Presentation on theme: "Federalism Chapter 4. Federalism & the Division of Power Federalism – The division of powers between the national government and the state governments."— Presentation transcript:
Federalism Chapter 4
Federalism & the Division of Power Federalism – The division of powers between the national government and the state governments – The Constitution established the federal system in the 10 th Amendment – Federalism allows local action in matters of local concern and national action in matters of wider concern. Alaska may have laws dealing with Moose in the streets The United States has a minimum voting age in national elections set at 18 (26 th Amendment)
The National Government is one of Delegated Powers – The expressed powers are those powers that are clearly spelled out in the Constitution – The implied powers are the powers reasonably implied by the ‘necessary and proper’ power given to Congress. – The inherent powers are the powers that belong to the National Government because it is the national Government
Powers Denied to the National Government – Expressly Denied Example: There is NO tax on exports – Denied by Silence of the Constitution Example: Now power to create a national school system – Some powers are denied because of the nature of the federal system Example: National Government cannot tax the state governments – Established with McCulloch v Maryland, 1819 – the Supreme Court ruled that the Maryland could not tax the National Bank of the United States located within it’s state boarders because the ‘power to tax is the power to destroy’. This case upheld the Implied powers and the Supremacy ClauseMcCulloch v Maryland
States are Governments of Reserved Powers – The Reserved Powers are the powers held by the States in the federal system Example: Marriage Laws – They are those neither expressly given to the National Government nor denied to the States Example: Licensing of Professionals Powers Denied to the States – Expressly Denied Example: States cannot make treaties with foreign nations – Inherently Denied States cannot tax the National Government – Again, established with McCulloch v Maryland, 1819
The Federal System and Local Governments – Government in the United States operates on two levels National State – All local units are subunits of the State County City City of Woodstock
Exclusive Powers – These are powers granted only to the National Government Example: Coining and Printing money – The Exclusive Powers include most of the delegated powers
Concurrent Powers –T–These powers are held by both the National and State governments Example: the power to tax –C–Concurrent powers are exercised separately and simultaneously
The Supreme Law of the Land – The Constitution stands above all other forms of law – The Supreme Court is the umpire in the federal system, deciding conflicts produced by the dual system of government
The National Government & the 50 States The Nation’s obligations to the States – Guarantee of a republican form of government – Protection against invasion and domestic violence Example: Sending in the National Guard after a natural disaster Respect for territorial integrity – The National Government is bound to recognize the legal existence and physical boundaries of each state – No State can be deprived of equal representation in the Senate without its consent.
Admitting new states – Procedure Area asks for admission Congress passes an enabling act Area writes state constitution Area voters pass state constitution Congress passes an act of admission President signs the act of admission making it official – Congress can set conditions for admission
Cooperative Federalism/Grants-in-Aid – Project Grants are grants of money or other resources from the National Government to States or other local governments and may be specified for specific purposes and may be limited if certain conditions are not met. Example: Using stimulus money to repair streets and roads – Block Grants are federal grants to states or other local governments with broadly defined purposes and with few conditions Example: Preventative Health and Health Services
Revenue Sharing was a program in place from 1972 under President Nixon until 1987 under President Reagan. It had virtually no strings attached and was simply money shared with the States or local governments Lulu Payments are payments the National Governments make to state and local governments in lieu of tax money that cannot be collected – Kennesaw Mountain National Park/property taxes
State aid to the national government occurs in instances where States help the national Government, as when State or local law enforcement agencies hold prisoners wanted for violating national laws.
Interstate Relations Interstate Compacts – These are state agreements with other states or foreign nations Example: GA, FL, and AL have an interstate compact on water usage from the Chattahoochee River New York and Canada have an interstate compact on the use and care of Niagara Falls. – There are approximately 200+ interstate compacts in force today.
Full Faith and Credit –S–States must honor one another’s public acts, public records, and judicial proceedings. Example: Marriage licenses and birth certificates –E–Exceptions: The Full Faith and Credit Clause only applies to civil, not criminal matters
Extradition – The legal process where a fugitive from one state is hiding in another state. The state he’s hiding in is going to turn him back over the state that he’s wanted in. – Governors used to sometimes refuse to return fugitives to another state, but since 1987, the Supreme Court has held that unwilling governments must comply with an extradition order issued by a federal court.
Privileges and Immunities – A resident of one state may not be discriminated against unreasonably by another state. Example: buying a house – All citizens must obey the laws of all other States while in those States Example: speed limits – States can make reasonable distinctions against residents of other States Example: – higher hunting and fishing license fees for non-residents – Out-of-state tuition fees at colleges and universities