Presentation on theme: "The Progressive Era Four Goals of Progressive Reformers 1. Protect Social Welfare: 2. Promote Moral Development: 3. Create Economic Reform: 4. Foster."— Presentation transcript:
The Progressive Era
Four Goals of Progressive Reformers 1. Protect Social Welfare: 2. Promote Moral Development: 3. Create Economic Reform: 4. Foster Efficiency:
Progressive Era The time period from A time of government reform to better the lives of its citizens. What problems did the government have to improve? Modern Reform: President Johnson launched the Great Society Program in the 1960’s. Medicare & Medicaid? President Nixon started the EPA and OSHA in the 1970’s. What do they do?
Muckrakers Muckrakers-reform journalists and novelist that wrote articles/works to promote progressive reform. Teddy Roosevelt gave the name- muckrakers. McClure’s Magazine- “Tweed’s Days in St. Louis” - Lincoln Steffens also wrote…The Shame of the Cities (1904) Ida Tarbell- History of Standard Oil Company “public enemy” Frank Norris- The Octopus (1901) RR’s, The Pit (1903) wheat exchange Theodore Dreiser- The Financier (1912), The Titan (1914), and An American Tragedy (1925). Painters,Photographers- Jacob Riis
Jacob Riis: Muckraker Jacob Riis: Photographer 1849 to 1914 He was the third of fifteen children Emigrated to the United States in 1870 Unable to find work, he often spent many nights in police station lodging houses. He was recruited by the South Brooklyn News. In 1877 Riis became a police reporter for the New York Tribune. In 1888 Riis was employed as a photo-journalist by the New York Evening Sun. Riis was among the first photographers to use flash powder, which enabled him to photograph interiors and exteriors of the slums at night.
Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lives In December, 1889, an account of city life, illustrated by photographs, appeared in Scribner's Magazine. This created a great deal of interest and the following year, a full-length version, How the Other Half Lives, was published. The book was seen by Theodore Roosevelt, the New York Police Commissioner, and he had the city police lodging houses that were featured in the book closed down.
Photographs from How the Other Half Lives
The Jungle (1906) Upton Sinclair. …Under the system of rigid economy, which the packers enforced, there were some jobs that it only paid to do once in a long time, and among these was the cleaning out of the waste barrels. Every spring they did it; and in the barrels would be dirt and rust and old nails and stale water--and cart load after cart load of it would be taken up and dumped into the hoppers with fresh meat, and sent out to the public's breakfast.
Pictures from The Jungle
In the JungleIn the Jungle….
Ooops, wrong jungle!!
Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle”
1906-Reforms Meat Inspection Act- check animals health, sanitary conditions Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle depicts the conditions of the meat packing plants Pure Food and Drug Act- forbade the manufacture and sale of impure drugs and food. Labels mandatory on all medicines. Employers Liability Insurance- provided accident insurance to RR workers on interstate railroads and in D.C. Food/Drugs Workman’s Compensation Jungle Meat Packing
Social Welfare Programs To ensure a minimum standard of living. Unemployment insurance, workman's compensation, and social security? Do we have these today? Most people worked to get these reforms at the municipal level. Municipal? Home rule?
Middle Class Reformers Progressives believed the government should no longer be an umpire. Progressives believed the government should no longer be an umpire. What does this mean? What does this mean? Corporation Corporation Government was expected to level the playing field. Citizen Citizen
Public Health Roosevelt formed the Pure Food and Drug Act. What is it? Is it still around today?
Cities Reform broke ground in the position of mayor of some cities Hazen S. Pingree-Detroit Samuel M. “Golden Rule” Jones- “every man must rule himself” City Manager Manager, not politician, hired to run city (much like a business) Policies made by council, enforced by manager Commission rule Some cities formed an elected commission to run local government This eliminated the possibility of a corrupt boss from ruling.
State reform Reform governors Robert M LaFollette, (Wisconsin) “Battling Bob” ~brought direct primary to choose candidates ~restricted lobbying ~set up civil service ~conservation policies ~taxed corporations/reg. Banks
Voting Secret (Australian) ballot in Massachusetts Prior to this, each party would distribute a colored ballot for their party, making it easier to see how someone voted. More secretive the better, better representatives
Improving Our Representation Direct primaries allow people, not bosses, to choose who runs for office. Direct election of Senators would allow people, not state legislatures, to elect people to the “rich man’s club” (Senate). 17 TH AMENDMENT (1913)
More Voting Reform: initiative -5-8% of voters could start a bill by petition referendum- bill put on a ballot for voters to pass or defeat recall- by petition, voters could demand an official to stand for reelection Gives a voice to the public in making laws and affecting election outcomes.
Teddy "This country will not be a permanently good place for any of us to live in unless we make it a reasonably good place for all of us to live in." Chicago, IL, June 17, 1912
Teddy’s Background Born into wealth, Roosevelt traveled as a youngster Struggled with asthma and poor eyesight as a child. Active in boxing, track and field, and hunting. Took a punch in the eye during a fight and blinded his left eye. Always kept his boyish energy. Accomplished author with works in history, politics, ethics…
Teddy Becomes President With the assassination of President McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation's history He took the view that the President as a "steward of the people" should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution
Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal After William McKinley wins the election of 1900, he never reaps the benefits of his victory. During the late summer following his inauguration, a 28- year-old anarchist named Leon Czolgosz shoots McKinley. Theodore Roosevelt is sworn into the presidency in what will become one of the many dramatic presidential terms in our history. The three Cs of the Square Deal: Conservation Corporate Control Consumer Protection
The Square Deal The main idea of 'Square Deal' was reducing inequality. Theodore Roosevelt's 'Square Deal' handled the problems with businesses and society. It promised a fair deal to all sides of transactions. It was popular with people from all walks of life. He changed the rules so that everyone could have equal opportunity and everyone is treated the same way.
President in his Own Right Smothers opponent in election of 1904 (Alton Parker) 336 to 140 electoral votes Time to Reform: Strengthen the Interstate Commerce Act to regulate the RR. Hepburn Bill- gave I.C.C. power to regulate: Pipelines Express and sleeping car companies Bridges Ferries Terminals *Major accomplishment to regulate business.
TR’s Presidency In the Presidency Used the presidency as a “bully pulpit” to spread his ideas. TR loved power, and hated wealth. Shocked no one had attacked monopolies sooner He believed the President should lead.
Northern Securities Holding company founded by: James J. Hill of Great Northern RR J.P. Morgan Rockefeller E.H. Harriman of Union Pacific RR A. Responsible for maintaining large RR monopoly in the Northwest. B. Roosevelt had the company sued by using the Sherman Anti-Trust Act C. Supreme Court (5 to 4) ruled the company violated Sherman A.T. Act and must dissolve D. Roosevelt uses momentum to attack beef trusts, oil trusts, and tobacco trusts. E. Urged Congress to approve Department of Commerce and Labor to Cabinet.
T R in action
Events Defining Roosevelt: Coal Strike In the mines of Illinois, PA, Ohio, and West Virginia Workers received no raise in 20 years 441 men killed in accidents in 1901 Workers earnings in what they dug were dishonestly weighed John Mitchell, President of United Mine Workers led strike in May 1902 In October, with winter coming, people feared the RR would stop running No coal, no fuel for RR No RR, no business No business, no work No work, no food
Coal Strike (continued) Roosevelt threatened to send the Army into the mines if the owners continued to hold out from talks. Owners give in to talks- Strike Over Shows: Roosevelt fearless to big business Sticks up for ordinary America Leader Provided “square deal” for miners
Conservation Efforts Newlands Reclamation Act- take money from public sale of lands out west, and build dams and canals to help irrigation…increased the price of once dry, arid land. Used the power granted by Congress to hold millions of acres of woodlands for a natural reserve. Increased acreage from 50 million to 190 million. (GB and France combined) Transformed Public Land Service to United States Forest Service headed by Gifford Pinchot Pinchot pioneered reforestation, (seen as a resource)
Panic of 1907 Prices drop JP Morgan urges TR to allow United States Steel to purchase Tennessee Coal and Iron Company. Roosevelt allows it for economy.
Social reforms on the way… Income and Inheritance tax Limits on use of labor injunctions More control on business More… Criticized as a socialist- public ownership of means of production and distribution Believed in capitalism, not socialism. Wanted capitalism to benefit all Americans. Wanted to eliminate extremes of wealth and poverty.
Reforms (major Progressive reforms) By 1912, ¾ of all states passed child labor laws Workmen’s compensation /Insurance Women’s minimum wage and conditions Banning alcohol –26 states by 1917 Heavy taxes on rich Taxes on inheritance, profits, incomes RR/ utilities commission to control rates
Taft in the White House o Roosevelt decides to not run for a third term. o Promotes the nomination of William Howard Taft (Secretary of War) Defeats William Jennings Bryan
President Taft Former Solicitor General for the Supreme Court /Federal Judge Methodical, calculated man. Would rather delay a decision until it is thought out and investigated Tariff issue Once elected, decides to attack (promised substantial revision) o Produced long process of little revision Payne-Aldrich tariff was subtle o Progressives upset at “hoax” of a revision Pinchot fired Gifford Pinchot (Chief of Forest Service) v. Richard Ballinger (Sec. of Interior) dispute about ownership (JP Morgan and Guggenheim) of government coal lands in Alaska. Pinchot fired by Taft! Roosevelt not happy.
Progressives respond After Payne-Aldrich tariff/ Pichot firing, Progressives call Taft-“tool of the interests” Become “insurgents” and fight against own party. In past, Speaker of House (Joseph Cannon) headed the Rules Committee- committee that decides if a bill will be set aside, or pushed to a vote. Insurgents change “rules” of heading Rules Committee- must be elected by members of House. (no more self-appointed dictator of House) Mann Elkins Act (1910) extended the power of the Interstate Commerce Act to regulate telephone, telegraph, cable, and wireless companies.
Taft’s accomplishments in office: More civil service jobs Million acres of Appalachian reserved Control of underground resources New Mexico/ Arizona become states Sponsored income tax amendment (Sixteenth Amendment, passed 1913) Taft sends 45 indictments to trusts. (one of them part owned by Roosevelt)
Congressional Elections of 1910 Democrats win House, Senate’s republican majority reduced Woodrow Wilson elected as reform governor of New Jersey For the presidency, “Battling Bob” LaFollete emerges as insurgent nominee for 1912 election.
Guess Who’s Back Roosevelt travels after leaving office. Returns to US to embark on speaking tour to criticize Taft and support the insurgents of the party. Speaks of a “New Nationalism” that included a return of many reforms: Strict regulation on large corporations Real tariff revision Federal income and inheritance tax National workmen’s compensation laws Protection of women’s and children in industry Direct primaries Initiative, Referendum, and Recall
Roosevelt believed the federal government should distinguish between good and bad trusts. Roosevelt, loving a good fight, joins the race. Taft runs Republican Convention, Roosevelt loses bid for nomination Progressives flee angered.. Later, Progressive Party nominates Roosevelt.
Progressive demands: Direct democracy Conservation Minimum wage for women Ban child labor Tariff revision Closer regulation on Interstate Commerce Act Responding to a question of health, Roosevelt comments “strong as a Bull Moose”- Bull Moose becomes slogan
Election of 1912 Woodrow Wilson emerges as popular Democratic candidate by his moral reform platform as governor of New Jersey. Election of 1912 becomes: Woodrow Wilson (D) Taft (R) Roosevelt (Pr)
Woodrow Wilson (D) v. Roosevelt (Pr) v. Taft (R) Subtle party differences Democrats- very low tariffs, Regulate trusts Republicans- Mild revision of tariffs, Eliminate monopolies Both: conservation and banking reform
The Four Horsemen of 1912 I ran for president in 1900, 1904, and 1908, so why not? Who am I? Eugene Debs- Socialist Party TR TAFT WW
Outcome of the election Roosevelt’s impact on the election Split the Republican vote, but not enough to defeat Wilson Wilson wins Taft happy to leave office, sought position on Supreme Court Harding in 1921 appoints Taft to Chief Justice of Supreme Court Only man to be President and Chief Justice ( )
I. Wilson was TR’s opposite a. College Elite b. Not an outdoorsman c. President of Princeton d. Stiff and distant Wilson had a wider appeal because he was more moderate than Bryan II Inauguration a. “Cleanse, reconsider, and restore” b. No inaugural ball i. Dedication, serious c. Set a concern, and get support to act upon it
Tariff reform Personally addresses Congress (not since Wash, Adams) Not for free trade, but for free opportunity Enlists the help of expert, Oscar Underwood Underwood-Simmons Bill 1913 Reduces the tariff 11% Income tax (for treasury revenue)
Banking No stable reserve for banks if they experienced mass withdrawals Deposits went to bigger banks, NYC, and then to Wall Street (used in stock exchange) When a bank need a loan, they would call NYC to get a loan “on- call”
Federal Reserve Act of Districts in the country Each with a central reserve bank-Banker’s Bank Ruled by Federal Reserve Board (members appointed by President) Every national bank must give to support the capital in reserve bank Perhaps Wilson’s biggest accomplishment
Federal Reserve System
Business Clayton Anti-Trust Act PPrevented on company from taking over stock in another if it created a monopoly NNo one could be director of two or more companies when it limits competition. SSet up Federal Trade Commission (Act 1914) set up fair trade rules
Continues to Reform for Re-election Federal Farm Loan Act Child Labor law * 8-Hour Day for RR Wilson’s first term ( ) followed through with platform, and Progressive reforms.
Wilson “Moral Diplomacy” Mexico Madero overthrown by General Huerta, who owned 4/5 of the country Observed globally as president de facto Wilson asks Huerta to step down, He refuses Wilson allows arms to be sent to Carraza (rebel) Incident: Marines arrested, released, apology from Huerta… BUT, according to customary procedures….Huerta does not fire a salute at the US flag….Uh OH Wilson asks Congress to use force against Huerta (Mexico)
Wilson (continued) US troops seized Veracruz to stop a shipment of arms to reach the city. Mexicans and Carraza revolt against the US ABC intervention…Argentina, Brazil, Chile Huerta out in July
Pancho Villa Villa one of Carraza’s generals 1916, burns down Columbus, NM Wilson sends Pershing w/ 15,000 troops... “dead or alive’ Puts Nat’l Guard on border- 150,000 8,000 troops into Mexico With war beginning in Europe, Wilson says “Why am I chasing this one bandit?” 1917 withdraws troops END OF PROGRESSIVE ERA