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THE AUSTRAL REALM (FOCUS ON AUSTRALIA) (CHAPTER 11)

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Presentation on theme: "THE AUSTRAL REALM (FOCUS ON AUSTRALIA) (CHAPTER 11)"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE AUSTRAL REALM (FOCUS ON AUSTRALIA) (CHAPTER 11)

2 MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES RELATIVE LOCATION AND ISOLATION – developed during the breakup of Gondwanaland (Pangaea). Led to development of some of the most unique animals and plants on the planet – Kangaroos, Koalas, ant eaters, eucalyptus, etc. RELATIVE LOCATION AND ISOLATION – developed during the breakup of Gondwanaland (Pangaea). Led to development of some of the most unique animals and plants on the planet – Kangaroos, Koalas, ant eaters, eucalyptus, etc. PERIPHERAL DEVELOPMENT/ HIGHLY CLUSTERED URBAN POPULATIONS – around the sea. PERIPHERAL DEVELOPMENT/ HIGHLY CLUSTERED URBAN POPULATIONS – around the sea. CHANGING HUMAN GEOGRAPHY – through Asian immigration & Aboriginal activism CHANGING HUMAN GEOGRAPHY – through Asian immigration & Aboriginal activism EXPORTERS OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS EXPORTERS OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

3 BIOGEOGRAPHY A SUB-FIELD OF GEOGRAPHY- THE SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF FLORA AND FAUNA A SUB-FIELD OF GEOGRAPHY- THE SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF FLORA AND FAUNA EVOLVED FROM THE OVERLAP BETWEEN GEOGRAPHY AND BIOLOGY EVOLVED FROM THE OVERLAP BETWEEN GEOGRAPHY AND BIOLOGY ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT ( ) IS RECOGNIZED AS THE FOUNDER ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT ( ) IS RECOGNIZED AS THE FOUNDER SUBDIVIDED INTO 2 MAIN BRANCHES: SUBDIVIDED INTO 2 MAIN BRANCHES: –ZOOGEOGRAPHY – study of animal life –PHYTOGEOGRAPHY – study of plant life

4 AUSTRALIA’S PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS It’s ten times the size of Texas!

5 CLIMATE

6 AUSTRALIA A FEDERAL STATE SINCE 1901 A FEDERAL STATE SINCE 1901 POPULATION OF 20.3 MILLION POPULATION OF 20.3 MILLION –ABORIGINAL POPULATION OF 400,000 (2%) –ARITHMETIC DENSITY OF 6.8/SQ MI –PHYSIOLOGIC DENSITY OF 113/SQ MI –GNI OF $28,290 91% URBANIZED 91% URBANIZED MAJOR URBAN CENTERS MAJOR URBAN CENTERS –SYDNEY (4.5 MILLION) –MELBOURNE (3.7 MILLION) –CANBERRA (345,000)- CAPITAL

7 SYDNEY

8 POLITICAL DIVISIONS

9 THE OUTBACK EXTENSIVE GRASSLAND PASTURES EXTENSIVE GRASSLAND PASTURES SUPPORT ONE OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST SHEEP AND CATTLE INDUSTRIES SUPPORT ONE OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST SHEEP AND CATTLE INDUSTRIES A FRAGILE ENVIRONMENT A FRAGILE ENVIRONMENT

10 THE INTERIOR

11 AUSTRALIA’S ECONOMY PRINCIPAL PATTERNS: PRINCIPAL PATTERNS: –EXPORTS RAW MATERIALS –BASED HEAVILY ON THE PRIMARY SECTOR ACTIVITIES –DEPENDS ON WORLD MARKETS IMPORT-SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIES IMPORT-SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIES SMALL DOMESTIC MARKET SMALL DOMESTIC MARKET TRADE LINKS WITH ASIAN TIGERS TRADE LINKS WITH ASIAN TIGERS

12 AGRICULTURE & MINERAL RESOURCES

13 ABORIGINAL ISSUES POPULATION DATES FROM 50,000-60,000 YEARS AGO, pg 584. POPULATION DATES FROM 50,000-60,000 YEARS AGO, pg s - CAMPAIGN AGAINST MINING AND EXPLORATION OF TRADITIONAL LANDS 1980s - CAMPAIGN AGAINST MINING AND EXPLORATION OF TRADITIONAL LANDS 1992: ABORIGINES CAN CLAIM TITLE TO TRADITIONAL LAND 1992: ABORIGINES CAN CLAIM TITLE TO TRADITIONAL LAND 1993: NATIVE TITLE BILL – Natives could now obtain titles to their “vacant” land 1993: NATIVE TITLE BILL – Natives could now obtain titles to their “vacant” land 1996: LEGAL REVIEW OF PASTORAL LEASES 1996: LEGAL REVIEW OF PASTORAL LEASES CURRENT LAND ISSUES CURRENT LAND ISSUES

14 ABORIGINAL CLAIMS

15 IMPACT OF FIRE IN NEW SOUTH WALES

16 BEACH ALONG AUSTRALIA’S EAST COAST E.J. PALKA

17 SUGARCANE FIELD TEA PLANTATION NORTH QUEENSLAND E.J. PALKA

18 THE AUSTRAL REALM II (NEW ZEALAND)

19 NEW ZEALAND TWO MAJOR ISLANDS (NORTH AND SOUTH) AND MANY SMALLER MOUNTAINOUS ENVIRONMENTS POPULATION OF 4.2 MILLION, OF WHICH 75% ARE EUROPEAN MAORI HERITAGE (POLYNESIAN ROOTS), BUT A MINORITY TODAY OF LESS THAN 600,000 ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES - herding

20 NEW ZEALAND’S RELATIVE LOCATION (ASTRIDE PLATE BOUNDARIES)

21 THE IMPACT

22 POPULATION OVERVIEW 4.2 MILLION PEOPLE 4.2 MILLION PEOPLE MAORI MINORITY OF ABOUT 14% MAORI MINORITY OF ABOUT 14% ARITHEMETIC DENSITY: 39.8/SQ MI ARITHEMETIC DENSITY: 39.8/SQ MI LIFE EXPECTANCY: MALE (76); FEMALE (81) LIFE EXPECTANCY: MALE (76); FEMALE (81) 78% URBANIZED 78% URBANIZED GNI: $21,120 GNI: $21,120 AUCKLAND: 1.2 MILLION AUCKLAND: 1.2 MILLION

23 LAND-USE PATTERNS

24

25 COMMONALITIES (AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND) BRITISH HERITAGE PASTORAL ECONOMIES SMALL INTERNAL MARKETS CHALLENGES OF DISTANCE AND REMOTE LOCATION HIGH % URBANIZATION PERIPHERAL DEVELOPMENT CONCERNS WITH INDIGENOUS PEOPLES EXCELLENT QUALITY OF LIFE FOR MOST

26 HIGHLY URBANIZED ON COASTAL MARGINS AUCKLAND, NORTH ISLAND

27 THE MAORI FACTOR/COMPLAINTS TREATY OF WAITANGI, 1840 LAND AND FISHING RIGHTS LACK OF INTEGRATION INTO REST OF SOCIETY HISTORICAL LAND CLAIMS (SOUTH ISLAND)


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