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Perspectives and Pathways Embracing genuine reconciliation

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Presentation on theme: "Perspectives and Pathways Embracing genuine reconciliation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Perspectives and Pathways Embracing genuine reconciliation
© Levai, B Growing Competence in working with Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultures Facilitation Notes for Perspectives and Pathways PowerPoint Background – The Early Years Learning Framework positions the development of cultural competence in the professional practice of educators as an important consideration. If positive changes are to be achieved in the education field then some hard questions need to be answered. This package explores many questions and sets out to establish a case for educators to work together to develop sustainable strategies, systems and curriculum in a joint endeavour to dramatically improve the cultural competence levels of educators. These notes are to be used as a guide only. Slide 1 Set the context of presentation Welcome to Country & Acknowledgement of Country ‘Welcome to Country’ is an important ceremony by Aboriginal people and inviting them to perform it helps non-Indigenous people recognise Aboriginal culture and history. An ‘Acknowledgement of Country’ can be done by everyone, Indigenous or non-Indigenous, to pay respect to the fact that one is on Aboriginal land. The South Australian Reconciliation website provides some good examples of welcome to country. Link to Reconciliation website: This is an opportunity for educators to reflect on the meaning behind welcome/acknowledgement to country This package is not about a linear learning process, one off training event, checklist approach, one size fits all, or a day of instructions. The package is about conversations, listening, shared learning, reflecting, planning and making meaning. The logo created by Bianca Levai is a cue that time should be provided for participants to actively engage in reflective conversations with each other. There are 8 opportunities in this package for participants to engage in conversations. It is envisaged that the package would take two days to complete if undertaken full time – this time could be broken up into blocks suited to your individual context. EL&QR 2012

2 Conversations Conversation 1 – Context of Aboriginal Australia
Conversation 2 – Identity and culture Conversation 3 – What is Cultural Competence Conversation 4 - Distinction between Competence and Competencies and Awareness Conversation 5 - Attitudes, knowledge and skills Conversation 6 - Reflecting – Using the Quadrants Slide 2 This is a guide to the flow of the 2 days but it is not a time frame that you should guarantee to keep to – this is because conversations are too important to restrict at times. EL&QR 2012 2

3 National Quality Standard
This Professional Learning, Cultural Competence - Growing Competence in working with Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultures supports professionals to meet these National Quality Standards: 1.1.2 Each child’s current knowledge, ideas, culture, abilities and interests are the foundation of the program 1.2 Educators and coordinators are focused, active and reflective in designing and delivering the program for each child 6.1 Respectful supportive relationships with families are developed and maintained 6.2 Families are supported in their parenting role and their values and beliefs about child rearing are respected 6.3 The service collaborates with other organisations and service providers to enhance children’s learning and wellbeing. Slide 3 Cultural Competence is embedded in the EYLF and NQS – shown here in these elements of the standard it is explicit. However it is woven right throughout the documents. EL&QR 2012 3

4 “Cultural competence will be a new term for many of us
“Cultural competence will be a new term for many of us. It is an evolving concept and our engagement with it will contribute to its evolution”. (DEEWR, 2010, p. 21). Slide 4 Reflection: How open are you to engaging in reflective conversations? What are some barriers to reflective conversations? EL&QR 2012

5 Margaret Wheatley best describes conversation as:
Human conversation is the most ancient and easiest way to cultivate the conditions for change – personal change, community and organisational change and planetary change. If we can sit together and talk about what’s important to us, we begin to come alive. We share what we see, what we feel and we listen to what others see and feel. (Wheatley, M.J., 2002) Slide 5 Background information on Margaret Wheatley Margaret Wheatley is an internationally acclaimed speaker and writer and President Emerita of The Berkana Institute. She has been an organizational consultant and researcher since 1973 and a dedicated global citizen since her youth She co-founded The Berkana Institute in 1992, a charitable global foundation that works in partnership with a rich diversity of people around the world who strengthen their communities by working with the wisdom and wealth already present in their people, traditions and environment. (www.berkana.org). Context The quote from Margaret Wheatley assures us the value of conversations, which this package is based on. These sessions should be conversations held in a safe environment where everyone is respected. Encourage participants to feel safe to ask questions – there is no stupid comment – conversations are about listening as well as talking. EL&QR 2012 5

6 ‘We can position ourselves in ways that invite respect, curiosity and connection.
We can also position ourselves in ways that invite judgement, disconnection and disapproval. The stance we take has profound effects on relationships and is shaped by our values and conceptual assumptions.’ (Madsen, 1999) Slide 6 The success of these conversations lies in all our hands. The learning disposition of openness and possibilities are required in order for us all to learn. This is a safe place where there are no silly questions only a desire by each person to participate through discussion. EL&QR 2012

7 Conversation 1 The Learning Journey for Educators: Growing competence in working with Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultures The Aboriginal flag Slide 7 Give a description of the meaning of the flags You can share the following information about the Aboriginal and the Torres Strait Islander flags Torres Strait Islander Flag The late Bernard Namok designed the Torres Strait Islander flag. The flag stands for the unity and identity of all Torres Strait Islanders. It features three horizontal coloured stripes, with green at the top and bottom, and blue in between, divided by thin black lines. A white dhari (headdress) sits in the centre, with a five-pointed star underneath it. The colour green is for the land, blue represents the sea, and black stands for the people. The white dhari is a symbol of all Torres Strait Islanders, and the five-pointed star represents the island groups. Used in navigation, the star is also an important symbol for the seafaring Torres Strait Islander people. The colour white of the star represents peace. Along with the Aboriginal flag, the Torres Strait Islander flag was also recognised as a ‘flag of Australia’ by the Australian Government in 1995. Aboriginal Flag The Aboriginal flag is a very important symbol for Aboriginal people. The flag represents cultural resilience, affirmation and identity. The Aboriginal flag is divided horizontally into equal halves of black (top) and red (bottom), with a yellow circle in the centre. The black symbolizes Aboriginal people and the yellow represents the sun, the constant giver of life. Red depicts the earth and also represents ochre, which is used by Aboriginal people in ceremonies. The flag was designed by Harold Thomas and was first flown at Victoria Square, Adelaide, on National Aborigines Day on 12 July It was used later at the tent embassy in Canberra in Today the flag has been adopted by all Aboriginal groups and is flown or displayed permanently at Aboriginal centres throughout Australia. In 1995 the Aboriginal flag was formally recognised as a ‘flag of Australia’ by the Australian Government. The Torres Strait Islander flag EL&QR 2012 7

8 Aboriginal Australia, identified by language groups
Slide 8 David R Horton is the creator of the Indigenous Language Map. The map attempts to represent all of the language or tribal or nation groups of Indigenous people of Australia. The Indigenous Language Map is just one representation of other map sources that are available for describing Aboriginal Australia. This map indicates only the general location of larger groupings of people which may include smaller groups such as clans, dialects or individual languages in a group. Boundaries are not intended to be exact. For more information about the groups of people in a particular region contact the relevant Land Councils. The following link provides more information about the Indigenous language map - Reflection: How much do you know about Aboriginal Australia? EL&QR 2012 8 8

9 Aboriginal Nations SA Mirniny Nakako Adnyamanthanha Narungga
1. Aboriginal South Australia: language groups 2. South Australian Aboriginal Nations Aboriginal Nations SA Mirniny Nakako Narungga Nawu Njadjuri Ngalea Ngamini Ngarkat Ngarrindjeri Nukunu Parnkarla Peramangk Adnyamanthanha Antikirinya Arabana Arrente (Pertame) Bindjali Bunganditj Danggali Dhiari Diyari Gugada Karangura Kaurna Kuyani Luritja Malyangapa Meru Pirlatapa Pitjantjatjara Wadigali Wangangurru Wangkamana Wilyali Wirangu Yandruwandha Yankunytjajara Yaluyandi Yawarawarrak Slide 9 Map 1. Identifies the Aboriginal language groups for South Australia. Can you identify the region/ language within your local context? Notice how many language groups there are. Map 2. Identifies the SA Aboriginal Nations It is important to recognise that South Australia is made up of different Aboriginal nations. Although there were over 250–300 spoken languages across Australia, with 600 dialects at the start of European settlement, fewer than 200 of these remain in use today. Language is vitally important in understanding Indigenous heritage as much of their history is an oral history. Hundreds of languages and dialects existed (although many are now extinct), and language meaning, as well as geographic location, is used today to identify different groups. EL&QR 2012 9 9

10 © Levai, B Are you able to identify the Aboriginal nations upon which your service is located? Slide 10 Reflection: Are you able to identify the Aboriginal nations upon which your service is located? If not, how can you find out? Who in your community can you approach to find out? Will this be the first step in your journey towards growing cultural competence in working with Aboriginal and Torres Islander people? EL&QR 2012

11 ABORIGINAL DIVERSITY Aboriginal communities are as diverse as any other community. they are not all one cultural group and not all the same there may be similarities, but are also very different don’t assume one person speaks for all the community members Slide 11 It is important to recognise and acknowledge that there are significant differences in social, cultural and linguistic customs between the various Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander groups. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. For example, these include: Koori (or Koorie) in New South Wales and Victoria Murri in Queensland and some parts of northern New South Wales Nunga in southern South Australia Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders identify themselves through their land areas, their relationship to others and their language and stories - which may be expressed through ceremony, the arts, family, religion, and sports. Cultural heritage is passed on from one generation to the next. The system of kinship put everybody in a specific relationship to each other as well special relationships with land areas based on their clan or kin. These relationships have roles and responsibilities attached to them. A culturally competent organisation that values and respects diversity helps everyone feel like they belong. (EYLF, Educators Guide, p 25) EL&QR 2012 11 11

12 Australian Aboriginal History
A brief over-view 1888 White Australian Policy Policies that intentionally restricted non-white immigration to Australia Prime Minister Hughes in 1919 hailed it as “the greatest thing we ever achieved” 1770 Capt. James Cook claims possession of the whole east coast of Australia for the British Crown 1810 Establishment of SA Mission Stations Poonindie Point Pearce Raukkan Gerard Umeewarra Swan Reach Nepabunna Ernabella Armata Ooldea Koonibba Yalata Oodnadatta 1836 SA established as a province of Great Britain by King William 4th under the letters patent 1788 Cook raises the Union Jack at Sydney Cove to start a penal colony Aboriginal resistance against the first fleet arrivals 1810 Aboriginal people moved onto mission stations where they can be taught European beliefs and used as cheap labour. Settlers try to control the growth control of the Aboriginal population with a policy of absorption Slide 12 Being familiar with the rich and long history of Australia, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history and culture, enriches all of us. (EYLF, Educator Guide, p 25) Why is it important to learn about Aboriginal Australia’s history? Until we get it right with the teaching of Aboriginal history, then I don’t think that we can pretend to be Australian together. – Dr Jackie Huggins, Indigenous educator, author and activist [1] Since the European invasion until very recently, government policy relating to Aboriginal people has been designed and implemented by non-Aboriginal people. The common justification for most policies for Aborigines was that they were "for their own good". There have been policies of protection, assimilation, self-determination and reconciliation. It is now clear that none of these policies have actually made the condition of Australia’s Indigenous people any better than it was prior to the invasion. The next 3 slides map significant events of the history of Aboriginal Australia. [1] Koori Mail 390 (6/12/2006) p.14 1872 birth of David Uniapon Ngarrindjeri preacher, author and inventor of shearers. Born 28th Sept at Point McLeay (Raukkan Mission). Considered a “black genius” Australia’s “Leonardo”. David’s image is on the $50 note – Raukkan church in the background EL&QR 2012

13 Australian Aboriginal History
1901 Federation The Commonwealth Constitution states “in reckoning the numbers of people…Aboriginal natives shall not be counted” It also states that the Commonwealth would legislate for any race except Aboriginal people The power of Aboriginal Affairs was left the States. 1911 SA Aborigines Act Makes the chief protector the legal guardian of every Aboriginal half caste child under 21 yrs old. He also has control of where the child lives Replaced by the Aborigines Protection Board in 1939 1937 Assimilation Policy “The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption…with a view to their taking their place in the white community on an equal footing with the whites” Segregationist practices continue until 1960s with separate sections in movie theatres, separate wards in hospitals, hotels refusing drinks and schools able to refuse enrolment to Aboriginal children 1967 Referendum Aboriginal people counted in the census and not considered flora and fauna 1976 Sir Douglas Ralph Nicholls (Yorta Yorta Nation NSW) declared Governor of South Australia by Don Dunstan Slide 13 Federation - When the six Australian colonies became a Federation in 1901, non-Aboriginal Australians believed that Aboriginal people were a dying race and the Constitution made only two references to them. Section 127 excluded Aborigines from the census (although heads of cattle were counted) and Section 51 (Part 26) gave power over Aboriginal people to the States rather than to the Federal Government. The Commonwealth Constitution states "in reckoning the numbers of people… Aboriginal natives shall not be counted". It also states that the Commonwealth would legislate for any race except Aboriginal people. This left the power over Aboriginal Affairs with the states. The South Australian Aborigines Act of 1911 gave the Chief ‘Protector of Aboriginals’ wide powers over families, children, property, rights of movement and freedom of access. Under the Act the Chief Protector was made the legal guardian of every Aboriginal and ‘half-caste’ child under 21 years old. The Chief Protector also had control of where the child lives. The Chief Protector is replaced by the Aborigines Protection Board in 1939 and guardianship power is repealed in 1962. Aboriginal population is estimated to be at its lowest at 60, ,000. It is widely believed to be a ‘dying race’. Most Australians have no contact with Aboriginal people due to segregation and social conventions. Assimilation policy Aboriginal Welfare - Conference of Commonwealth and State Authorities called by the federal government, decides that the official policy for some Aboriginal people is assimilation policy. Aboriginal people of mixed descent are to be assimilated into white society whether they want to be or not, they were to be educated and all others are to stay on reserves. The minutes of the meeting say: “The destiny of the natives of aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption… with a view to their taking their place in the white community on an equal footing with the whites.” [1] In practice, assimilation policies lead to the destruction of Aboriginal identity and culture, justification of dispossession and the removal of Aboriginal children. Segregationist practices continued until the 1960s with separate sections in theatres, separate wards in hospitals, hotels refusing drinks and schools able to refuse enrolment to Aboriginal children. In the Commonwealth 1967 Referendum more than 90% voted to empower the Commonwealth to legislate for all Aboriginal people and open means for them to be counted in the census. Hopes fly high that constitutional discrimination will end. It also empowered the federal government to legislate for Aboriginal people in the states and share responsibility for Aboriginal affairs with state governments. All states except Queensland abandon laws and policies that discriminate against Aboriginal people. The first census fully including Aboriginal people in 1971. [1] National Library of Australia, nla.gov.au/nla.aus-vn118931 2008 Prime Minister Kevin Rudd apologises to the Stolen Generation for their “profound grief, suffering and loss.” EL&QR 2012

14 Australian Aboriginal Massacres 1700-1928
Yeeman (QLD) Medway Ranges (QLD) Kimberley Region (WA) Goulbobla Hill (QLD) Roeburn (WA) Barrow Creek (NT) Blackfellow’s Creek (QLD) Cape Bedford (QLD) Arneham Land (NT) Mt Isa (QLD) Battle Mountain Halls Creek (WA) Speewah (QLD) Rufus River (NSW) Elliston (SA) (1839 & 1849) “…. spoke about that day they escaped death and ran into the bushes. They stood and watched in horror as their people were driven off the cliffs into the sea. People tried to escape but they were cut down by whips, sticks and guns” Black Armband 2 – Elliston Massacres 2007 Slide 14 The concepts of invasion, frontier wars and massacres, although frequently mentioned and debated in the early Australian legislatures, has become a highly contentious issue in modern Australia, nevertheless it is still very important to acknowledge that these massacres did occur. For discussion of the historical arguments about these conflicts, search for articles on the 'black armband' view of history. Elliston massacre Elliston is located on the Eyre Peninsula on the west coast of South Australia. This section of coast was home to large numbers of Aboriginal people. Following the "settlement" of South Australia in 1836, it was also home to a small but growing number of European colonists. Two Aboriginal hunters were accused of stealing sheep. That very night they were hung in the centre of the town. Those innocent men hung there all the next day, while the Aboriginal people mourned them. That night, whilst the European townspeople slept, people from the camp released the two boys and buried them. They snuck around to the boarding house where the judge slept and coaxed him outside with a whoobu-whoobie, a device that made different sounds like and engine, a dog growling or a horse neighing. When the judge emerged, they grabbed him, knocked him unconscious and hung him up in the very same place. The next morning the townsfolk discovered what happened and decided to take the law into their own hands. The policeman rounded up farmers with about ten horses and rode out to the camp. They herded all the Aboriginal men, women and children and forced them off the cliffs at Elliston. People tried to escape, but they were cut down by whips, sticks and guns. Three teenagers – one girl and two boys – and a baby survived the massacre. The baby gently tumbled out of its mother’s arms onto the soft sand. The teenagers dared not move whilst the horsemen at the cliff top watched for survivors. They listened to the moaning and dying carried with the swirling breeze. When the coast was clear, they staggered around and looked for signs of life amongst the bodies, but to no avail. They escaped along the coast towards Streaky Bay and with them, news of the tragedy spread. Aboriginal people were horrified and immediately fled the coast for Talewan, the Bight, Yardea, the Gawler Ranges and Ooldea. About ten years later, in 1849, there was another massacre near the Sweep Holes. No Aboriginal person has lived in Elliston ever since. Those two were executed without evidence. All the authorities had were tracks in the bushes. Usually when a farmer slaughtered sheep, Aboriginal people collected the guts and runners. That was if there was no bush tucker around. They believed in healthy food. Aboriginal people did not steal sheep. There were kangaroos, lizards, goanna, possums and birds. They lived where there was an abundance of fish. They saw farmers looking after those sheep and knew they were not allowed to touch them. It was something of value. Years later, it was discovered those Aboriginal men were innocent. Non-Aboriginal men stole the sheep and started their own farm. The police were told the Aboriginal men were murdered for no reason. They owned up but nothing could be done. Read more: EL&QR 2012

15 Recognising that Australia’s history and the impact it has on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australia, is a critical and very observable element of Cultural Competence. (Matthews, L. 2011) Slide 15 EL&QR 2012 15 15

16 Thinking about you © Levai, B Think of a time you felt powerless, and a time you felt disrespected what were the words you associated with each feeling? were there lasting impacts of these experiences? who do you think might feel they have no power in an early childhood setting? Slide 16 Provide conversation time. EL&QR 2012

17 What does the data tell us about what is happening today?
Slide 17 Share attached PDF data document Recent data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Centre for Community Child Health and Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs and the Department for Education and Child Development informs us that Aboriginal children are not fairing as well as their non-Aboriginal counterparts in the areas of health and education. Reflection: What is the data telling us? Does any of this surprise, shock, inform you? Research shows that educators have the potential to offset Aboriginal ‘underperformance’ through having high expectations of success, respect for culture and developing positive relationships with children and community (Sarra, 2003). DATA AND INFORMATION shows us WHY WE NEED TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE. Sarra, C. (2003). Young and Black and Deadly: Strategies for improving outcomes for Indigenous students (Queensland Teaching Series: Practitioner Perspectives). Deakin: Australian College of Education. EL&QR 2012

18 Early childhood educators guided by the framework will reinforce in their daily practice the principles laid out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (the convention). The convention states that all children have the right to an education that lays the foundation for the rest of their lives, maximises their ability and respects their family, cultural and other identities and languages.” (DEEWR, 2009, p. 5). Slide 18 Early Childhood Services have an important role in making a difference for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, families and communities’ 18 EL&QR 2012 18 18

19 Conversation 2 What is Identity? Who are you? where are you from?
where do you feel a sense of belonging? © Levai, B Slide 19 Provide opportunity for participants to reflect on ‘identity’. What does this mean? How important is identity to you? EL&QR 2012 19

20 ‘There are many ways of living, being and knowing.’
‘People develop as participants in cultural communities. Their development can be understood only in light of the cultural practices and circumstances of their communities - which also change’ (Rogoff , 2003, p. 3-4). ‘There are many ways of living, being and knowing.’ ‘Children are born belonging to a culture which is not only influenced by traditional practices, heritage and ancestral knowledge but also by the experiences, values and beliefs of individual families.’ (EYLF pg 13) Slide 20 Culture is acquired Culture is shared Culture defines core values Cultures resist change but are not static The word ‘culture’ implies the integrated patterns of human behaviour that includes thoughts, communication, actions, customs, beliefs and values of a racial, ethnic, religious or social group. Likewise the word ‘competence’ is used because it implies having the capacity to function effectively. Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. New York: Oxford University Press. EYL&QR 2012 EL&QR 2012

21 Why is culture important?
Culture is about identity Culture defines who we are, how we communicate, what we value and what is important to us. Fostering cultural identity is in the best interests of the child. (Bamblett and Lewis, 2007, p. 45). Slide 21 Developing cultural competence involves growing your own understanding and valuing diversity. To develop cultural competence, you first need to understand that everyone is shaped by their own cultural background. Our biases and views shape how we see the world. It takes time to learn to see things from new cultural perspectives. Bamblett, M., & Lewis, P. (2007). Detoxifying the child and family welfare system for Australian Indigenous peoples: Self-determination, rights and culture as critical tools. First Peoples Child And Family Review, 3(3), 21 EL&QR 2012 21 21

22 Cultural Identity Comes from having access to:
Your culture – its institutions, land, language, knowledge, social resources, economic resources. The institutions of the community (lifestyle) – its codes for living (social and environmental), nutrition, safety, protection of physical, spiritual and emotional integrity of children and families. Cultural expression and cultural endorsement. (DEEWR, 2010, p. 22) Slide 22 EL&QR 2012

23 Growing Cultural Competence begins with individuals undertaking a process of reflection on their own cultural identity and recognising the impact their culture has on their own practice. Slide 23 Culture is embedded in all that a service does and doesn’t do. EL&QR 2012 23

24 Conversation 3 Belonging, Being & Becoming The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia Cultural Competence is one of the 8 pedagogical practices that has been identified in the Early Years Learning Framework to promote children’s learning. Slide 24 The EYLF provides support for the development of cultural competence. It acknowledges that family, community and culture are fundamental connections in the lives of children, and that families are the first influential aspect of children’s learning and development . The practice of Cultural Competence in the EYLF requires that educators be culturally competent and respect multiple ways of knowing, seeing and living. EL&QR 2012 24

25 Cultural Competence is much more than awareness of cultural differences. It is the ability to understand, respect, communicate with and effectively interact with, people across cultures (Educators Guide p.16) ‘cultural’ as defined in the Educators’ Guide: shared attitudes, values, goals and practices that characterise an institution, organisation or group. ‘Competence’ as defined in the Educators’ Guide: the ability of all educators to make appropriate decisions and effective actions in their setting regardless of the absence or presence of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. (DEEWR, 2010, p.24) Slide 25 EL&QR 2012 25

26 Why are there two Cultural Competence sections in the Early Years Learning Framework Educators’ Guide for Australia? The difference between the two Cultural Competence sections that are explored are: Concept 6 – Cultural Competence Explicitly supports educators to recognise and promote the importance that diversity of culture plays in children’s development. Concept 7 – The Learning Journey for Educators: Growing competence in working with Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultures Explicitly supports educators to develop respectful and reciprocal relationships with Aboriginal and Torres Islander peoples within the local context (DEEWR, 2010). Slide 26 EL&QR 2012 26

27 Why is Cultural Competence important?
Children’s sense of belonging is strongly founded in the families and cultures in which they are brought up. Slide 27 Relate this to the EYLF and ‘belonging’. EL&QR 2012 27

28 Distinction between ‘competence’ and ‘competencies’
Conversation 4 Distinction between ‘competence’ and ‘competencies’ ‘Competence’ refers to a broad global capacity; it is an outcome that describes what someone can do (Tight, 1996) ‘Competencies’ is a much more narrow concept that is used to label specific skills and abilities that are observable and assessable (Smith, 2005) Slide 28 ‘Competencies’ alludes to end points: once skills are observable and achieved the journey and learning has ended. Cultural competence is all about a journey. Smith, MK. (2005). ‘Competence and competency’, Informal Education Homepage, Tight, M. (1996). Key Concepts in adult Education and Training. London: Routledge. EL&QR 2012 28 28

29 Difference between ‘competence’ and ‘awareness’.
© Levai, B Difference between ‘competence’ and ‘awareness’. Slide 29 Provide opportunity for participants to brainstorm differences between ‘competence’ and ‘awareness’. Suggestion: Unpack what competence means, perhaps use a Y chart. Sort/categorise definitions and examples under the headings of competence and awareness. EL&QR 2012

30 Difference between ‘competence’ and ‘awareness’
Cultural Competence Cultural Awareness “Cultural competence is a set of congruent behaviours, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency or among professionals and enable that system, agency or those professions to work effectively in cross-cultural situations” (Cross et al, 1989). ‘A set of values and principles, demonstrated behaviours, attitudes, policies, and structures that enable people to work effectively in cross-cultural settings’ (Petty, 2010, p.15). Slide 30 Cultural competence requires more than becoming culturally aware. It involves reflective practice that translates into service delivery in various ways. It means that individuals have the understanding, values, knowledge, skills, behaviours and professional practice needed to work effectively with people from cultures other than their own. It is also evident in programs and resources that respect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identities, traditions and languages. At the system level, respect for culture and identity becomes embedded in policies, protocols, programs and practices and services. Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council Standing Committee for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Working Party (2004). Cultural respect framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, Adelaide: Department of Health. Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M., (1989). Towards A Culturally Competent System of Care, Volume I. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Centre, CASSP Technical Assistance Centre. Petty, S. (2010). The New Frontier: An Integrated Framework for Equity and Transformative Improvement in Education. California Tomorrow. “Cultural awareness is the individual cognitive dimension where the focus is on understandings and awareness of the history, experience, culture and rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. The goal in this dimension is to change attitudes to facilitate changes in behaviour.” (Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council Standing Committee for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Working Party, 2004). EL&QR 2012 30 30

31 It is more than flying the flags, barbecues, music, visitors and ‘one-off’ events.
An Early Childhood environment informed by BELONGING, BEING & BECOMING, the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia, weaves culture, language and identity into every aspect of the early childhood setting. Slide 31 EL&QR 2012 31

32 respond to the complexities of children’s and families’ lives?
How do our relationships with families uphold and respect their rights to have their cultures, identities, abilities and strengths acknowledged and valued, and respond to the complexities of children’s and families’ lives? what are the tensions and challenges? what do you need to think about? © Levai, B Slide 32 Provide reflection time. Cultural competence requires a high degree of self-reflexivity. This is an essential component to develop cultural competence and is necessary for developing relationships with people from another culture. Note the term ‘another’ in place of ‘other’ or ‘different’. A high level of critical self refection is needed to analyse how our behaviours and interactions in the service reflect out own cultural assumptions and values. EL&QR 2012

33 What does it mean to you and your service?
So: What does it mean to you and your service? Slide 33 Provide some discussion time. EL&QR 2012

34 Conversation 5 CULTURAL COMPETENCE SKILLS ATTITUDES KNOWLEDGE To operate in a cultural competent way you need to have 3 elements- Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge CULTURAL COMPETENCE If you remove any one of the 3 elements then you cannot claim cultural competence Slide 34 If you remove just 1 element, then you are operating in an incompetent state EL&QR 2012 34 34

35 SKILLS For living and working in the local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contexts (socially) Find out what are the local protocols for living and working in the local context socially Develop reciprocal relationships Share about who you are and your family Respect confidentiality and privacy Find out what are the local protocols for communication and community engagement Get to know your community. Establish trust and credibility. If unsure always ask and seek permission. Don’t assume. Consult with a range of community members. Consultation should not be tokenistic. Develop reciprocal relationships and partnerships Attend local community celebrations Acknowledge that ownership of knowledge and expertise of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture is owned by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Communication requires listening, respect , patience and understanding Work with the community side by side not overseeing or being the boss. Respect confidentiality and privacy. SKILLS For working in local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context (professionally) Slide 35 EL&QR 2012 35 35

36 KNOWLEDGE Acknowledgment of diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples Acknowledges the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history of Australia Acknowledge that identity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is determined only by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Culture, language and identity are interrelated Awareness understanding and of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture, history and contemporary societies Understanding that the importance of connectedness to land and spirituality is the core of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural identity Slide 36 EL&QR 2012 36 36

37 How do you believe attitudes are formed?
Do you believe attitudes can be influenced? Why should some attitudes be changed? What do you think are the most effective ways of changing attitudes? © Levai, B Slide 37 Activity: Attitudes Literature (Villegas and Lucas, 2002; Sarra, 2003) suggest that the development of culturally competent teachers is dependent on the raising of socio cultural consciousness, the development of affirming positive attitudes and developing the commitment to act as agents of change. How open are you to begin critical reflection on individual attitudes and values held in relation to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures? What values do you bring that might impact on your developing cultural competence? Villegas, A. and Lucas, T. (2007). ‘Preparing culturally responsive teachers: rethinking the Curriculum’. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol 53, No 1, pp20-32 EL&QR 2012

38 Conversation 6 Sharing our ideas and thoughts
Using a measuring tool to support our journey - The quadrants. Slide 38 EL&QR 2012 38 38

39 A learning journey of Cultural Competence occurs when ongoing reflection and environmental feedback involves and supports educators to move up and down the journey from unwilling and unable to willing and able © Levai, B Slide 39 The elements of attitudes, knowledge, skills and experience are critical components of Cultural Competence. Cultural Competence is not static. As we move between communities, our level of Cultural Competence changes in response to new situations, experiences and relationships. Activity: Where are you on the quadrants? Where is your service on the quadrant? (DEEWR, 2010, 26) EL&QR 2012 39 39

40 Being moral includes living the principles
of justice. It involves making sure that everyone gets a fair go and that hidden attitudes to race, class and difference are made visible and challenged. Wendy Lee in National Quality Standard Professional Learning Program (2011). Slide 40 Educators’ ability to consider moral values and concern for relationships is found to be an important aspect when working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Educators who recognise a possibility of multiple perspectives of reality and believe that moral values are culturally-bound are more likely to consider the diversity of their children’s backgrounds as opposed to homogeneity. National Quality Standard Professional Learning Program (2011). Understanding cultural competence. E-Newsletter no. 7. Available online: EL&QR 2012

41 References Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council Standing Committee for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Working Party (2004). Cultural respect framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health, Adelaide: Department of Health. Bamblett, M., & Lewis, P. (2007). Detoxifying the child and family welfare system for Australian Indigenous peoples: Self-determination, rights and culture as critical tools. First Peoples Child And Family Review, 3(3), Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M., (1989). Towards A Culturally Competent System of Care, Volume I. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Centre, CASSP Technical Assistance Centre. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) (2009). Belonging , Being and Becoming the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Available online from Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) (2010). Educators Belonging, Being and Becoming: Educators’ Guide to the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Available online from Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. New York: Oxford University Press. National Quality Standard Professional Learning Program (2011). Understanding cultural competence. E-Newsletter no. 7. Available online: Sarra, C. (2003). Young and Black and Deadly: Strategies for improving outcomes for Indigenous students (Queensland Teaching Series: Practitioner Perspectives). Deakin: Australian College of Education. Smith, MK. (2005). ‘Competence and competency’, Informal Education Homepage, Petty, S. (2010). The New Frontier: An Integrated Framework for Equity and Transformative Improvement in Education. California Tomorrow. Tight, M. (1996). Key Concepts in Adult Education and Training. London: Routledge. Villegas, A. and Lucas, T. (2007). ‘Preparing culturally responsive teachers: rethinking the Curriculum’. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol 53, No 1, pp20-32 Wheatley, M.J. (2002). Turning to one another: Simple conversations to restore hope to the future. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.


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