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Japanese language education in Australia: an overview of the current environment オーストラリアにおける日本語教 育の環境と現状 Robyn Spence-Brown Monash University.

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Presentation on theme: "Japanese language education in Australia: an overview of the current environment オーストラリアにおける日本語教 育の環境と現状 Robyn Spence-Brown Monash University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Japanese language education in Australia: an overview of the current environment オーストラリアにおける日本語教 育の環境と現状 Robyn Spence-Brown Monash University

2 Australian Education system オーストラリアの教育制度 Australia is a federation of 6 States and 2 Territories. School education – controlled mainly by State Governments – Federal Government funds provides extra funding and programs – New national curriculum (Australian Curriculum) in some subject areas, but States decide how to implement 3 school systems: Government (66%), Independent (14%), Catholic (20%) Universities – Most are public universities – Controlled and (partially) funded by Federal Government

3 The Australian School system オーストラリアの学校制度 教育機関レベル 小学校 Primary K: Foundation/Prep Year 1 (小学 1 年) Year 2 (小学 2 年) Year 3 (小学 3 年) Year 4 (小学 4 年) Year 5 (小学 5 年) Year 6 (小学 6 年) 高校(ハイ・スクール) Secondary (セコンダリー) Year 7 (中学 1 年) Year 8 (中学 2 年) Year 9 (中学 3 年) Year 10 (高校 1 年) (シニアセカンダリー) Year 11 (高校 2 年) Year 12 (高校 3 年) 大学、 TAFE 、専門学校 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney3

4 Languages in Schools 初等、中等教育の外国語教育 Foreign languages are taught in both primary and secondary schools, but period varies across states Less than 15% of students study a language in final two years of high school Main languages taught (secondary): Japanese, French, Italian, Indonesian, German, Chinese, Spanish.

5 Languages at the tertiary level 高等教育の外国語教育 Percentage of students studying a language is low. Languages are usually located in the Arts/Humanities faculty. However, language can be taken as an elective by students from other Faculties. A Diploma in Languages is available to be taken at the same time as the main degree in some universities.

6 The history of JLE: Early years 日本語教育の歴史:初期 Japanese has been taught for 100 years 1906: Melbourne (Stotts College) 1917 University of Sydney 1918 Fort St school in Sydney Coincided with growth in Japan’s strategic and economic importance – Trade with Japan (wool etc.) – Strategic factors: Japan was a threat but also an ally – Missionaries – Cultural interest 10 July 20146ICJLE 2014 Sydney

7 World War II 第二次世界大戦 1941 Australia was at war with Japan Military schools taught Japanese for intelligence gathering etc Australians were part of the occupation force in Japan, and participated in War Crimes trials Some war-time language experts became teachers in the post-war period 710 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

8 1960s A new beginning 新しい出発 Japanese introduced/re- introduced into major universities 1962 ANU 1965 University of Queensland, Melbourne University 1967 Monash University, Curtin University (WAIT) in WA 810 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

9 1970s Japanese appears in schools 日本語が学校教育に取り入られる By 1976, Japanese taught at 13 Universities and 100 schools Alfonso textbooks produced for teaching in schools 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney9

10 1980s-1990s The boom years 日本語ブーム 1987 National Policy on Languages Language Japanese introduced widely in primary schools in 1990s NALSAS funding July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

11 統合と収縮 Consolidation and contraction At beginning of 21 st century, Japanese was the most widely taught language in Australia – studied by more than 10% of all school students K-12 (2008) – largest language at tertiary level Decreased by 16% at school level between 2000 and 2008 – biggest decrease in primary school Reasons: – Institutional factors affecting all languages – Decreased government funding – Japan’s economic problems 11

12 Student numbers 学習者数 Year 年 Students studying Japanese 日本語の学習者数 1970 (初、中、高等教 育) 2, /80 (初、中、高) 7, (初、中、高) 62, (初、中のみ) 419,488 ( 小 284,058+ 中 135,430) 2008 (初、中のみ) 351,579 ( 小 224,831+ 中 126,748) 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney12

13 Distribution by state (2008) 州別の学習者数 Number of students of Japanese Students of Japanese Overall number of school students, by State/Territory 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney13

14 Recent trend s 最近の傾向 Japan Foundation report for 2012 shows increase since 2009 – 13.3% ↑ Primary – 1.4% ↑ Secondary – 1.3% ↑ Tertiary Increases in some states balance decreases in others Causes – Extra funding (NLSSP) – Many states expanding primary language ed in preparation for introduction of Australian curriculum 14

15 Year 12 student numbers 12 年生の日本語学習者数 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney15

16 Tertiary level 高等教育 2009: 27 universities offered Japanese (ASAA). – On the basis of this survey and other data, there were probably between university students. – Two popular programs hadiscontinued. Japan Foundation survey (included a wider range of post-secondary institutions) – 2009: 8,520 students in 35 institutions. – 2012: 9,682 students Uneven patterns: big rises in some institutions, falls in others 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney16

17 Tertiary level 高等教育 Many university students take Japanese as an elective, and do not continue after first or second year. Many students are overseas students (mainly from Asia). 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney17

18 Factors affecting JLE 日本語教育に影響がある要素 Resources/ technology, curriculum Local/ global environment Education structures Activity of JLE Community 、 learners and teachers 18 Teachers, students, policy makers… GOALS 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney The activity of JLE 日本語教育・学習の活動

19 Global and local factors impacting JLE 日本語教育に影響する国内、国外要因 Language ed policy Individual motivation Australia-Japan relationship Cultural and Institutional factors in Australia Globalisation, rise of China, growth in ICT 1910 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

20 Factors affecting JLE today 日本語教育に影響する要素 Strategic, economic and cultural factors – Japan, and its place in the world – Australia’s relations with Japan and other countries – The shrinking globe: globalisation, impact of ICT, opportunities for travel Australian community views about language learning – Perceptions of the role and importance of language learning Policy and institutions – Language policy, curriculum – Broader education policy – Structure and organisation of schools, universities People – Students – Teachers 2010 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

21 Australia’s Relationship With Japan 日豪関係 Political/strategic – Military threat – Ally Economic – Trade – Tourism, investment Cultural – Food, art, popular culture etc Personal ties (business, tourism, exchange)

22 Strategic, economic factors 戦略的、経済的要因 Strategic and economic factors were the basis of past growth in JLE. They still dominate government language education policy. These factors are also important for perceived ‘usefulness’ of Japanese for careers and student and parent choices of language to study 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney22

23 Strategic, economic factors 戦略的、経済的要因 Current situation ‘Japan as number 2’? Or 3? – New free trade agreement shows that Japan-Australia relationship is still strong. – Japanese is viewed as a ‘successful’ language, but Chinese and Indonesian have serious problems BUT – Growing importance of China, India, Indonesia in trade, tourism, education etc. →Funding and attention is focussed on Chinese and Indonesian Economic importance alone does not provide a strong enough narrative for why JLE is still relevant and important. 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney23

24 Cultural factors 文化的要素 Appeal of Japanese culture Appeal of traditional culture, food, art, martial arts etc Influence of Japanese pop culture and image of ‘cool Japan’ – particularly important for Asian background students: Asian identity BUT Negative factors also exist (e.g. whaling) 2410 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

25 Social connections 人間関係 Personal contacts Sister school and exchange programs are very influential in supporting JLE Travel is a major motivation for students Evidence from recent research shows that ICT makes continuation of networks easier nowadays 2510 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

26 The impact of changes in ICT on language teaching ICT の普及による影響 Tools and resources New channels for communication and access to information, Resources to aid learning and understanding- both target and tools for learning Communities Access to new people and communities New ways of communicating in existing communities – Participants may be located anywhere Geography no longer defines community Nature of literacy is changing – goals of learning and teaching must change – Roles of students and teachers are also changing ‘We are no longer the arbiters of access to the culture and language we teach.’ Larson (2003) 10 July ICJLE 2014 Sydney

27 Factors affecting JLE today 日本語教育に影響する要素 Strategic, economic and cultural factors – Japan, and its place in the world – Australia’s relations with Japan and other countries – The shrinking globe: globalisation, impact of ICT, opportunities for travel Australian community views about language learning – Perceptions of the role and importance of language learning Policy and institutions – Language policy, curriculum – Broader education policy – Structure and organisation of schools, universities People – Students – Teachers 2710 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

28 Community factors: Australia’s ‘monolingual mindset’ コミュニティの要素:単一言語の考え方 Scepticism about the value of foreign languages in a world dominated by English Disappointment with outcomes of past programs Perceptions of a crowded curriculum Lack of support for languages as a key curriculum component These issues feed directly into structural problems – lack of ‘room’ for languages in Australian education 10 July ICJLE 2014 Sydney

29 The role of foreign language learning in Australian society 外国語教育の意義、目的に関する問 題 Dilemmas for English-speaking countries WHY teach language: How to justify learning other languages in an English-speaking world? – Practical communication value is not enough! WHICH language(s) to teach? – Inward and outward looking views – Education for a multicultural Australia: community languages – Education for a globalised world: international languages 2910 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

30 Factors affecting JLE today 日本語教育に影響する要素 Strategic, economic and cultural factors – Japan, and its place in the world – Australia’s relations with Japan and other countries – The shrinking globe: globalisation, impact of ICT, opportunities for travel Australian community views about language learning – Perceptions of the role and importance of language learning Policy and institutions – Language policy, curriculum – Broader education policy – Structure and organisation of schools, universities People – Students – Teachers 3010 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

31 The recent policy environment 近年の政策の環境 Rudd/Gillard government supported Asian languages NALSSP program (A$64 million over 3 years) finished 2012 – NALSSP funding had a recognisable impact on numbers. – No new major funding initiatives have been announced. White paper: Australia in the Asian Century (2012) 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney31

32 Australia in the Asian century White Paper 「アジアの世紀におけるオーストラリ ア」白書 Sets out policies for Australia’s engagement with the growing Asian region for the period until 2025 Australia-Japan relationship is acknowledge as very important, multi-dimensional and strong However main emphasis seems to have shifted to China, India 3210 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

33 Policies on language education in the White Paper: 白書による言語教育政策 Emphasised the importance of Asian language competence AND Asia literacy Reaffirmed Japanese as one of 4 (later 5) Asian languages to be taught in schools. Stated that all students should have the opportunity to study sequentially Universities also to be assisted to promote study of Asian languages and specialised skills Emphasis on role of technology (National broadband network) and opportunities for interaction All schools to have a sister school in Asia 3310 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

34 Policies of the new government 新政権の政策 Positive rhetoric, but little funding (focus on reducing budget deficit) Continued emphasis on Asian languages Continued focus on Asia literacy, study abroad, technology Tony Abbott has reaffirmed goal of 40% of year 12 students to study language ‘within a decade’ – Currently around 11% – Acknowledged as unlikely to be achieved 10 July ICJLE 2014 Sydney

35 Policies of the new government 新政権の政策 Funding Study abroad: $100 million “New Colombo Plan” – scholarships and mobility grants to undergraduate students for study and internships or mentorships in the Asia-Pacific region. Early Learning Languages Australia (ELLA) with $9.8 million provided for a one-year trial of online foreign language learning for children in preschool programmes (40 schools) Focus on teacher supply, within wider programs (teacher training review, ‘Teach for Australia’) 10 July ICJLE 2014 Sydney

36 Structural factors: Primary 構造的な問題:小学校 Basic problems: Primary education based on a generalist model (classroom teacher covers whole curriculum) →Teaching of specialist areas is a problem (funding, staffing) Curriculum guidelines have been vague Textbooks not used Proficiency goals are unclear Future for students in high school unclear 10 July ICJLE 2014 Sydney

37 Structural factors: Primary 構造的な問題:小学校 As a result: Place in curriculum, time allocation, funding unclear Teachers focus on ‘fun’ Employment conditions for teachers are bad – Fixed-term, part-time positions – Teachers are isolated – from support, and from influence in the school – No career path Evidence that some programs are of low quality, have low expectations 10 July ICJLE 2014 Sydney

38 Structural factors: Transition issues 構造的な問題:小学校から高校への継 続 Primary students may not be able to continue with Japanese in high school High school year 7 classes mix students who studied in primary school and beginners Diversity of outcomes of primary programs makes transition problems worse Lack of acknowledgement of prior learning at secondary level leads to – Primary teachers not having standards to aim for – Boredom and frustration for students 10 July ICJLE 2014 Sydney

39 Structural factors: Secondary 構造的な問題:中等教育 Beginners and continuing students combined Timetabling and time allocation Unwillingness to support small classes Year 12 issues – Narrowing of subject choices at year 12 in some states – Scaling and fairness issues (real or perceived) demotivate students 10 July ICJLE 2014 Sydney

40 Year 12 issues 12 年生の問題 Number of subjects studied at year 12 has decreased in some states – 5-6 in Queensland, Victoria – 4-5 in South Australia and Northern Territory Increasingly competitive university entrance leads to subject choices dominated by need to maximise marks Perception that Japanese is difficult, and requires more work than other subjects to obtain a good mark Perceptions of unfairness of mark – Problems with standardisation in some states – Perception that presence of more advantaged students make it hard to get a good mark 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney40

41 Structural factors: Tertiary 構造的な要因:大学 Student numbers have grown in some universities, decreased in others Factors leading to decreases University funding cuts and rationalisation – Full programs and individual subjects have been cut Factors leading to increases University course restructure which supports languages – e.g. ‘Melbourne model’ at Melbourne University 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney41

42 Structural factors – summary 構造的な要因:概括 Structural factors are often not directly associated with language teaching. However, general policies often make a more significant impact on language learning than ‘language policies’. In a crowded curriculum, language study is not given priority, or resources The fundamental problem is lack of ‘space’ and resources for languages in Australian education 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney42

43 Curriculum カリキュラム、教授法 Curriculum is controlled at state/territory level (8 different curriculums) Schools and individual teachers have considerable freedom, within broad curriculum guidelines Primary schools: – Curriculum and standards vary widely – Cross-disciplinary learning is encouraged: potential for content-based approaches (CLIL, Immersion) Secondary schools: Commonly used textbooks and year 12 exams provide curriculum structure Technology is increasingly available and influential 10 July ICJLE 2014 Sydney

44 The Australian Curriculum 全国統一カリキュラム First ‘national’ curriculum – English, history, mathematics and science in process of being implemented – 14 languages to be developed, based on common principles – Italian, French, Chinese and Indonesian curriculum released June 2014 Unclear how states will implement 4410 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

45 Rationale for languages in the Australian curriculum 統一カリキュラム:言語教育の論拠、根拠 General education, intercultural understanding, literacy The study of languages contributes to the general education of all students…. Learning to communicate in two or more languages is a rich, challenging experience of engaging with and participating in the linguistic and cultural diversity of our interconnected world. … Language learning builds upon students intercultural understanding and sense of identity… Learning languages also develops students overall literacy…transferrable across learning areas July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

46 Changing aims and objectives 言語教育の目標の変革 Continuing demand for – Communicative competence, linguistic skills, cultural knowledge Growing focus on – Intercultural knowledge, skills – Language awareness, literacy (including online literacy) – General educational skills and personal development ‘essential learning’: thinking, academic skills, technological skills, interpersonal skills It is challenging to add new dimensions while still covering the linguistic skills traditionally focused on. 10 July ICJLE 2014 Sydney

47 Content-based approaches 内容重視言語教育 History of immersion education, particularly in Victoria Recent developments: – Robina High School – Queensland – Primary immersion in NSW, Queensland – Victoria: CLIL initiatives (Content and Language Integrated Learning) 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney47

48 Factors affecting JLE today 日本語教育に影響する要素 Strategic, economic and cultural factors – Japan, and its place in the world – Australia’s relations with Japan and other countries – The shrinking globe: globalisation, impact of ICT, opportunities for travel Australian community views about language learning – Perceptions of the role and importance of language learning Policy and institutions – Language policy, curriculum – Broader education policy – Structure and organisation of schools, universities People – Students – Teachers 4810 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

49 Students: Increasing diversity 学習者の多様化 Students with diverse backgrounds study together Students who have studied Japanese at Primary school and those who have not Students who have been to Japan, and those who have not Students from kanji backgrounds and English speaking backgrounds Students who are exposed to Japanese outside the classroom and those who are not Diversity provides both challenges and opportunities 4910 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney

50 Students : motivation 学生のモチベーション Affective factors are more important than instrumental factors Liking Japanese, interest in Japanese culture, desire to travel to Japan are important motivations at all levels Usefulness for employment is less important factor at school level, more important at University level 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney50

51 Teachers of Japanese in schools Teacher supply issues – not just quantity, but quality Teacher skills and qualifications – Increasing skills levels (?) – Increase in the number of NS teachers Language assistants Changes in the role of the teacher Problems in the position of the Japanese teacher in the school, career paths, working conditions 51

52 Challenges for policy and practice 政策と実践ににおける課題 Repositioning Japanese (goals and ‘branding’) Reaffirming the relevance of Japan to Australians Reaffirming why Japanese is an ideal foreign language for Australians Emphasizing broader skills – Japanese as a gateway to Asia – Japanese as a passport to wider intercultural and literacy skills 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney52

53 Challenges for policy and practice 政策と実践ににおける課題 Reforming structural problems Making space in the curriculum for language teaching in primary school, secondary school, universities Providing adequate resources Solving fairness issues at senior secondary level Creative solutions to transition issues 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney53

54 Challenges for policy and practice 政策と実践ににおける課題 Renewing goals, curriculum, teaching methods Making Japanese less ‘difficult’, but more ‘interesting’ Integrating cultures, communities and intercultural skills Agreeing on goals and approaches for the primary years Catering for individual difference – Differences in background, objectives Communication and learning skills for an ICT-rich world Connections between what students do outside of class and inside Approaches which integrate content and language – CLIL etc – Japanese cultural content/intercultural content 10 July 2014ICJLE 2014 Sydney54


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