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The Constitutional Convention

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1 The Constitutional Convention
How did the American colonists attempt to fix the problems of the Articles of Confederation?

2 1st period Group 1: Mariah, Gaby, Ashlee, Alli Group 2:
Jazlyn, Lane, Logan, Nicole, Markees Group 3: Qasim, Harrison, Stephanie, Gaby, Group 4: Dean, Tyler, Stephanie, Gloria, Victoria Group 5: David, Danielle, Lashoneh,

3 Quiz What was one weakness of the Articles of Confederation?
_________________ demonstrated the weakness of the Articles. Why was the effect of no being able to tax? What rights did women gain after the revolution? What did the founder do to “fix” the Articles of Confederation?

4 Quiz 9 ____________= power to the people
2. What compromise established a bicameral legislature with a Senate and a House of Representatives? 3. What was the purpose of the preamble? 4. _____________ =the ability of each branch of government to make sure other branches don’t become too powerful. 5. ___________= laws apply to everyone.

5 Quiz 10 ___________ power to the people
The ____________ lists the goals of the Constitution. The Battle of _________ was the turning point battle when the French joined. _________ the compromise that established a bicameral legislature. Provide one example of checks and balance.

6 Powers Given to States:
"Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated."

7 Powers given to congress:
Conduct foreign political or commercial relations Declare war

8 Problems Facing the Young Nation
Just like the British in the French & Indian War, the USA faced a very high debt after the Revolutionary War The national government could not impose taxes, so the individual states placed high taxes on their citizens. This caused many businesses to fail, and many people lost their property because they could not pay back their loans.

9 Shays’ Rebellion Daniel Shays lost his farm in Massachusetts and then raised an army that marched through the countryside. They tried to prevent farms from being seized by the courts. The national government had a very difficult time stopping the rebellion, and people began to think that the government was too weak to protect them.

10 Constitutional Convention 1787
Delegates from 12 states meet in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation. They quickly decide to throw out the Articles and start over. They made George Washington the head of the convention and decided to keep everything they were doing secret during the convention.

11 Two Competing Plans Virginia Plan: supported by states with a large population 1. Bicameral legislature 2. Representation based on population: large states have more representatives and more power. New Jersey Plan: supported by states with a small population 1. Unicameral Legislature 2. Equal Representation: 1 state, 1 vote

12 Compromises Delegates from the small states threaten to leave the convention Great Compromise/Connecticut Compromise 1. Bicameral Legislature 2. Senate with equal representation 2 per state 3. House of Representatives with representation based on population Three-fifths Compromise 1. Southern states want slaves to be counted as part of their population. Northern states opposed to this because it makes slave states more powerful 2. Decide that three out of every five slaves will count in a state’s population

13 Trade/Commerce Compromise
1. Northern states want the national government to be able to regulate trade. Southern states concerned that this regulation will include taxes on exports and laws against the slave trade 2. National government given the power to regulate trade, but cannot put a tax on exports. Also cannot pass new laws about the slave trade for 20 years.

14 Electoral College Compromise
Who will choose the President? 1. Constitution writers do not trust regular people to make a good choice about the Presidency 2. Answer the question with the Electoral College  State legislatures choose electors who meet together to decide the President.

15 Principles of the Constitution
Popular sovereignty: the right to rule comes from the people (elections ensure this principle) Rule of law: laws apply to everyone, even those that govern Limited Government: Separation of powers: government is divided into three branches with each having different functions (legislative makes laws, executive enforces law, judicial interprets laws) Checks and balances: the ability of each branch of government to check/restrain the others Federalism: idea that the national and state governments work together but the Constitution is the supreme law of the land and the national nor state governments can violate it Expressed powers: enumerated powers only for national government Reserved powers: powers delegated to the states Concurrent powers: powers shared by both the national and state governments

16 Preamble The Preamble is the opening of the Constitution that states its purpose. To form a more perfect union: unification for the good of all states To establish justice: laws/courts that treat all fairly To insure domestic tranquility: keep peace and order at home To provide for the common defense: protect country from outsiders To promote the general Welfare: prosperous lives for all To secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity: guarantee freedoms for everyone, now and in the future

17 Federalists and Antifederalis
What types of government did the Federalists and Anti-Federalist want?

18 Ratification of the New Constitution
Ratify = Approve ¾ of states (9 out of 13) must ratify the Constitution before it will take effect Federalists: Group that supports ratification. Named for the concept of Federalism  a system of government where the national a state governments share power Anti-Federalists: Group that opposes the Constitution. Anti-Federalists believe the Constitution makes the national government too powerful and does not adequately protect citizens.

19 Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist
Federalist – supporters of the Constitution Believed in a STRONG central government Desired more order in society Anti - Federalist – opposed the Constitution Too much power to central government Weakened individual liberties

20 Federalists Alexander Hamilont Anti-Federalists Melancton Smith
Is this group happy how the new constitution deals with representation? What kind of government would this person like to see? Find a quote to support you claim. What sort of people in society would support this view?

21 What was Hamilton’s position on representation?

22 What was Smith’s position?

23 What arguments did they make in support of their claims?

24 Based on these arguments, what type of people would you guess tended to be Federalists? Anti-Federalists?

25 Do you see versions of these issues being debated today?

26 Landmark Land Laws Land Ordinance of 1785 – acreage of Old Northwest was to be sold and proceeds were used to pay off national debt. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – related to the governing of the territories of the Old North West.

27 Carousel Define the term in your own words. Illustrate term.
Write one question. What makes this principle significant? What does this principle look like today? Go back to original poster and read. Post-It Responses

28 Exit Ticket Question What might have happened to the new nation had it stuck to the Articles of Confederation as originally written? Be sure to explain your answer using support from class.

29 Finally Ratified… After a year of arguing, the Federalists agree to add a Bill of Rights to the Constitution if the Anti-Federalists will support ratification July 21, 1788: New Hampshire becomes the 9th state to ratify the Constitution and it becomes the official plan of government for the USA. NC did not ratify until over a year later. We were the next to last of the original states to ratify.

30 Amending Process Amendments: changes to the Constitution, only 27 times (the first ten are known as the Bill of Rights); purposely difficult to change (two part process) Proposal: congressional action by 2/3 vote or 2/3 of state legislatures requesting a national convention Ratification: vote of ¾ of the state legislatures or special convention

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