Presentation on theme: "Government. Compare and contrast the Declaration of Independence and the Social Contract Theory John Locke believed that people were born with certain."— Presentation transcript:
Compare and contrast the Declaration of Independence and the Social Contract Theory John Locke believed that people were born with certain “natural rights,” which included life, liberty, and property. He also advocated Social Contract Theory, which states that there is an implied contract between government and citizens. Thomas Jefferson asserted in the Declaration of Independence that “all men are created equal” and that men are born with certain “inalienable rights,” which include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The Declaration of Independence echoes the theories of John Locke in asserting natural rights, that government obtains its power from the consent of the people, and that citizens have the right to resist and/or replace it with a new system.
Evaluate the Declaration of Independence as a persuasive argument The Declaration of Independence makes these arguments: 1. “All men are created equal” 2. Unalienable rights: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness 3. Powers of government from consent of the governed 4. Grievances against the king of England, George III 5. When revolution should occur When government becomes “destructive” Government should not be changed for “light or transient causes” After a long period of “abuses and usurpations”
Question Which document formally proclaimed the American colonies’ independence from Great Britain? a. The social contract b. The letters of the Enlightenment c. The Declaration of Independence d. The writings of John Locke
Answer C. the Declaration of Independence
Question Rights which human beings are born with and which no government has a right to take away are called a. Declaratory rights b. Natural rights c. Social rights d. Alienable rights
Answer B. Natural rights
Explain the main ideas in debate over ratification; include those in The Federalist Federalists favored a strong central government and supported the Constitution. Anti-Federalists feared a strong central government. Believed the federal government could only do what the Constitution specifically said. The Federalist Papers- Essays written to persuade ratification of the Constitution by easing fears. Supported by George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and John Adams. The Anti-Federalists agreed to ratify the Constitution if a Bill of Rights was added.
Explain the fundamental principles upon which of the United States Constitution is based; include the rule of law, popular sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism. Rule of law – the U.S. is a society governed by set laws. Everyone must obey the nation’s laws. Popular Sovereignty – the belief that the government is empowered by the will of its people. Eventually led to demand that all citizens be given the right to vote. Separation of Powers – power is divided by 3 Branches: Legislative, Judicial, and Executive. Checks & Balances – allows each branch to check the powers of the other two. Federalism – power is divided between different levels of government. In the U.S. the national and state governments share power.
Describe the structure and powers of the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches. Executive – President – enforces laws 1. 4-year terms, limited to 2 terms 2. Elected by Electoral College 3. Powers and Duties (Article II, Sections 2& 3) a. Commander-in-chief of armed forces b. Can make treaties c. Can appointment Supreme Court justices, Cabinet 4. The Vice-President and Cabinet are part of the executive branch
Legislative - Congress – makes laws BICAMERAL – Two Houses House of Representatives 1. Representation based on population 2. At least one per state 3. Special power to impeach, initiate tax bills 4. Presiding officer – Speaker of the House Senate 1. Representation is equal – 2 per state 2. Special power to approve President’s treaties and appointments (2/3 majority required) 3. Serves as jury during impeachment trials 4. Presiding officer – Vice-President of the U.S.
Judicial – Supreme Court interprets laws 1. Highest court in the nation 2. Court of final appeal 3. Congress establishes inferior courts
Analyze the relationship between the 3 Branches in a system of Checks & Balances and Separation of Powers. See next slide
Executive Branch The President Enforces the nation’s laws Heads the armed forces Represents the nation in foreign affairs Legislative Branch Congress Passes taxes Makes new laws Judicial Branch Supreme Court (and other Federal Courts) Decides whether or not laws are constitutional Can: Propose legislation Veto legislation Call special legislative sessions Recommend appointments Negotiate foreign treaties Can: Appoint federal judges Grant pardons and reprieves to federal offenders Can: Pass legislation Override a presidential veto Confirm executive appointments Ratify treaties Appropriate money Impeach and remove a President Can: Declare executives actions and laws unconstitutional Can: Declare legislation unconstitutional Can: Create lower federal courts and judgeships Impeach judges Propose constitutional amendments to override judicial decisions Approve appointments of federal judges
Question The idea of a legislative branch making the laws, an executive branch enforcing the laws, and a judicial branch overseeing application of the law is consistent with a. Separation of powers b. Checks and balances c. Federalism d. Popular sovereignty
Answer A. Separation of Powers
Question Which of the following states that governments re empowered by and exist for the people they governed? a. Federalism b. Popular sovereignty c. Anti-federalism d. Checks and balances
Answer B. Popular sovereignty
Explain the relationship of state government to the national government Explain the relationship of state government to the national government. Under our federal system of government, power is divided between states and the national government. According to the 10 th Amendment, any powers not specifically granted to the national government are reserved for the states. No state government may pass a law that violates the U.S. Constitution.
Define the difference between enumerated and implied powers. Enumerated Powers are explicitly granted by the Constitution. Implied Powers are powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
Describe the extent to which power is shared. The Supremacy Clause states that the Constitution is the “supreme law of the land” and takes precedence over any state or local laws.
Identify powers denied to state and national governments Identify powers denied to state and national governments. Any powers expressly denied the national government are also denied to the states and no state government may pass a law that violates the U.S. Constitution.
.” Analyze the supremacy clause found in Article VI and the role of the U.S. Constitution as the “supreme law of the land.” Article 6: Constitution is the supreme law of the nation. - No federal, state, or local law can conflict with the Constitution.
Examine the Bill of Rights with emphasis on First Amendment freedoms. The Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. The 1 st Amendment guarantees the following for citizens: Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Freedom to petition the government Freedom to assemble Freedom of religion Separation of church and state
Analyze due process law expressed in the 5 th and 14 th Amendments. Analyze due process law expressed in the 5 th and 14 th Amendments. The 5 th Amendment ensures that no person shall be imprisoned or deprived of his or her property without due process. Due process prevents government abuse and ensures citizens charged with a crime are not denied their rights during judicial hearings. The 14 th Amendment makes it illegal for any state government to pass laws denying liberties guaranteed under the Bill of Rights.
Explain how government seeks to maintain the balance between individual liberties and the public interest. Explain how government seeks to maintain the balance between individual liberties and the public interest. Individual liberties are the personal freedoms every citizens enjoys under the Constitution. Public interest refers to those things which citizens have a common interest: public safety, national security, a healthy environment, protection from dangerous products in the market place, etc. At times, protecting public interest can infringe on individual liberties. For instance, following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the U.S. government passed the PATRIOT Act, which grants government officials greater freedom to monitor phone calls, emails, and other forms of communication. Many appreciate such a law because it protects the public. Others, say such laws go too far because they invade citizens’ privacy and violate individual liberties.
Explain every citizen’s right to be treated equally under the law. Today, the Constitution has been amended so that, at least in theory, every U.S. citizen is given equal protection under the law regardless of skin color, gender, age, wealth, etc.
U.S. citizens must fulfill a number of civic responsibilities in order for U.S. society to function. These civic duties include: Obeying laws Paying taxes Serving jury duty Performing public service Registering for the draft (required for 18-year-old males) Political participation Staying well-informed
Describe the organization, role, and constituencies of political parties. The U.S. Constitution says nothing about political parties Despite pleas from George Washington, political parties have become an important part of U.S. policies. Political parties are organizations that promote political beliefs and sponsor candidates. The U.S. operates on a two-party system These two parties are the Democrats and Republicans
(Political parties continued) Political parties serve the following functions: They nominate candidates for office Coordinate the actions of government officials Establish party platforms Each party has it general constituency, which is the people who make up and are represented by the party. Democrats are identified as more liberal Republicans are generally more conservative
Describe the nomination and election process Local, state, and federal officials are voted into office by means of a general election To decide on a single nominee, primary elections are held to choose between candidates within the same party In presidential elections, the winner is not directly chosen by the people, but by the Electoral College. In a general election, whichever presidential candidate wins the most votes in a particular state is awarded ALL of that state’s votes in the Electoral College. Georgia currently has 15 electoral votes
U.S. Congress House of RepresentativesU.S. Senate RepresentationBy population of state2 per state Length of terms 2 Years6 Years LeadershipLed by Speaker of the House Led by Vice President and president pro tempore
Explain the steps in the legislative process. Introduce in Either House or Senate as a Bill Referred to Committee Kills Bill Debated in floor of House or Senate and voted on Goes to other legislative body (House or Senate) Goes to President Becomes law 2/3 of each body (House and Senate) needed to pass over President’s veto Yes NO Yes
Explain the function of various leadership positions within the legislature Explain the function of various leadership positions within the legislature. The top post in the House of Representatives is the Speaker of the House. The Vice President presides over the Senate, but he/she only votes if his/her vote is needed to break a tie. When the Vice President is not present, the president pro tempore takes his/her place The two major parties with the Senate and House of Representatives have leaders. The majority leader is the elected leader of the majority party Conversely, the minority leader leads the minority party.
Duties and powers of the President: 1. Chief Executive – the nation’s recognized leader and head of the executive branch. Ultimately responsible for enforcing the nation’s laws 2. Commander-in-chief – the top military commander 3. Foreign policy leader – plays a major roles in deciding how the U.S. will deal will foreign countries and international situations. He/she is responsible for negotiating treaties and agreements with other nations. The president is the nation’s chief of state and it foremost representative. 4. Appoints pubic officials – including heads of federal departments and federal judges 5. Party Leader – the president acts as the head of his/her political party.
Explain the impeachment process as defined in the U.S. Constitution. The president may be impeached (charged with wrongdoing while in office) by the House of Representatives if suspected of treason, bribery, or “other high crimes and misdemeanors.” If this occurs, the president stands trial in the Senate If two-thirds of the Senate finds him/her guilty, then he/she is removed from office. Only two presidents have been impeached: Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton. Neither was found guilty.
Explain the functions of the Cabinet Members of the President's Cabinet act as his official advisory group (the president’s team) and head executive departments. The President appoints members of his cabinet and the Senate must confirm them. Here is a list of the 15 executive departments. 1.Department of Agriculture 2.Department of Commerce 3.Department of Defense 4.Department of Education 5.Department of Energy 6.Department of Health and Human Services 7.Department of Housing and Urban Development 8.Department of the Interior 9.Department of Justice 10.Department of Labor 11.Department of State 12.Department of Transportation 13.Department of the Treasury 14.Department of Veterans' Affairs 15.Department of Homeland Security
Explain the jurisdiction of the federal courts and the state courts. U.S. Supreme Court U.S Court of Appeals U.S. District Courts State Supreme Court Appellate Courts Superior Courts Lower Courts
Examine how John Marshall established the Supreme Court as an independent coequal branch of government through his opinions in Marbury v. Madison. Power of Judicial Review (Marbury v. Madison) Article 5: Amending the Constitution 2/3 of both house of Congress may propose 2/3 of states may call for national convention to propose (never used) Requires 3/4 of states to ratify (officially approve) before it becomes a permanent part of the U.S. Constitution
Describe how the Supreme Court decides cases. Describe how the Supreme Court decides cases. The Supreme Court Chooses which cases it will head. If a case is refused, the decision of the lower court will stand. If the Supreme Court accepts a case: Both sides will present written briefs (legal arguments) Supreme Court Justices will apply the Constitution when making their decision After heading all arguments, the justices will vote There are 9 justices, so 5 votes are needed for a majority
Foreign policy refers to the United States’ relations with other nations and how it handles international situations. The president is predominantly responsible for determining the U.S.’ foreign policy. Diplomacy is the process of nations coming together to find peaceful solutions. The U.S. offers economic, humanitarian, and military aid to countries that are less developed or hurting as a result of a national disaster. Treaties are formal international agreements between nations. Sanctions are restrictions or policies placed on a country that may be violating international agreements Sanctions placed on North Korea for pursuing the development of nuclear weapons Military intervention is the most drastic measure for dealing with international conflicts. The U.S. has been involved in Iraq and now Afghanistan and Pakistan fighting the war on terror.
Question 1. The U.S. Constitution gives state governments the authority to be involved in all of the following areas except a. Tax collection b. Public education c. Treaty negotiation d. Highway construction
Answer C. Treaty negotiations
Question 2. What is the main purpose of the national conventions that the Republican and Democratic parties hold every four years? a. To organize state primaries b. To develop legislative strategies c. To caucus about foreign-policy issues d. To nominate presidential candidates
Answer D. To nominate presidential candidates
Question 3. Which government body acts as the jury in an impeachment trial in the United States? a. The Senate b. The Cabinet c. The Supreme Court d. The House of Representatives
Answer A. The Senate
Question 4. What is the primary function of leaders within the Legislative branch of the U.S. federal government? a. To introduce bills proposed by the president b. To advance the goals of their political parties c. To carry out federal laws passed by both houses of Congress d. To confirm the constitutionality of bills with the Supreme Court.
Answer B. To advance the goals of their political parties
Question 5. What is the purpose of the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution? a. To limit the federal government’s powers b. To expand the courts’ authority to review federal laws c. To guarantee citizens’ voting rights regardless of race or gender d. The establish checks and balances between the executives and legislative branches.
Answer A. To limit the federal government’s power
Question 6. Which idea from Social Contract Theory is expressed within the U.S. Declaration of Independence? a. Congress must consist of two legislative houses b. Political term limits are necessary for all elected officials. c. Government authority comes from the consent of the governed. d. Individual citizens must be protected by a federal bill of rights.
Answer C. Government authority comes from the consent of the governed.
Question 7. How the U.S. chooses to interact with other nations and handle international situations is known as a. Diplomacy b. Foreign policy c. Military intervention d. International sanctions
Answer B. Foreign policy
Question 8. A proposal that has been introduced by a member of Congress to be considered as a potential law is called what? a. A resolution b. An act of Congress c. A bill d. A veto
Answer C. A bill
Question 9. Congress is composed of a. The federal judiciary b. The House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate c. The executive branch d. The cabinet and the federal bureaucracy
Answer B. The House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate.
Question 10. The authority of the Supreme Court to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional was established in which court case? a. Marbury b. Madison (1803) b. McCullough v. Maryland (1819) c. Korematsu v. United States (1944) d. Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Answer A. Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
Question 11. Nicholas Davis is extremely disappointed. Although the president of the United States nominated him to serve on the Supreme Court, the U.S. Senate voted down his nomination. This scenario is an example of which principle at work a. Separation of Powers b. Popular Sovereignty c. The Legislative branch d. Checks & Balances
Answer D. Checks and Balances
Questions 12. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees a. Freedom of speech b. Due process c. Trial by jury d. The right to bear arms