, contemporary culture Leads to distortions - e.g. cultural tourism is only about heritage or traditional culture, museums, galleries, traditional dance and music, traditional food Cultural tourism in this construct is not about contemporary artists, theatre, popular music

19 Outline Conceptual framework:
History of definition from cultural industries Definition of creative industries What do we mean by creative economy Drivers of the creative economy DEVELOPING CLEAR ADVOCACY BASED ON COMMON, CLEAR, AFRICA-RELEVANT DEFINITION

20 1. Conceptual framework for Creative Industries
Definitions: number of diverse and differing definitions: Emphasise Intellectual property/ copyright Creative or cultural origin of goods/services Commercialisation or wealth and job creation EG UNESCO: ‘Those industries that combine the creation, production and commercialization of products which are intangible and cultural in nature. These contents are typically protected by copyright and they can take the form of goods or services’ UK: ‘Those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property’ (DCMS)

21 Definitions continued
Creativity as a focus of activities including Generation of creative content (products or services) Value chain associated with this activity Eg DACST, South Africa (1998), Bogota creative mapping (2002), Singapore (2003), UK (2001 -)

22 Short history 1980’s: culture, the arts, cultural planning, cultural resources, cultural industries Mid 1990’s: creativity as a broad based attribute became common currency Australia’s Creative Nation 1992 – cultural policy UK, Ken Robinson’s national commission on creativity, education and economy ‘All our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education” – CREATIVITY on the map Cultural industries creative industries -----creative economy creative class (2002 Florida ‘The Rise of the Creative Class’

23 Review of models & classification systems
Concentric circles (Throsby, 1998/2001) Cultural value of cultural goods is distinguishing characteristic of creative industries Creative ideas originate in the core creative arts in the form of sound, text and image and these ideas and influences diffuse outwards through a series of layers, or ‘concentric circles’. As one moves outwards from the centre, the proportion of commercial content to cultural content rises

24 Throsby, 2007:5

25 Models: Stylised typology: Work Foundation from EU (Throsby) 2006
Report to UK’s DCMS, Work Foundation developed a stylised typology of this model of the creative industries borrowed from EU’s ‘The Economy of Culture’ (2006) originating with Throsby. Bulls-eye of core expressive value creation at centre of concentric circles: the home of artists – musicians, lyricist, dancer, choreographer, composer, writer, painter, sculptor, scriptwriter, designer Expressive value – enlarging cultural meaning & understanding to include aesthetic, spiritual, social, historical, symbolic & authenticity value of cultural goods & services This stylised typology introduces relationship between core creative fields, cultural industries, creative industries and the rest of the economy plus notion of expressive value and outputs (not included in original model)


27 Models: WIPO copyright model (2003)
All industries involved in the creation, manufacture, production, broadcast and distribution & consumption of copyrighted works are included Industries that PRODUCE the intellectual property – the embodiment of the creativity that is needed to produce the goods and services of the CI – are DISTINCT from those that are needed to CONVEY the goods and services to the consumer

28 Models: DCMS, Symbolic Texts, Concentric Circles, WIPO:
1. DCMS Model 2. Symbolic Texts Model 3. Concentric Circles Model 4. WIPO Copyright Model Advertising Architecture Art and Antiques market Crafts Design Fashion Film and Video Music Performing arts Publishing Software Television and radio Video and Computer games Core Cultural Industries Film Internet Video and computer games Peripheral cultural industries Creative arts Borderline cultural industries Consumer electronics Sport Core Creative Arts Literature Visual arts Other core cultural industries Museums and libraries Wider cultural industries Heritage services Sound recording Related industries Core copyright industries Advertising services Copyright collection management societies Motion picture and video Theatre and opera Press and literature Software and databases Photography, Visual and graphic art Interdependent copyright industries Blank recording material Musician instruments Paper Photocopiers, photographic equipment Manufacture, wholesale and retail of TV sets Radio CD recorders Computers and equipment Cinematographic instruments Partial Copyright Industries Clothing, footwear Household goods Toys

29 Model: Creative Economy: Singapore (2003), Unctad (2006), Nesta (2008)
Increasing use of the term ‘Creative Economy’ What is the relationship between core cultural fields, cultural industries, creative industries and the broader creative economy? Highlight the upstream (traditional art form: performing , literary & visual arts – may have commercial value in themselves) and downstream activities (applied arts: advertising, design, publishing and media-related activity – derive commercial value principally from their application in other activities Because there is a symbiotic relationship between all the sectors (commercial and non-commercial as well) a growth or decline in one area will have an effect on another area.


31 Concept: Creative Economy
Evolving concept based on creative assets embracing Cultural Economic Social Technological aspects Central application: seen as a feasible policy option to diversify economies and improve trade and development gains in countries around the world (Brandford, 2004) Characteristics include Knowledge-based economic activities Intensive use of creativity to add value to products + services Ability to generate income from trade and property rights


33 What are The products & services of the Creative economy?
Its a vast field dealing with the interplay of various sub-sectors from traditional art crafts to technology-oriented multi-media services Traditional knowledge Visual Arts Music Art crafts, festivals and cultural activities Paintings, sculptures and photograpy Concerts, CDs, tapes, digitalized music Literature and Publishing Creative Industries Performing Arts Books, newspapers and periodicals Theatre, dance, opera, puppetry, circus Design Audio-Visuals Digital Animation and Multi-media Architecture, interior objects, fashion and jewellery Broadcasting, cinema, television, radio Software, videogames and advertising (UNCTAD)

34 Creative economy - Innovation
Recent studies (Nesta) – creative industries play significant role in UK innovation system ‘firms that spend twice the average amount on creative inputs are 25% more likely to introduce product innovations’ ARC/ Queensland: creative workers are more integrated in the wider UK economy than previous mapping studies showed. More creative specialists working OUTSIDE the creative industries than within them (Higgs, Cunningham and Bahkshi, 2008)

35 Creative Trident – ARC centre of Excellence for Creative Industries, Queensland University of Technology Sector specific focus to full economic contribution of creativity to the wider economy Track creative occupations in traditional creative industries as well as in manufacturing & the wider service industries (health, education, business services, government) Design occupations particularly are embedded (ie employed in creative occupations) in other industries resulting in an undercounting of the design sector by 36%.

36 Creative Trident Diagramme illustrating significant contribution of creative occupations. 55% of creative occupations are located in other industries Creative occupations in other industries account for 35% of total employment Creative occupations account for 64% of total employment (in CIs and rest of economy)

37 Creative Trident – making CREATIVE ECONOMY apparent!
Figure 8: The number of people employed in Specialist, Embedded and Support roles within the Australian Creative Workforce (2006) Source: Australian Research Council Linkage Project, 2008 quoted in Ameru and CAJ, 2008: 77

38 Developing an advocacy position in your country:
How will you define the creative industries/ creative economy to your authorities What will they include What will they exclude What will be the defining characteristic(s) of this creative sector Do we need a phased approach when working with a definition? i.e. from cultural industries to get agreement through over time to creative economy? Or Do we abandon the term creative economy and refer to the cultural economy to make culture the dominant characteristic?


40 2. Economic analysis of Creative Industries
Industrial organisation analysis Measuring standard economic variables (gross value added, levels of employment, labour, investment) – core of mapping studies Economic Impact analysis Cultural events in local areas (museums, festivals heritage sites): effect on local community + economy and benefits that flow to both

41 Economic analysis of Creative Industries
Economy wide contribution 4 distinct levels of contribution: primary (direct and quantifiable) secondary (indirect and quantifiable: multipliers; tertiary (direct and non-quantifiable: invention, innovation and diffusion and quaternary impact (indirect and non quantifiable: quality of life, motivation and productivity, cultural identify, preservation of tradition and culture, creative new cultural identities

42 Value chain analysis Cultural production chain – describes the full range of activities that are required to bring a product or service from conception (creation) , through the intermediary phases of production (pre and post production) delivery to final consumers including activities such as design, production, marketing, distribution and support services up to the final consumer Adapted from Charles Landry for ILO study on the Impact of the Cultural Sector in SADC countries (2003) by Joffe, CAJ.


44 Value chains for policy development/ entrepreneurial analysis, designers
Can be used by policy makers to determine the needs of the cultural and creative industries Can be used to inform policies and measures, support project design and to address entrepreneurial needs Can be used to assess the regulatory and legislative framework at each phase of the value chain as well as the associated training and educational requirements Cultural entrepreneurs can use the VC to understand the reasons for market failure, to assess blockages and gaps in the phases, to offer insight into weaknesses of a specific sector, identify challenges and opportunities

45 Simple value chains Eg Craft value chain as presented by CCDI, SA

46 Music Value Chain 1.BEGINNINGS: musician; lawyer; financier, songwriter the idea (lyric, melody), the context, the rich heritage, the project funds and finance for development, promotion, recording and exhibition 5. AUDIENCE RECEPTION: critic, groupie, journalist, trade journals, festival commentary, awards, academies 2. PRODUCTION: - sound engineer, business manager, the people, the processes, the sites of productions, the facilities, the equipment and suppliers, the designers, IPR Training & Development SME Support The value chain 4. DELIVERY MECHANISMS: Performer, roadie, session musician, DJ Exhibitors, broadcasters, retail outlets, live venues, performance spaces, gallery/ exhibition spaces Regulation & Policy 3. CIRCULATION/ DISTRIBUTION: Personal manager, agents, artist management (for band, DJ, solo artist or instrumentalist) Distributors, agents, marketers & intermediaries Core Entrepreneurial Problem: Lack of understanding where wealth is created in the value chain; that entrepreneurship occurs throughout the value chain, the absence of business savvy or appropriate training; poor organization, lack of clustering and inadequate networking


48 Assessment of your cultural and creative industries
Who are the key players in each ‘moment’ ? Where are the work places ? How supportive is the regulatory framework for each moment and the entire value chain? Does the education and training environment support and align to the respective cultural and creative industry ? Can the different value chain moments Access mainstream business support? Is the business and trading environment conducive to the cultural creative industries?

49 Create your own value chains
STEP 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Name the creative List the players list the people, players Brainstorm Originator of the idea in the production and institution who the consumers Product or service of the product or play a role in the or people who service. Marketing, PR, retail will enjoy your and distribution of the good or bad product or service service

50 New Developments on value chains: Value Networks (Canada)
The digital economy is transforming the value networks of Canadian arts and cultural industries Value networks: more fluid arrangements to reflect non-linear base of value chains and map relationships between all the role players from artist to consumer, government to industry Highlight functions which do and don’t add value or create new rights Three broad stages Creation/ production – primary creator + producers who organise resources required to create the product Aggregation –product aggregators, eg record labels, book publishers, tv stations, websites who assemble + sell a large number of cultural products Distribution/ retail- the product distributors and the makers of media receivers (radio signals) as well as the audience or consumer


52 Disconnects in value chain
Product flows to consumer but revenue does not reach primary creators – a ‘disconnect’ Eg Music industry: Music and video distributed to consumer on internet through distribution platforms (eg Limewire) – used as a marketing tool for internet service providers who sell connections while ‘value perceived by consumers includes the content they receive” (Connectus Consulting Inc, 2007: 19) “In that sense, electronic download of music is generating revenue, but no review currently passes from the ISP to any of the producers of music in respect of this use. Since many music rights holders have not authorised the distribution of their content and this ‘free’ music is nonetheless distributed and its value perceived without being monetized through any revenue model, a disconnect is clearly present”

53 Economic analysis: Urban & regional growth
Creative clusters Creative cities Cultural quarters Creative regions The Creative Industries have the potential to encourage regional economic growth and employment creation and, in particular to regenerate depressed urban areas and enhance the liveability of cities thereby contributing to urban development and creating the conditions for inward investment.

54 The Creative City Important player Comedia, Charles Landry: One of 1st Studies: ‘Glasgow: the creative city and its cultural economy’ (1990) – The creative city in Britain & Germany 1994 – The Creative City: A Toolkit for Urban Innovators (2000) At same time, ‘Creative City’ – seminar City of Melbourne, Australia Council in 1988 “The City should be emotionally satisfying and stimulate creativity amongst its citizens”, David Yengken, Secretary for Planning and the Environment, State of Victoria

55 Johannesburg: the creative capital

56 Becoming an African Cultural Capital: Creating an agenda
Presentation to African Cultural Capital Forum March 2010 Avril Joffe Director, CAJ: culture, arts and jobs Main results from meeting: Change name to AfricaCAN AccraCAN to remain as secretariat for initiative Develop criteria for Cultural Capital Develop advocacy programme to bring more African cities on board AMBASSADE DE FRANCE AU GHANA

Raising the international profile of the cities involved Attracting visitors through cultural activities and art events Expanding local audiences for cultural activities and art events Improvement to cultural infrastructure Promoting creativity and innovation Developing the careers and talents of art professionals in the city.

58 Cultural City Mapping of city What exists, Budgets Numbers Place
sector Infrastructure Maintain, appropriate, accessible, sustainable Traditional and contemporary art forms & heritage Development plan Short, medium & long term Political commitment Media that reflects culture Artistes, communities, African solidarity Consultation networking & partnerships Education interface – basic education & higher education

59 AFRICACAN: Way forward for all cities
Mapping – who, where, what, why, how much Networking including identification of beneficiaries, experts and development of partnerships Securing political commitment Development Plan including Infrastructure maintenance and development plan Education interface at all levels including research institutions/ individuals Traditional and contemporary art forms including heritage Media and promotion

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