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Load and Haul Fleet Selection Based on Fixed Plant Production

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Ways to Estimate Productivity !!

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The typical view is machine centred …

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What are we going to do ? Review an approach which uses Crusher Output to drive fleet selection. Use a simple spreadsheet to manage this process e.g. no bunching or cycle mismatch included. Tie in the relevant concepts of earth and rock moving into this process. Seek to reinforces the outlook that You can’t Manage what you don’t Measure !

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What are the Production Targets and Rates for Fixed Plant? How much Time is Available? What is the Load Area Production Rate ? How much of an Hour does the Loading Tool spend Loading? What is the Match of Loading Tool and Haulers ? What does our Reality look like? What is the Key Characteristic of the Material? What are the Cycle Times for Haulers and Loading Tool? Key Questions Addressed What Primary Load & Haul Production is required?

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Bunching and Cycle Mismatch

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Quarry Contacts Queensland and Northern Territory Paul SodenHastings Deering, Brisbane New South Wales Andrew BlackWesTrac, Sydney Victoria Ian CollinsWilliam Adams, Melbourne Tasmania Stuart Mc DonaldWilliam Adams, Launceston South Australia Mark TaylorCavpowerAdelaide Western Australia Steve Sakich WesTracPerth

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Any Questions ? The End

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Concepts Time Available Work Days per year Work Hours per Day Job Efficiency – Work Minutes per Work Hour Load Area Activities Material Density Load Factor and Fragmentation Fleet Match Cycle Times Bucket to Body Sizing – Effective Pass Ratios Bucket Fill Factor

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Concepts Time Available Work Days per year Work Hours per Day Job Efficiency – Work Minutes per Work Hour Load Area Activities Material Density Load Factor and Fragmentation Fleet Match Cycle Times Bucket to Body Sizing – Effective Pass Ratios Bucket Fill Factor

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Availability & Utilization An Example Job Efficiency Factors Mismatch Bunching Operator Efficiency (85% Job Efficiency) Utilization Loss Ready, but unmanned Shift Change Lunch & Meetings Scheduled Downtime &PM's (87.5% Utilization) Off Time Loss Holidays Weather (4.1% Off Time) Machine Availability Loss Unscheduled Downtime (90% On-Shift Availability) PRODUCTIVE TIME 6615 HRS 735 HRS 1050 HRS 360 HRS Machine Operating Hours (6615 HRS) Machine Scheduled Hours (7350 HRS) Mine Scheduled Hours (8400 HRS) Total Annual Hours (8760 HRS) 10 % of % of % of 8400 Work Hours Available per Year

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Work Days per Year Full Days220days Partial Days48days Partial Day Factor0.50

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Load & Haul Work Hours per Day

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Load and Haul Scheduled Hours / Day 10 hours less Non Operational Time Mobilisation Toolbox Talk - Inspect - Transit 20 minutes Transit - Refuel - Shut Down20 minutes Breaks including Transit time AM / PM Breaks20 minutes Lunch45 minutes Subtotal of Non Operational Time 1.75 hours less Non Primary Load and Haul Stock movement0.75 hours Overburden 0 hours Subtotal Non-Primary Load and Haul0.75 hours Work Hours per Day7.5 hours

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Job Efficiency / Work Minutes per Work Hour Job Efficiency is one of the most complex elements of estimating production since it is influenced by factors such as operator skill, minor repairs and adjustments, personal delays and delays caused by job layout. An approximation of efficiency, if no job data is available, is given below. Efficiency OperationWorking Hour Factor Day50 minute hour 0.83 Night45 minute hour 0.75 These factors do not account for delays due to weather or machine downtime for maintenance and repairs.You must account for such factors based on experience and local conditions. What about time lost for watering the load area ?

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Analysis of Face Loader Activity

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Concepts Time Available Work Days per year Work Hours per Day Job Efficiency – Work Minutes per Work Hour Load Area Activities Material Density Load Factor and Fragmentation Fleet Match Cycle Times Bucket to Body Sizing – Effective Pass Ratios Bucket Fill Factor

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Density of Materials Material BankLoose Load kg/m 3 kg/m 3 Factor Gravel - pit run Earth-dry Earth- wet Clay – natural bed Topsoil Shale Granite -broken Limestone Full Table in PHB 42 P27-4

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Concepts Time Available Work Days per year Work Hours per Day Job Efficiency – Work Minutes per Work Hour Load Area Activities Material Density Load Factor and Fragmentation Fleet Match Cycle Times Bucket to Body Sizing – Effective Pass Ratios Bucket Fill Factor

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LOAD Fixed Time RETURN Variable Time HAUL Variable Time DUMP Fixed Time CYCLE TIME Machine Production Delays Operator Skill

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Target Truck Load Time 2 minutes Target Exchange Time 0.7 minutes Target Pass Match Loader / Hauler = 3-5 Excavator / Hauler = 4-6 Loading Tool / Hauler Pass Match

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Concepts Time Available Work Days per year Work Hours per Day Job Efficiency – Work Minutes per Work Hour Load Area Activities Material Density Load Factor and Fragmentation Fleet Match Cycle Times Bucket to Body Sizing – Effective Pass Ratios Bucket Fill Factor

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Material Moist Loam Sand and Gravel Mix Rock - Well Blasted Rock - Poorly Blasted 12 –20mm Aggregate BFF as % of Heaped Capacity A % B % C % % Bucket Fill Factor (BFF) A B C PHB 42 Pages 4-156, BFF for Wheel Loader buckets tend to be 5 – 10 % higher than Excavator buckets due to different angles of repose for SAE rating.

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Quarry Contacts Queensland and Northern Territory Paul SodenHastings Deering, Brisbane New South Wales Andrew BlackWesTrac, Sydney Victoria Ian CollinsWilliam Adams, Melbourne Tasmania Stuart Mc DonaldWilliam Adams, Launceston South Australia Mark TaylorCavpowerAdelaide Western Australia Steve Sakich WesTracPerth

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Any Questions ? The End

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