2Four Goals of Progressive Reformers 1. Protect Social Welfare:2. Promote Moral Development:3. Create Economic Reform:4. Foster Efficiency:
3Progressive Era The time period from 1890-1920. Modern Reform: A time of government reform to better the lives of its citizens.What problems did the government have to improve?Modern Reform:President Johnson launched the Great Society Program in the 1960’s.Medicare & Medicaid?President Nixon started the EPA and OSHA in the 1970’s.What do they do?
4MuckrakersMuckrakers-reform journalists and novelist that wrote articles/works to promote progressive reform. Teddy Roosevelt gave the name- muckrakers.· McClure’s Magazine- “Tweed’s Days in St. Louis” - Lincoln Steffens also wrote…The Shame of the Cities (1904)· Ida Tarbell- History of Standard Oil Company “public enemy”· Frank Norris- The Octopus (1901) RR’s, The Pit (1903) wheat exchange· Theodore Dreiser- The Financier (1912), The Titan (1914), and An American Tragedy (1925).· Painters,Photographers- Jacob Riis
5Jacob Riis: Muckraker Jacob Riis: Photographer 1849 to 1914 He was the third of fifteen childrenEmigrated to the United States in 1870Unable to find work, he often spent many nights in police station lodging houses.He was recruited by the South Brooklyn News. In 1877 Riis became a police reporter for the New York Tribune. In Riis was employed as a photo-journalist by the New York Evening Sun. Riis was among the first photographers to use flash powder, which enabled him to photograph interiors and exteriors of the slums at night.
6Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lives In December, 1889, an account of city life, illustrated by photographs, appeared in Scribner's Magazine. This created a great deal of interest and the following year, a full-length version, How the Other Half Lives, was published.The book was seen by Theodore Roosevelt, the New York Police Commissioner, and he had the city police lodging houses that were featured in the book closed down.
8The Jungle (1906) Upton Sinclair . …Under the system of rigid economy, which the packers enforced, there were some jobs that it only paid to do once in a long time, and among these was the cleaning out of the waste barrels. Every spring they did it; and in the barrels would be dirt and rust and old nails and stale water--and cart load after cart load of it would be taken up and dumped into the hoppers with fresh meat, and sent out to the public's breakfast.
13Workman’s Compensation 1906-Reforms Meat Inspection Act- check animals health, sanitary conditionsUpton Sinclair’s The Jungle depicts the conditions of the meat packing plants Pure Food and Drug Act- forbade the manufacture and sale of impure drugs and food. Labels mandatory on all medicines. Employers Liability Insurance- provided accident insurance to RR workers on interstate railroads and in D.C.Meat PackingJungleFood/DrugsWorkman’s Compensation
14Social Welfare Programs To ensure a minimum standard of living.Unemployment insurance, workman's compensation, and social security?Do we have these today?Most people worked to get these reforms at the municipal level.Municipal?Home rule?
15Middle Class Reformers CitizenProgressives believed the government should no longer be an umpire.What does this mean?CorporationGovernment was expected to level the playing field.
16Public Health Roosevelt formed the Pure Food and Drug Act. What is it? Is it still around today?
17Commission rule City Manager Cities Reform broke ground in the position of mayor of some citiesHazen S. Pingree-DetroitSamuel M. “Golden Rule” Jones- “every man must rule himself”Commission ruleSome cities formed an elected commission to run local governmentThis eliminated the possibility of a corrupt boss from ruling.City ManagerManager , not politician, hired to run city (much like a business)Policies made by council, enforced by manager
18State reform Reform governors Robert M LaFollette, (Wisconsin) “Battling Bob”~brought direct primary to choose candidates~restricted lobbying~set up civil service~conservation policies~taxed corporations/reg. Banks
19More secretive the better, better representatives VotingSecret (Australian) ballot in Massachusetts- 1888Prior to this, each party would distribute a colored ballot for their party, making it easier to see how someone voted.More secretive the better, better representatives
20Improving Our Representation q Direct primaries allow people, not bosses, to choose who runs for office.q Direct election of Senators would allow people, not state legislatures, to elect people to the “rich man’s club” (Senate).17TH AMENDMENT (1913)
21More Voting Reform:· initiative -5-8% of voters could start a bill by petition· referendum- bill put on a ballot for voters to pass or defeat· recall- by petition, voters could demand an official to stand for reelectionGives a voice to the public inmaking laws and affectingelection outcomes.
22Teddy"This country will not be a permanently good place for any of us to live in unless we make it a reasonably good place for all of us to live in." Chicago, IL, June 17, 1912
23Teddy’s BackgroundBorn into wealth, Roosevelt traveled as a youngsterStruggled with asthma and poor eyesight as a child.Active in boxing, track and field, and hunting.Took a punch in the eye during a fight and blinded his left eye.Always kept his boyish energy.Accomplished author with works in history, politics, ethics…
24Teddy Becomes President With the assassination of President McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation's historyHe took the view that the President as a "steward of the people" should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution
26Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal After William McKinley wins the election of 1900, he never reaps the benefits of his victory. During the late summer following his inauguration, a 28- year-old anarchist named Leon Czolgosz shoots McKinley. Theodore Roosevelt is sworn into the presidency in what will become one of the many dramatic presidential terms in our history.The three Cs of the Square Deal:ConservationCorporate ControlConsumer Protection
27The Square DealThe main idea of 'Square Deal' was reducing inequality.Theodore Roosevelt's 'Square Deal' handled the problems with businesses and society.It promised a fair deal to all sides of transactions.It was popular with people from all walks of life.He changed the rules so that everyone could have equal opportunity and everyone is treated the same way.
28President in his Own Right Smothers opponent in election of 1904 (Alton Parker)336 to 140 electoral votesTime to Reform:Strengthen the Interstate Commerce Act to regulate the RR.Hepburn Bill- gave I.C.C. power to regulate:PipelinesExpress and sleeping car companiesBridgesFerriesTerminals*Major accomplishment to regulate business.
29TR’s Presidency In the Presidency Used the presidency as a “bully pulpit” to spread his ideas.TR loved power, and hated wealth.Shocked no one had attacked monopolies soonerHe believed the President should lead.
31Northern SecuritiesHolding company founded by:· James J. Hill of Great Northern RR· J.P. Morgan· Rockefeller· E.H. Harriman of Union Pacific RRResponsible for maintaining large RR monopoly in the Northwest.Roosevelt had the company sued by using the Sherman Anti-Trust ActSupreme Court (5 to 4) ruled the company violated Sherman A.T. Act and must dissolveRoosevelt uses momentum to attack beef trusts, oil trusts, and tobacco trusts.Urged Congress to approve Department of Commerce and Labor to Cabinet.
33Events Defining Roosevelt: Coal StrikeIn the mines of Illinois, PA, Ohio, and West VirginiaWorkers received no raise in 20 years441 men killed in accidents in 1901Workers earnings in what they dug were dishonestly weighedJohn Mitchell, President of United Mine Workers led strike in May 1902In October, with winter coming, people feared the RR would stop runningNo coal, no fuel for RRNo RR, no businessNo business, no workNo work, no food
34Coal Strike (continued) Roosevelt threatened to send the Army into the mines if the owners continued to hold out from talks.Owners give in to talks- Strike OverShows:Roosevelt fearless to big businessSticks up for ordinary AmericaLeaderProvided “square deal” for miners
35Conservation EffortsNewlands Reclamation Act- take money from public sale of lands out west, and build dams and canals to help irrigation…increased the price of once dry, arid land.Used the power granted by Congress to hold millions of acres of woodlands for a natural reserve.Increased acreage from 50 million to 190 million. (GB and France combined)Transformed Public Land Service toUnited States Forest Service headed by Gifford PinchotPinchot pioneered reforestation, (seen as a resource)
36Panic of 1907Prices dropJP Morgan urges TR to allow United States Steel to purchase Tennessee Coal and Iron Company.Roosevelt allows it for economy.
37Social reforms on the way… Income and Inheritance taxLimits on use of labor injunctionsMore control on businessMore…· Criticized as a socialist-public ownership of means of production and distributionBelieved in capitalism, not socialism.Wanted capitalism to benefit all Americans.Wanted to eliminate extremes of wealth and poverty.
38Reforms (major Progressive reforms) By 1912, ¾ of all states passed child labor laws Workmen’s compensation /Insurance Women’s minimum wage and conditions Banning alcohol –26 states by 1917 Heavy taxes on rich Taxes on inheritance, profits, incomes RR/ utilities commission to control rates
40Taft in the White Houseo Roosevelt decides to not run for a third term. o Promotes the nomination of William Howard Taft (Secretary of War) Defeats William Jennings Bryan
41President TaftFormer Solicitor General for the Supreme Court /Federal JudgeMethodical, calculated man. Would rather delay a decision until it is thought out and investigatedTariff issueOnce elected, decides to attack (promised substantial revision)o Produced long process of little revision Payne-Aldrich tariff was subtleo Progressives upset at “hoax” of a revisionPinchot firedGifford Pinchot (Chief of Forest Service) v. Richard Ballinger (Sec. of Interior) dispute about ownership (JP Morgan and Guggenheim) of government coal lands in Alaska. Pinchot fired by Taft!Roosevelt not happy.
42Progressives respondAfter Payne-Aldrich tariff/ Pichot firing, Progressives call Taft-“tool of the interests”Become “insurgents” and fight against own party.In past, Speaker of House (Joseph Cannon) headed the Rules Committee- committee that decides if a bill will be set aside, or pushed to a vote. Insurgents change “rules” of heading Rules Committee- must be elected by members of House. (no more self-appointed dictator of House) Mann Elkins Act (1910) extended the power of the Interstate Commerce Act to regulate telephone, telegraph, cable, and wireless companies.
43Taft’s accomplishments in office: v More civil service jobsv Million acres of Appalachian reservedv Control of underground resourcesv New Mexico/ Arizona become states- 1912v Sponsored income tax amendment (Sixteenth Amendment, passed 1913)Taft sends 45 indictments to trusts. (one of them part owned by Roosevelt)
44Congressional Elections of 1910 Democrats win House, Senate’s republican majority reducedWoodrow Wilson elected as reform governor of New JerseyFor the presidency, “Battling Bob” LaFollete emerges as insurgent nominee for 1912 election.
45ü Strict regulation on large corporations ü Real tariff revision Guess Who’s BackRoosevelt travels after leaving office.Returns to US to embark on speaking tour to criticize Taft and support the insurgents of the party. Speaks of a “New Nationalism” that included a return of many reforms:ü Strict regulation on large corporationsü Real tariff revisionü Federal income and inheritance taxü National workmen’s compensation lawsü Protection of women’s and children in industryü Direct primariesInitiative, Referendum, and Recall
46Roosevelt believed the federal government should distinguish between good and bad trusts. Roosevelt, loving a good fight, joins the race.Taft runs Republican Convention, Roosevelt loses bid for nominationProgressives flee angered..Later, Progressive Party nominates Roosevelt.
47Progressive demands:Ø Direct democracyØ ConservationØ Minimum wage for womenØ Ban child laborØ Tariff revisionØ Closer regulation on Interstate Commerce ActResponding to a question of health, Roosevelt comments “strong as a Bull Moose”- Bull Moose becomes slogan
48Election of 1912Woodrow Wilson emerges as popular Democratic candidate by his moral reform platform as governor of New Jersey.Election of 1912 becomes:Woodrow Wilson (D)Taft (R)Roosevelt (Pr)
49Woodrow Wilson (D) v. Roosevelt (Pr) v. Taft (R) Subtle party differencesDemocrats- very low tariffs, Regulate trustsRepublicans- Mild revision of tariffs, Eliminate monopoliesBoth: conservation and banking reform
50The Four Horsemen of 1912 TAFT WW TR I ran for president in 1900, 1904, and 1908, so why not?Who am I?Eugene Debs-Socialist PartyTAFTWWTR
51Outcome of the election Roosevelt’s impact on the election Split the Republican vote, but not enough to defeat WilsonWilson wins Taft happy to leave office, sought position on Supreme Court Harding in 1921 appoints Taft to Chief Justice of Supreme Court Only man to be President and Chief Justice ( )
53I. Wilson was TR’s opposite a. College Eliteb. Not an outdoorsmanc. President of Princetond. Stiff and distantWilson had a wider appeal because he was more moderate than BryanII Inaugurationa. “Cleanse, reconsider, and restore”b. No inaugural ball i. Dedication, seriousc. Set a concern, and get support to act upon it
54Tariff reform Underwood-Simmons Bill 1913 Personally addresses Congress (not since Wash, Adams)Not for free trade, but for free opportunityEnlists the help of expert, Oscar UnderwoodUnderwood-Simmons Bill 1913Reduces the tariff 11%Income tax (for treasury revenue)
55When a bank need a loan, they would call NYC to get a loan “on- call” BankingNo stable reserve for banks if they experienced mass withdrawalsDeposits went to bigger banks, NYC, and then to Wall Street (used in stock exchange)When a bank need a loan, they would call NYC to get a loan “on- call”
56Federal Reserve Act of 1913 12 Districts in the country Each with a central reserve bank-Banker’s BankRuled by Federal Reserve Board (members appointed by President)Every national bank must give to support the capital in reserve bankPerhaps Wilson’s biggest accomplishment
58Clayton Anti-Trust Act BusinessClayton Anti-Trust ActPrevented on company from taking over stock in another if it created a monopolyNo one could be director of two or more companies when it limits competition.Set up Federal Trade Commission (Act 1914) set up fair trade rules
59Continues to Reform for Re-election Federal Farm Loan ActChild Labor law *8-Hour Day for RRWilson’s first term ( ) followed through with platform, and Progressive reforms.
60Wilson “Moral Diplomacy” Mexico Madero overthrown by General Huerta, who owned 4/5 of the countryObserved globally as president de factoWilson asks Huerta to step down, He refusesWilson allows arms to be sent to Carraza (rebel)Incident: Marines arrested, released, apology from Huerta…BUT, according to customary procedures….Huerta does not fire a salute at the US flag….Uh OH1914..Wilson asks Congress to use force against Huerta (Mexico)
61Wilson (continued)US troops seized Veracruz to stop a shipment of arms to reach the city.Mexicans and Carraza revolt against the USABC intervention…Argentina, Brazil, ChileHuerta out in July
62Pancho Villa END OF PROGRESSIVE ERA Villa one of Carraza’s generals 1916, burns down Columbus, NMWilson sends Pershing w/ 15,000 troops... “dead or alive’Puts Nat’l Guard on border- 150,0008,000 troops into MexicoWith war beginning in Europe, Wilson says “Why am I chasing this one bandit?”1917 withdraws troopsEND OF PROGRESSIVE ERA