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Chapter 6 Section 2 Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Section 2 Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Section 2 Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation

2 OBJECTIVE: UNDERSTAND the differences between the Federalists and the Jeffersonians regarding the French revolution

3 Republicans (Madison, Jefferson, et. al.) wanted the US to support France and honor the 1778 treaty of alliance with France. Federalists (Hamilton, et al.) wanted the US to support Britain. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation established an American tradition of isolationism, but was popular with no one: French, British, Federalists, or Jeffersonians/Republicans.

4 Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation SITUATION: Britain and France at war, again. PROBLEM: Franco-American alliance of 1778 implies the US should side with France, but Britain will retaliate against the new, weak US and its merchant marine. SOLUTION: Well…. Delay. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation established an American tradition of isolationism, but was popular with no one: French, British, Federalists, or the Jeffersonians/Republicans.

5 The Proclamation of Neutrality 1793 Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain, and the United Netherlands, of the one part, and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the United States require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerant Powers; I have therefore thought fit by these presents to declare the disposition of the United States to observe the conduct aforesaid towards those Powers respectfully; and to exhort and warn the citizens of the United States carefully to avoid all acts and proceedings whatsoever, which may in any manner tend to contravene such disposition. And I do hereby also make known, that whatsoever of the citizens of the United States shall render himself liable to punishment or forfeiture under the law of nations, by committing, aiding, or abetting hostilities against any of the said Powers, or by carrying to any of them those articles which are deemed contraband by the modern usage of nations, will not receive the protection of the United States, against such punishment or forfeiture; and further, that I have given instructions to those officers, to whom it belongs, to cause prosecutions to be instituted against all persons, who shall, within the cognizance of the courts of the United States, violate the law of nations, with respect to the Powers at war, or any of them…. George Washington April 22, 1793

6 Edmond Genêt by Ezra Ames, 1809– 1810 Citizen Edmond Genêt's visit caused the first major diplomatic crisis in the new nation. His attempts to enlist Americans in support of the French Revolution raised troubling questions about the international role of the United States. (Collection of the Albany Institute of History and Art. Bequest of George Genêt.) Edmond Genêt by Ezra Ames, 1809–1810 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. KEY IDEA: Jefferson resigns in 1793, frustrated with Hamilton and the administration’s policies

7 Native Americans Resist White Settlers 1783  British operating frontier forts on US soil 1790: Gen. Harmar (US) defeated by Chief Little Turtle and the Miami Indians 1791: Gen. St. Clair (US) defeated by the Miami 1794: Gen. Wayne (US) wins Battle of Fallen Timbers against Miami Indians, & proves the Miami were supported by British arms/Canadians 1795: Treaty of Greenville, Indians cede Ohio to US

8 Jay’s Treaty & Pinckney’s Treaty Jay’s Treaty: + British pledge to evacuate US soil -They should have already done this in 1783 -US bound to pay pre- revolutionary accounts to Brit. Merchants -Jeffersonian South would have to pay the majority of these debts. OVERALL: - Negative result Treaty hurts Republicans, Washington, & vitalizes the Republican party Pinkney’s Treaty: + Spain meets all of US demands + Spain concedes disputed land in N. Florida to US +Spain grants navigation rights on the Mississippi to Americans OVERALL: Positive Result

9 Washington’s Farewell Address In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation of the twenty-second of April, I793, is the index of my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice, and by that of your representatives in both houses of Congress, the spirit of that measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it. After deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and interest to take, a neutral position. Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness… …The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and amity towards other nations. The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. With me a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes.

10 Growing Danger of Sectionalism Election of 1796 Adams (Federalist) receives 71 electoral votes. Jefferson (Republican) receives 68 electoral votes. ALMOST ALL OF JEFFERSON’S VOTES COME FROM THE SOUTH, ADAMS WINS ALMOST ALL OF HIS VOTES IN THE NORTH. Adams becomes President, Jefferson is Vice-President. Is the new nation already coming apart?

11 XYZ Affair The French, enraged by Jay’s Treaty, abuse the US ambassador. Adams sends 3 men, including John Marshall, to France. French officials demand $250,000 bribe before letting the Americans see Tallyrand. Americans refuse, go home. America authorizes a navy and the marine corps is created. Federalists call for all out war. Instead, for 2 years each nation captures the others ships at sea when they can.

12 Property Protected, a la Francoise This cartoon, drawn during the XYZ affair, depicts the United States as a maiden being victimized by the five leaders of the French government's directorate. In the background, John Bull (England) watches from on high, while other European nations discuss the situation. (The Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana) Property Protected, a la Francoise Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

13 Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 Following the X,Y,Z Affair and the Genet Affair, Federalists accuse Republicans of being dangerous and disloyal. Many immigrants are Republicans. The Alien and Sedition Acts are passed: 1. increase naturalization req. from 5 to 14 years 2. allow the President to deport anyone he considers “undesirable.” 3. Federalists use the acts to try and jail Republican editors, writers, and politicians for being “seditious.”

14 Congressional Pugilists, 1798 A cartoonist satirizes the fiercely partisan debates in Congress surrounding the Alien and Sedition Acts. (Library of Congress) Congressional Pugilists, 1798 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

15 The Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 Resolved, That it is true as a general principle, and is also expressly declared by one of the amendments to the Constitutions, that “the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, our prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people”; and that no power over the freedom of religion, freedom of speech, or freedom of the press being delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, all lawful powers respecting the same did of right remain, and were reserved to the States or the people: that thus was manifested their determination to retain to themselves the right of judging how far the licentiousness of speech and of the press may be abridged without lessening their useful freedom, and how far those abuses which cannot be separated from their use should be tolerated, rather than the use be destroyed. And thus also they guarded against all abridgment by the United States of the freedom of religious opinions and exercises, and retained to themselves the right of protecting the same, as this State, by a law passed on the general demand of its citizens, had already protected them from all human restraint or interference. And that in addition to this general principle and express declaration, another and more special provision has been made by one of the amendments to the Constitution, which expressly declares, that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press”: thereby guarding in the same sentence, and under the same words, the freedom of religion, of speech, and of the press: insomuch, that whatever violated either, throws down the sanctuary which covers the others, arid that libels, falsehood, and defamation, equally with heresy and false religion, are withheld from the cognizance of federal tribunals. That, therefore, the act of Congress of the United States, passed on the 14th day of July, 1798, intituled “An Act in addition to the act intituled An Act for the punishment of certain crimes against the United States,” which does abridge the freedom of the press, is not law, but is altogether void, and of no force.

16 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions The Republicans consider the Alien and Sedition Act to be an assault on the First Amendment. Jefferson and Madison draft a resolution in the Virginia state Legislature declaring the Alien and Sedition Act unconstitutional. Virginia and Kentucky claim the right of nullification = the power to declare null and void federal laws that go beyond the powers granted to the federal government by the Constitution. ENDURING QUESTION: WHO HAS THE LAST WORD? STATES OR THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT?

17 What were the differences between the Federalists and the Jeffersonians regarding the French Revolution? What impact did their arguments have on the new United States?

18 Increasing Partisan Division

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21 What were the differences between the Federalists and the Jeffersonians regarding the French Revolution? What impact did their arguments have on the new United States?


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