Presentation on theme: "Coconut Crabs as a Target for Promoting the Establishment of Marine Protected Areas on Green Island, Taiwan C.P. Chen 1,2,3, S.T. Lin 2,3, F.L. Wang 1."— Presentation transcript:
Coconut Crabs as a Target for Promoting the Establishment of Marine Protected Areas on Green Island, Taiwan C.P. Chen 1,2,3, S.T. Lin 2,3, F.L. Wang 1 1 Institute of Fishery Science, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 2 Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan 3 Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Marine Protected Area (MPA) MPA establishment combining local community and ecosystem Local Community Coconut Crabs Green Island Local empowerment Conservation
Green Island introduction History Ecology Coral reef ecosystem Hard corals:176 spp. Soft corals:27 spp. Fishes:602 spp. Green Island Map of Green Island. 16.2 km 2 3200 people Mountain peak of Green Island is 281m Photos available at http://green.taitung.gov.tw/caption/ca_page1.asphttp://green.taitung.gov.tw/caption/ca_page1.asp
A threatened species, list on the Red list of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) since 1983 Protected by the Wildlife Conservation Law in Taiwan since 1995. Coconut crab, Birgus latro. Coconut crab, Birgus latro Phylum Arthropoda Class Crustacea Order Decapoda Infraorder Anomura Family Coenobitidae Genus Birgus Birgus latro (Linnaeus, 1767)
1 mm 1 cm 10cm Zoeal stages Glaucothoe Juvenile crab 1 mm Metamorphosis Spawning Adult Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ Ⅴ Rocky coastsOcean Emergence Life history of the coconut crab, Birgus latro.
Why we choose coconut crabs as an umbrella species of Green Island? Relationship between coconut crabs and local residents –as children’s pet in early days The ecological importance of coconut crabs, including: –large body size –Unique ecological niche –long life history –the unique life of this migrating species, as adults occur in terrestrial mountain areas Successfully conserving the habitat of coconut crabs will not only protect the coastal zones and nearby waters, but also land areas
Threats to coconut crabs on Green Island Illegal harvesting — population of coconut crabs declined rapidly. Too many infrastructures — harm its habitats and block its spawning pathway. Environmental deterioration — habitat fragmentation
Current tourism state of Green Island Number of tourists visiting Green Island from 1991 to 2003 Carrying capacity: 2000 persons/day (Calculating by ECG international, 1993) SARS Number of monthly tourists from 1991 to 2003 July is the peak Averaged of last five July is 64,077 persons
Three actions for coconut crab conservation Basic survey and larval culture of coconut crabs Habitat conservation Local community empowerment through education
Basic survey of coconut crabs 1 mm 10cm Zoeal stages Glaucothoe Juvinile crab 1 mm Metamorphosis Spawning Adult Rocky coasts Ocean Hard to conduct the population survey!
Temperature: 24-25 ℃ Salinity 34-35‰. fed with hatched Artemia nauplii Larval culture of coconut crabs
The mean survival rates of zoeae fed with enriched Artemia nauplii are higher than unenriched groups in each zoeal stages. 1 mm Glaucothoe of coconut crab hiding in a snail shell. 20 Zoea metamorphosed to glaucothoes on the 27th to 34th day 6 carrying the shell on the 37th to 43rd days of its zoeal life. Larval culture results in 2004
Habitat conservation Avoid habitat fragmentation The road circling Green Island, cuts the migration routes of hermit crabs
Local community empowerment through education Framework of the coconut crab conservation team's works on Green Island. Environmental education Seizure of illegal harvest Habitat preservation Artificial culture collecting the culture and history of coconut crabs and local residents local educational institutionslocal residentsgovernment organizations MPA Coconut crab conservation team work Development the eco-tourism subject to coconut crabs
Coconut crab conservation team Team members including teachers from local schools, government officials, police and local residents. Objectives 1.Environmental education 2.Stopping illegal harvesting 3.Habitat preservation 4.Artificial culture 5.Information collection 6.Ecotourism development
Environmental education at Green Island elementary school in 2003.
Coconut crab booklet, emphasizing the relationship among coconut crabs and their natural environments on Green Island.
Coconut crab postcard. (a) The front of the postcard emphasizes the life history and habitats, (b) The back of postcard states the law and punishment. (a)(b)
Propositions of coconut crabs conservation Ecological corridors for crabs. Enforcement of conservation laws. Promoting environmental education and local communication. Continuing research on artificial culture Protecting the entire habitat of coconut crabs, from the mountains to the sea.
Outlook for the MPA and creation of an Eco-island MPA –MPA proposed emphasizing both ecological and social aspects. –Local participation on the planning and managing process of MPA. Eco-island –Conservation actions start from protecting coconut crabs. –Maintain biodiversity, and habitat integrity –Develop Ecotourism. –Wise and sustainable use natural resources.
Girl with coconut crab Painted by Y. W. Ou, 1961 Thank you