Presentation on theme: "1 Rail, traffic, sleepers, and fasteners in Australia A/Prof Alex Remennikov School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering University of Wollongong,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rail, traffic, sleepers, and fasteners in Australia A/Prof Alex Remennikov School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia University of Wollongong
Rail Gauge in Australia 3 3 Very little thought was given in the early years of the development of the colony-based rail networks of Australia- wide interests. Despite advice from London to adopt a uniform gauge, gauges were adopted in different colonies, without reference to those of other colonies. This has caused problems ever since.
Rail Network in Australia 4 4 The total traffic task around Australia in 2006-2007 was 102 billion tonne-km of freight, with inter-capital freight being 30 billion tonne-km. The intercity network (Brisbane- Sydney-Melbourne-Adelaide- Perth) is standard gauge throughout. Queensland's state network is narrow gauge (1067mm), NSW's is standard gauge, Victoria is broad gauge (1600mm), etc.
Rail Network in Australia 5 5 On the main intercity lines throughout Australia heavy duty concrete sleepers are the sleeper of choice by a great margin, usually with Pandrol e-clip type fasteners. On these lines passenger traffic is less than 5% of the total, with freight wagons being the overwhelming type of vehicles on the lines. Axle loads for freight are generally 15 to 20 tonnes, with maximums up to 25 tonne/axle.
Rail Network in Australia 6 The Australian rail network has 41,500 km of track, of which 3000 km is electrified. Passenger traffic in Australia is 250 billion pax-km cars, 60 billion pax-km air, 40 billion pax-km other (e.g. buses), 15 billion pax-km rail. Total freight traffic in Australia is 500 billion tonne-km of which 40% is by rail. On a tonnes-of-goods-transported basis, 3000 million tonnes of freight were moved of which 25% was carried by rail. On the suburban passenger rail lines in most Australian cities, the sleepers are a mix of timber, steel, heavy duty concrete, and low profile concrete, with a consequent wide variety of fasteners. 6
Rail Network in Australia 7 Low-trafficked branch lines still tend to be timber sleepers with dog spikes, all around Australia. The vast majority of traffic tonnage on Australian rail lines comprises 100t to 160t wagons on the coal lines of Central Queensland, the Hunter Valley in NSW, and the iron ore areas of the Pilbara in WA. Coal lines tend to carry wagons with 25t to 35t axle loads, iron ore lines have wagons from 35t to 40t axle loads. Sleepers are entirely heavy duty concrete at 600-650mm centres with a variety of e-clip and fist-clip fasteners, though the Pandrol e-clip is a predominant choice these days. 7
Rail Network in Australia 8 Freight trains have a maximum unrestricted length of 1200 m with double stacking of containers on some lines, iron ore and coal trains are often around 4000 m length. Passenger trains travel up to 120 km/h, freight trains generally around 60-80 km/h, and mineral trains around 60-80 km/h. 8