Presentation on theme: "Creating a Thinking Curriculum: Higher-order Thinking Across KLAs"— Presentation transcript:
1The best teachers are those who equip students to THINK for themselves.
2Creating a Thinking Curriculum: Higher-order Thinking Across KLAs Presented by Alison RoseDi MarsdenDenise TarlintonKurwongbah State School
3He who learns but does not think is lost (Chinese Proverb)
4Overview Why HOTS? What is higher-order thinking? Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy and higher-order thinkingPlanning with Bloom’s Revised TaxonomyDimensions of Learning FrameworkHOTs in action: Making decisions with the Decision Making Matrix
5The students of the future should be able to: Solve problemsThink creatively- invent and produce/ generate new ideas and knowledgeThink critically- challenge, debate, refuteMake decisions- compare, analyse, select, justifyAnalyse and evaluate information and ideasPlan for the future
6Employability skills for the Future (DEST) CommunicationTeam workProblem solvingInitiative and enterprisePlanning and organisingSelf-managementLearningUse of technology(Department of Education, Science and Training)
7The early self-fulfilling prophecy studies (Rist) and studies of streaming and tracking (Oakes, Gorman and Page, 1992), show that one of the main reasons some students do not achieve high academic performance is that schools do not always require students to perform work of high intellectual quality.(Queensland School Reform Longitudinal Study, 2001a, p. 3)
8… Newmann and Associates (1996) suggest that when students from all backgrounds are expected to perform work of high intellectual quality, overall student academic performance increases… From this research, we would generalise that a focus on high intellectual quality is necessary for all students to perform well academically.(Queensland School Reform Longitudinal Study, 2001a, p. 3)
9QSRLSThe Queensland School Reform Longitudinal Study ( ) commissioned in 1997 by Education Queensland reported on the need to “shift teachers’ attention and focus beyond basic skills to key aspects of higher-order thinking… towards more productive pedagogies… (QSRLS, 2001b, p. 15).The key finding was that “intellectual demand [of students] has significant links with improved productive performance in schools and, hence, with improved student outcomes (QSRLS, 2001b, p.15).The overall findings suggested “that ‘high intellectual demand’ may be a key rallying point for innovative change, school renewal and reform of support mechanisms for curriculum implementation and assessment (QSRLS, 2001b, p. 15).
10MYRAD – Middle Years Research and Development The more students believe their teachers to be emphasising thinking and learning strategies:The greater the motivationThe more strongly they are involved in productive cognitive strategiesThe more firmly they focus on the task goalsThe less they see school to be focussed on individual ability and competitionThe less they perceive a lack of control over their own learning(Victoria)
11Barratt’s Model for Adolescent Learning (1998) Purpose: Having opportunity to negotiate learning that is useful now, as well as in the futureEmpowerment: Viewing the world critically and acting independently, cooperatively and responsiblySuccess: Having multiple opportunities to learn valued knowledge and skills as well as the opportunity to use talents and expertise that students bring to the learning environment.Rigour: Taking on realistic challenges in an environment characterised by high expectationsSafety: Learning in a safe, caring and a stimulating environment
12What Is Higher-order Thinking? “Higher-order thinking by students involves the transformation of information and ideas. This transformation occurs when students combine facts and ideas and synthesise, generalise, explain, hypothesise or arrive at some conclusion or interpretation. Manipulating information and ideas through these processes allows students to solve problems, gain understanding and discover new meaning.”(Department of Education, Queensland, A guide to Productive Pedagogies:Classroom reflection manual , 2002, p. 1)
13What Is Higher-order Thinking? Continued….“When students engage in the construction of knowledge, an element of uncertainty is introduced into the instructional process and the outcomes are not always predictable; in other words, the teacher is not certain what the students will produce. In helping students become producers of knowledge, the teacher’s main instructional task is to create activities or environments that allow them opportunities to engage in higher-order thinking.”(Department of Education, Queensland, A guide to productive pedagogies:classroom reflection manual , 2002, p. 1)
14Higher-order Thinking is: experimentingdecidingcreatingcomparingcheckinginventinginterrogatingdeconstructinghypothesisingcritiquingorganisingproducingfindingjudgingplanningdesigningconstructing
15Higher-order thinking is not: regurgitationrote learningrecallremembering
16What does the Thinking Classroom look like? There are significant opportunities for:higher-level thinkingcomplex problem solvingopen-ended responsesThinking skills are explicitly taught in an authentic and meaningful context.
17A guide to Productive Pedagogies: Classroom reflection manual lists three degrees of incorporation of Higher-order thinking skills in a “Continuum of practice”:Students are engaged only in lower-order thinking; i.e. they receive, or recite, or participate in routine practice. In no activities during the lesson do students go beyond simple reproduction of knowledge.Students are primarily engaged in routine lower-order thinking for a good share of the lesson. There is at least one significant question or activity in which some students perform some higher-order thinking.Almost all students, almost all of the time are engaged in higher-order thinking.(Department of Education, Queensland, 2002, p. 1)
18Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy? Higher-order thinking occurs at the top three levels of Bloom's Revised TaxonomyAnalysingEvaluatingCreating.
19Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives1950s- developed by Benjamin BloomMeans of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinkingBeen adapted for classroom use as a planning toolContinues to be one of the most universally applied modelsProvides a way to organise thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the more complex levels of thinking1990s- Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomyAs a result, a number of changes were made(Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, pp. 7-8)
20Original Terms New Terms EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeCreatingEvaluatingAnalysingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering(Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8)
21Change in TermsThe names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms.As the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process verbs were used rather than nouns.The subcategories of the six major categories were also replaced by verbs and some subcategories were reorganised.The knowledge category was renamed. Knowledge is an outcome or product of thinking not a form of thinking per se. Consequently, the word knowledge was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remembering instead.Comprehension and synthesis were retitled to understanding and creating respectively, in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking defined in each category.
22Change in EmphasisThe revision's primary focus was on the taxonomy in use. Essentially, this means that the revised taxonomy is a more authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment.The revision is aimed at a broader audience. Bloom’s Taxonomy was traditionally viewed as a tool best applied in the earlier years of schooling (i.e. primary and junior primary years). The revised taxonomy is more universal and easily applicable at elementary, secondary and even tertiary levels.The revision emphasizes explanation and description of subcategories.
23Higher-order thinking BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging Analysing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding Applying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering Recalling information Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding
24Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging Analysing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding
25AnalysingThe learner breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information.ComparingOrganisingDeconstructingAttributingOutliningFindingStructuringIntegratingCan you break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships?Each of these is a thinking skill that should be explicitly taught to students.
26Breaking information down into its component elements Analysing cont’CompareContrastSurveyDetectGroupOrderSequenceTestDebateAnalyseDiagramRelateDissectCategoriseDiscriminateDistinguishQuestionAppraiseExperimentInspectExamineProbeSeparateInquireArrangeInvestigateSiftResearchCalculateCriticizeBreaking information down into its component elementsProducts include:GraphSpreadsheetChecklistChartOutlineSurveyDatabaseMobileAbstractReport
27Classroom Roles for Analysing Teacher rolesProbesGuidesObservesEvaluatesActs as a resourceQuestionsOrganisesDissectsStudent rolesDiscussesUncoversArguesDebatesThinks deeplyTestsExaminesQuestionsCalculatesInvestigatesInquiresActive participant
28Questions for Analysing Which events could not have happened?If. ..happened, what might the ending have been?How is...similar to...?What do you see as other possible outcomes?Why did...changes occur?Can you explain what must have happened when...?What are some or the problems of...?Can you distinguish between...?What were some of the motives behind..?What was the turning point?What was the problem with...?(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 13)
29Analysing: Potential Activities and Products Design a questionnaire to gather information.Write a commercial to sell a new productMake a flow chart to show the critical stages.Construct a graph to illustrate selected information.Make a family tree showing relationships.Devise a play about the study area.Write a biography of a person studied.Prepare a report about the area of study.Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view.Review a work of art in terms of form, colour and texture.
30EvaluatingThe learner makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment.CheckingHypothesisingCritiquingExperimentingJudgingTestingDetectingMonitoring Can you justify a decision or course of action?
31Evaluating cont’ Judge Rate Validate Predict Assess Score Revise Infer DeterminePrioritiseTell whyCompareEvaluateDefendSelectMeasureChooseConcludeDeduceDebateJustifyRecommendDiscriminateAppraiseValueProbeArgueDecideCriticiseRankRejectJudging the value of ideas, materials and methods by developing and applying standards and criteria.Products include:DebatePanelReportEvaluationInvestigationVerdictConclusionPersuasive speech
32Classroom Roles for Evaluating Teacher rolesClarifiesAcceptsGuidesStudent rolesJudgesDisputesComparesCritiquesQuestionsArguesAssessesDecidesSelectsJustifiesActive participant
33Questions for Evaluating Is there a better solution to...?Judge the value of... What do you think about...?Can you defend your position about...?Do you think...is a good or bad thing?How would you have handled...?What changes to.. would you recommend?Do you believe...? How would you feel if. ..?How effective are. ..?What are the consequences..?What influence will....have on our lives?What are the pros and cons of....?Why is ....of value?What are the alternatives?Who will gain & who will loose? (Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 14)
34Evaluating: Potential Activities and Products Prepare a list of criteria to judge…Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest.Make a booklet about five rules you see as important. Convince others.Form a panel to discuss views.Write a letter to. ..advising on changes needed.Write a half-yearly report.Prepare a case to present your view about...
35CreatingThe learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned.DesigningConstructingPlanningProducingInventingDevisingMaking Can you generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?
36Creating cont’ Compose Assemble Organise Invent Compile Forecast DeviseProposeConstructPlanPrepareDevelopOriginateImagineGenerateFormulateImproveActPredictProduceBlendSet upDeviseConcoctCompilePutting together ideas or elements to develop an original idea or engage in creative thinking.Products include:FilmStoryProjectPlanNew gameSongNewspaperMedia productAdvertisementPainting
37Classroom Roles for Creating Teacher rolesFacilitatesExtendsReflectsAnalysesEvaluatesStudent rolesDesignsFormulatesPlansTakes risksModifiesCreatesProposesMakesActive participant
38Questions for Creating Can you design a...to...?Can you see a possible solution to...?If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...?Why don't you devise your own way to...?What would happen if ...?How many ways can you...?Can you create new and unusual uses for...?Can you develop a proposal which would...?(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 14)
39Creating: Potential Activities and Products Invent a machine to do a specific task.Design a building to house your study.Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign.Write about your feelings in relation to...Write a TV show play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about..Design a record, book or magazine cover for...Sell an ideaDevise a way to...Make up a new language and use it in an example.
40Explicit Teaching of the Thinking Process: Help students understand the process.Give students a model for the process, and create opportunities for them to practice using the process.As students study and use the process, help them focus on critical steps and difficult aspects of the process.Provide students with graphic organisers or representations of the model to help them understand and use the process.Use teacher-structured and student structured tasks.
41We believe:Higher-order thinking skills and strategies can be applied:Across all year levelsWithin and across all KLAsThroughout all aspects of life, during school and beyondForm the basis of Life Long Learning
42Sample Unit : Space Remembering Understanding Applying Analysing Cut out “space” pictures from a magazine. Make a display or a collage. List space words (Alphabet Key). List the names of the planets in our universe. List all the things an astronaut would need for a space journey.UnderstandingMake your desk into a spaceship, Make an astronaut for a puppet play. Use it to tell what an astronaut does. Make a model of the planets.ApplyingKeep a diary of your space adventure (5 days). What sort of instruments would you need to make space music? Make a list of questions you would like to ask an astronaut.AnalysingMake an application form for a person applying for the job of an astronaut. Compare Galileo’s telescope to a modern telescope. Distinguish between the Russian and American space programs.EvaluatingCompare the benefits of living on Earth and the moon. You can take three people with you to the moon. Choose and give reasons. Choose a planet you would like to live on- explain why.CreatingWrite a newspaper report for the following headline: “Spaceship out of control”. Design a space suit. Create a game called “Space Snap”. Prepare a menu for your spaceship crew. Design an advertising program for trips to the moon.
43Sample Unit : Travel Remembering Understanding Applying Analysing How many ways can you travel from one place to another? List and draw all the ways you know. Describe one of the vehicles from your list, draw a diagram and label the parts. Collect “transport” pictures from magazines- make a poster with info.UnderstandingHow do you get from school to home? Explain the method of travel and draw a map. Write a play about a form of modern transport. Explain how you felt the first time you rode a bicycle. Make your desk into a form of transport.ApplyingExplain why some vehicles are large and others small. Write a story about the uses of both. Read a story about “The Little Red Engine” and make up a play about it. Survey 10 other children to see what bikes they ride. Display on a chart or graph.AnalysingMake a jigsaw puzzle of children using bikes safely. What problems are there with modern forms of transport and their uses- write a report. Compare boats to planes.EvaluatingWhat changes would you recommend to road rules to prevent traffic accidents? Debate whether we should be able to buy fuel at a cheaper rate. Rank transport from slow to fast etc.CreatingInvent a vehicle. Draw or construct it after careful planning. What sort of transport will there be in twenty years time? Discuss, write about it and report to the class. Write a song about traveling in different forms of transport.
45Good teaching is more a giving of right questions than a giving of right answers. ~Josef Albers~
46Creating Evaluating Analysing Applying Understanding Remembering Green Hat, Construction Key, SCAMPER, Ridiculous Key, Combination Key, Invention KeyEvaluatingBrick Wall Key, Decision Making Matrix, PMI, Prioritising.AnalysingYellow Hat, Black Hat, Venn Diagram, Commonality Key, Picture Key, Y Chart, Combination Key.ApplyingBlue Hat, Brainstorming, Different uses Key, Reverse Listing Key, Flow Chart.UnderstandingGraphic Organisers, Variations Key, Reverse Listing, PMI, Webs (Inspiration).RememberingWhite Hat, Alphabet Key, Graphic Organisers, Acrostic, Listing, Brainstorming, Question Key.
47A good teacher makes you think even when you don’t want to. (Fisher, 1998, Teaching Thinking)
48What our staff has to say… Impact on planning:Planning has become easier and more organisedHelps to give a unit “flow”Blooms and MI tasks integrate well with outcomes and provide better quality assessment tasks and ideas for future planningMore aware of planning for individual needsProvides different ways to approach planningEasier to create groupings of various kindsMade planning more relevant to class needsIt has made planning more detailed as to the final outcome I wish to achieve with each student
49What our staff has to say… Impact on the Classroom:The classroom seems more active and vibrant when children are involved in many of these activitiesMore varied and interesting activitiesStudents are presenting work with greater thought and creativity evidentStudents are more motivated to complete tasksUsing Multiple Intelligences has enhanced our classroom because it forces us to cater for different learning styles and interestsKids have a keen attitude [and] more imaginative thoughtsOpened out activities and made the classroom more student basedStudents are happy to work in any given group- the focus is onthe task and not the group dynamicsMore cooperation between some students
50What our staff has to say… Impact on students:Students are more able to respond to questioning at a higher levelThe depth of their thinking is becoming more obvious the more the program is usedIt makes learning more accessible to a variety of children via catering for learning stylesIndividual needs/ interests being catered forStudents have been helped to identify their strengthsIt’s got to be a positive that students are aware of these skills and can verbalise the different approachesProductive work, on-taskEveryone gets an opportunity to become special or good at something“FUN” being the favoured wordLoads of positive encouragementEnjoyable and rewarding experience
51TRY THIS…While sitting at your desk, lift your right foot off the floor and make clockwise circles (That's to the right.... :-) Now, while doing this, draw the number "6" in the air with your right hand.
53Dimensions of Learning: … is about thinking strategies
54Dimensions of Learning: …is a model/framework that provides a common understanding and language related to learning.
55Dimensions of Learning is a comprehensive model that uses what researchers and theorists know about learning to define the learning process. Its premise is that five types of thinking- called the five dimensions of learning, are essential to successful learning. The Dimensions framework helps teachers to:maintain a focus on learningstudy the learning processplan curriculum, instruction and assessment that takes into account the five critical aspects of learning.
56Implicit in the Dimensions of Learning model, or framework, are five basic assumptions: Instruction must reflect the best of what we know about how learning occurs.Learning involves a complex system of interactive processes that include various types of thinking- represented by the five dimensions.Curriculum programs should include the explicit teaching of attitudes, perceptions and mental habits that facilitate learning.A comprehensive approach to instruction includes both teacher directed and student directed instruction.Assessment should focus on students' use of knowledge and complex reasoning processes rather than on their recall of information.
57Explicit teaching of thinking skills: Help students understand the thinking process.Give students a model for the process, and create opportunities for them to practice using the process.As students study and use the process, help them focus on critical steps and difficult aspects of the process.Provide students with graphic organisers or representations of the model to help them understand and use the process.Use teacher-structured and student-structured tasks.
58Making Decisions with the Decision Making Matrix Decisions, decisions…
59Attitudes and Perceptions Habits of MindDimension 4Use Knowledge MeaningfullyExtend and Refine KnowledgeAcquire and Integrate KnowledgeAttitudes and Perceptions
60ActivityA local coffee shop has decided to serve customers complimentary chocolate chip biscuits when they order coffeeAssist the manager in selecting the best biscuit from the packets in front of you.
61What’s going on here? You are being asked to make a decision What is a decision?According to the Compact Oxford English Dictionary a decision is:A conclusion or resolution reached after considerationThe action or process of deciding (p. 280).According to Dimensions of Learning it is a Complex Reasoning Process.
62Decision MakingThe process of generating and applying criteria to select from among seemingly equal alternatives.Identify a decision you wish to make and the alternatives you are considering.Identify the criteria you consider important.Assign each criterion an importance score.Determine the extent to which each alternative possesses each criterion.Multiply the criterion scores by the alternative scores to determine which alternative has the highest total points.Based on your reaction to the selected alternative, determine if you want to change importance scores or add or drop criteria.
63The Decision Making Matrix AlternativesCriteriaTOTALS
64Alternatives Criteria Panorama Hillcrest Seaview Close to shops (Weighting 3)Self containedView of water(Weighting 2)Cost <$150.00(Weighting 1)TOTALS
65Alternatives 3 6 9 Criteria Panorama Hillcrest Seaview Close to shops (Weighting 3)4 klms from shopsRating 12 klms from shopsRating 2Centre of townRating 33X133X263X39Self containedView of water(Weighting 2)Cost <$150.00(Weighting 1)TOTALS
66Alternatives 17 3 6 9 4 Criteria Panorama Hillcrest Seaview Close to shops(Weighting 3)4 klms from shopsRating 12 klms from shopsRating 2Centre of townRating 33X133X263X39Self containedCabins for 4View of water(Weighting 2)Some views water2X24Cost <$150.00(Weighting 1)Cost $160.00Rating11X1TOTALS17
67Alternatives 17 21 18 3 6 9 4 1 Criteria Panorama Hillcrest Seaview Close to shops(Weighting 3)4 klms from shopsRating 12 klms from shopsRating 2Centre of townRating 33X133X263X39Self containedCabins for 4Studio ApartmentsView of water(Weighting 2)Some views waterExcellent viewsNo water viewsRating 02X242X32X0Cost <$150.00(Weighting 1)Cost $160.00Rating1Cost $175.00Cost $140.001X111X01X3TOTALS172118
68ActivityA local coffee shop has decided to serve customers complimentary chocolate chip biscuits when they order coffeeAssist the manager in selecting the best biscuit from the packets in front of you.
69Now it’s your turn… 1. Write down the 3 alternatives Criteria Rating 2. Select 4 criteria and weight them from 1-3 according to their importance.Criteria(Weighting )RatingX(Weighting )TOTALS3. Judge and rate each alternative on each of the four criteria. Rate each one between 1 and 3 depending on how well each alternative meets each criteria.4. Multiply each rating by the weighting to give a score for each criteriaScore5. Add up all 4 scores for each alternative and record the total score.
70Why Decision Making and the Decision Making Matrix? We need to make decisions EVERY day- vital skillThis process encourages thinking (complex reasoning process).Requires reading, writing, research and fact finding.Can requires the use of a variety of sources of information- books, WWW, charts, CD Roms, videos/DVDs, etc.Graphic Organiser provides students with a means to organise their thinking and research.Provides a structure for student writing.Allows students to make decisions more easily.Gives students facts to help them justify their decisions.
71Secondary School Context Civics – deciding on the best item to buy (eg mobile phones) and whyGeography – most livable Brisbane suburbComputing – best internet site on a particular topicHistory – most important aspect of daily life in Ancient RomeCivics – best country to migrate to in the Asia Pacific regionHome Economics – best fabric to use to make a particular item
72Some ideas for using the Decision Making Matrix You are a Journalist with Life Magazine. Choose the most influential person from the 1990s to be included in a special issue.What is the best tree for the Australian rainforest? Choose from four alternatives.Where will you go with your family on the Christmas holidays?Which Captain would you have most liked to have sailed under?Which planet in our solar system (other than Earth) would best support human life?If you could have a pet, which one would you choose?Who was the best Australian Prime Minister?Would you have rather lived in Ancient Egypt, Rome or Greece? Justify your answer.Which system of government is the most fair?Which is the best magazine for children available in shops today?Which animal would make the best pet for an elderly person?Which painter of the 18th Century would you have most liked to have studied under?
73This world is but a canvas for our imaginations. (Henry David Thoreau)
74Kurwongbah State School Thinking Skills Program on the Internet ResourcesTheme-based contract activitiesCopies of all PD session presentationsLinks to other information on the NetAnnotated bibliography
75References www.mcrel.org (accessed 10 August 2003) Education Queensland. (2001a). The Queensland School Reform Longitudinal Study: Supplementary material. Brisbane: State of Queensland, Department of Education.Education Queensland. (2001b). The Queensland School Reform Longitudinal Study: A strategy for shared curriculum leadership. Brisbane: State of Queensland, Department of Education.Frangenheim, E. (2002). Reflections on classroom teaching, 4th ed. Loganholme, Qld: Rodin Educational Planning.Langrehr, J. (2003). Thinking Lessons: Critical and Creative Thinking for the Middle Years. Ballarat, Vic: Wizard Books.Marzano, Robert J., Pickering, Debra J., et al., (1997). Dimensions of Learning Teacher's Manual, 2nd ed. Aurora, Colorado: McREL.Marzano, Robert J., Pickering, Debra J., et al., (1997). Dimensions of Learning Trainer's Manual, 2nd ed. Aurora, Colorado: McREL.
76Bloom on the Internet Bloom's(1956) Revised Taxonomy An excellent introduction and explanation of the revised Taxonomy by Michael Pole on the oz-TeacherNet site written for the QSITE Higher order Thinking Skills Online Course Pohl explains the terms and provides a comprehensive overview of the sub-categories, along with some suggested question starters that aim to evoke thinking specific to each level of the taxonomy. Suggested potential activities and student products are also listed.Bloom’s Revised TaxonomyAnother useful site for teachers with useful explanations and examples of questions from the College of Education at San Diego State University.Taxonomy of Technology IntegrationThis site compiled by the Berglund Center for Internet Studies at Pacific University, makes a valiant effort towards linking ICT (information and communication technologies) to learning via Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Anderson, et. al., 2001). The taxonomy presented on this site is designed to represent the varying cognitive processes that can be facilitated by the integration of ICT into the teaching and learning process.Critical and Creative Thinking - Bloom's Taxonomy http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic69.htm Part of Eduscape.com, this site includes a definitive overview of critical and creative thinking as well as how Bloom’s domains of learning can be reflected in technology-rich projects. Many other links to Internet resources to support Bloom’s Taxonomy, as well as research and papers on Thinking Skills. Well worth a look.
77Bloom on the InternetModel questions and keywords
78Bloom on the Internet http://schools.sd68.bc.ca/webquests/blooms.htm Questioning Techniques that includes reference to Bloom’s Taxonomy.
79Print ResourcesClements, D.; C. Gilliland and P. Holko. (1992). Thinking in Themes: An Approach Through the Learning Centre. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Crawford, Jean (ed.) (1991). Achieveing Excellence: Units of Work for levels P-8. Carlton South, Vic.: Education Shop, Ministry of Education and Training, Victoria.Crosby, N. and E. Martin. (1981). Don’t Teach! Let Me Learn. Book 3. Cheltenham, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow.Dalton, Joan. (1986). Extending Children’s Special Abilities: Strategies for Primary Classrooms. Victoria: Department of School Education, Victoria.
80Print ResourcesForte, Imogene and S. Schurr. (1997). The All-New Science Mind Stretchers: Interdisciplinary Units to Teach Science Concepts and Strengthen Thinking Skills. Cheltenham, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow.Fogarty, R. (1997). Problem-based learning and other curriculum models for the multiple intelligences classroom. Arlington Heights, IL: IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing, Inc.Frangenheim, E. (1998). Reflections on Classroom Thinking Strategies. Loganholme: Rodin Educational Consultancy.Knight, BA., S. Bailey, W. Wearne and D. Brown. (1999). Blooms Multiple Intelligences Themes and Activities.
81Print ResourcesMcGrath, H and T. Noble. (1995). Seven Ways at Once: Units of Work Based on the Seven Intelligences. Book 1. South Melbourne: Longman.Pohl, M. (2000). Teaching Complex Thinking: Critical, Creative, Caring. Cheltenham, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow.Pohl, Michael. (1997). Teaching Thinking Skills in the Primary Years: A Whole School Approach. Cheltenham, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow Education.Pohl, Michael. (2000). Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn: Models and Strategies to Develop a Classroom Culture of Thinking. Cheltenham, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow.Ryan, Maureen. (1996). The Gifted and Talented Children’s Course: Resolving Issues, Book Year Olds. Greenwood, WA: Ready-Ed Publications.
82“A pebble cast into a pond causes ripples that spread out in all directions.” (Dorothy Day)