Presentation on theme: "71-80 Grammar Crammers. Disinterested, Uninterested Disinterested Synonym for impartial Ex: It is expected that judges will be disinterested in the."— Presentation transcript:
71-80 Grammar Crammers
Disinterested, Uninterested Disinterested Synonym for impartial Ex: It is expected that judges will be disinterested in the outcome of a case. Uninterested Someone lacks interest Ex: The dog was uninterested in chasing the cat.
Comma rule #1: Items in a series Use commas to separate items in a series, but do not put a comma before the conjunction in a simple series Example: The flag is red, white and blue. Put a comma before the concluding conjunction in a series, however, if an integral element of the series requires a conjunction OR in a complex series of phrases. Examples: I had orange juice, toast, and ham and eggs for breakfast. The main points to consider are whether the athletes are skillful enough to compete, whether they have the stamina to endure the training, and whether they have the proper mental attitude.
Comma rule #2: Introductory phrases and clauses Comma is used to separate an introductory clause or phrase from the main clause Example: When he had tired of the mad pace of New York, he moved to Dubuque. The comma may be omitted after the short introductory phrases if no ambiguity would result Example: During the night he heard many noises.
Comma rule #3: Non-essential clauses and phrases Clauses A nonessential clause must be set off by commas An essential clause must not be set off from the rest of a sentence by commas Examples: Nonessential: Reporters, who do not read the Stylebook, should not criticize their editors. The writer is saying that all reporters should not criticize their editors. Removing the nonessential phrase doesn’t change the overall meaning of the sentence. Essential: Reporters who do not read the Stylebook should not criticize their editors. The writer is saying that only one class of reporters, those who do not read the Stylebook, should not criticize their editors. Anyone else who does read it can criticize their editors.
Phrases A nonessential phrase must be set off by commas An essential phrase must not be set off from the rest of a sentence by commas Examples: Nonessential phrase: We saw the 1975 winner in the Academy Award competition for best picture, “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.” Only one movie won the award. The name is informative, but even without the name no other movie could be meant. Essential phrase: We saw the award-winning movie “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.” No comma, because many movies have won awards, and without the name of the movie the reader would not know which movie they meant. Comma rule #3: Non-essential clauses and phrases
Comma rule #4: Conventional usage Dates Place comma between date and year Aug. 25, 2012 Addresses Commas always separate cities from states, and states from countries Place after states or countries Ex: His journey will take him from Dublin, Ireland, to Fargo, N.D., and back. Quotations Ex 1: “I have an impact,” guest speaker Jeffrey Rappaport said. Place comma inside quotation marks Ex 2: Guest speaker Jeffrey Rappaport said, “I have an impact.” Place comma before quotation marks Do not use a comma if the quoted statement ends with a question mark or exclamation point “Why should I?” he asked.
Comma rule #5: Join two independent clauses with coordinating conjunction When a conjunction such as and, but or for links two clauses that could stand alone as separate sentences, use a comma before the conjunction in most cases Ex: She was glad she had looked, for a man was approaching the house. Rule of thumb: use comma if subject of each clause is expressly stated (ex 1), BUT no comma when the subject of the two clauses is the same and is not repeated in the second (ex 2) Ex 1: We visited Washington, and our senator greeted us personally. Ex 2: We are visiting Washington and plan to see the White House. Comma may be dropped if two clauses with expressly stated subjects are short. In general, favor use of comma unless a particular literary effect is desired or if it would distort the sense of a sentence.
Comma rule #6: Interrupters Direct address, appositives Direct address: No, sir, I did not take it. Appositives: His sister, Sally, really eats a lot of ice cream!