2 Main Idea SheetIdeas about governmentArticles of Confederation
3 I. The Articles of Confederation The first governing document created to govern AmericaAdopted by the Second Continental Congress on November 1777It was designed to create a weak central government
4 A. Who had the power under the Articles of Confederation? 1. Between The States Of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.2. ARTICLE I The Stile of this Confederacy shall be "The United States of America".3. ARTICLE II Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.Sovereignty=governmental powerDelegated=given
5 B. A of C Strengths/Weaknesses Most power held by the statesNational government could not force states to obey lawsTo declare war and make peaceSingle branch of governmentNo system of checks and balancesTo coin and borrow moneyNo executive branch (enforce laws)No judicial branch (interpret laws)To engage with foreign countries and sign treatiesNo power to taxNo power to regulate commerce between statesACDFGHIJBEH
7 C. Ratification *Ratify: to confirm or approve 1. States kept most of their power (just as things were before the revolution); this way they would join the government2. Written in 1777 by John Dickinson, a conservative, the Articles were to create a loose union of the states under the authority of the Congress3. It would not take effect until all colonies ratified it; Maryland ratified the A.O.C. in 1781
8 i. Why did it take so long to ratify? The colonies quarreled over who controlled the lands west of the AppalachiansMaryland refused to ratify the Articles of Confederation until Virginia gave up its land claims in the westJefferson persuaded Virginians to drop their claims
10 D. Structure of the Government under the Articles of Confederation The government consisted of only one branch, the CongressThe unicameral (1 House) legislature had delegates elected by state legislaturesOne vote per state, but 9 out of 13 are needed to pass a lawTo change the Articles all 13 states had to unanimously agree
11 E. Powers of the Government under the Articles of Confederation Congress could declare warRaise armies to fight in the warMake treatiesBorrow moneySend diplomats to foreign countries
14 F. AccomplishmentsWinning the War---the government worked well enough to:Raise an armyGet foreign support and alliancesNegotiate a favorable peace treaty
15 F. Accomplishments (Cont.) 2. Land Ordinance of the only way to raise money was to sell land:This law established the surveying of land and how it was to be divided into townshipsEach town would be 6 miles by 6 miles and divided into 36 sections, 1 section was set aside for public education
18 F. Accomplishments (Cont.) 3. Northwest Ordinance (1787):Worksheet
19 F. Accomplishments (Cont.) 3. Northwest Ordinance (1787):Created new territory north of Ohio River and east of Mississippi RiverSet terms for when the territories could become state:Lesson 1 The Northwest OrdinanceNo Slavery Allowed
20 Poster: A)Basics – who, where, when B) What did the Articles of Confederation say? C) Strengths? Weaknesses? D) express in pictures
22 II. America at the Time When the Articles of Confederation Weren’t Working A. Financial Problems $:America was in debt having taken loans from foreign nationsTrading again with Britain=a) American goods sold to British colonies in the Caribbean had to be carried on British shipsb) British goods with inexpensive prices causes American artisans to lose their jobs
23 A. Financial Problems $ (Cont.): 3) No Standard Currency---every state had their own money making it difficult to trade, the money was not backed up by gold or silver:a) Inflation occursb) Paper money became worthless4) States taxing each other---states were acting like independent countries establishing taxes on each others goods
24 B. Foreign Problems Foreign presence: a) Spain: disputed the border between Georgia and Spanish Floridab) Britain: they maintained forts south of the Great Lakes2) Foreign Debt: France, America’s ally, was owed money; Spain closed the Mississippi River and New Orleans to all American goods
25 C. Domestic ProblemsStates were acting like their own independent countries: They taxed each other, quarreled over land and water, made their own currency2. America’s Economy was horrible: inflation, unemployment, debt3. Shays’ Rebellion---Rebellion in Massachusetts in 1786 led by former Continental Army Captain Daniel Shays
26 Imagine you are a farmer returning from the Revolutionary War---what is your farm like, what do you need to make money, how will you get money for the things you need?
27 Effect Chart for Farmers With less people to grow food production was down, thus a greater demand for food and prices were higherFarmers borrow money from banks to buy land, animals, and toolsFarmers grow more food, but prices decline because food is more availableFarmers go in debt and are sent to debtors’ jail, in jail they can’t make money to pay off their debts
28 3) Shays’ Rebellion video Farmers were in debt and taxes were being raisedShay leads a rebellion that closed down courts so they couldn’t place farmers in jailBoston businessmen paid for an army to stop the rebellionThis rebellion causes American leaders to realize that the Articles give the national government to little power to keep order“Revolt against a monarch is one thing, but a revolution against a republic is a crime punishable by death.”---Sam Adams“A little rebellion now and then is a good thing…the tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants.”---Thomas Jefferson
29 What Constitutional Convention? Why was it needed?
30 III. Constitutional Convention May 1787Philadelphia, PAPresident of convention: George WashingtonGoal: improve the Articles of ConfederationResult – an entirely new constitution (U.S. Constitution)Ratification: December 7, 1787 (DE); May 1790 (RI)
32 A. Virginia Plan (missteps along the way…) VA – big or little state?Edmund RandolphProposed an all-powerful central government Bi-cameral legislature (two houses) w/ representatives based on state populationWho would appear to have more power in a system like this?Who is likely to disapprove this plan?
33 B. New Jersey Plan (missteps along the way…) William PattersonUnicameral legislature – one-house w/ an equal number of representatives from each state Federal government could tax citizens in all states Federal government could regulate interstate commerceWhat size state do you think proposed this plan? Why?
34 VirginiaNew JerseyWhose plan or plans do you think won in the end? Who’s in the background?
35 C. Great Compromise Roger Sherman Bicameral legislature Congress will consist of 2 houses: Senate and House of Representatives2 representatives per state regardless of their size in the Senate(upper house) –appealing to the smaller statesRepresentation in the House of Representatives(lower house) is based on a state’s population (appealing to the LARGER states)States with large or small populations received fair representation in gov’t
37 D. The Slave IssueHow would slaves be counted in a state’s population?3/5 Compromise: a slave was to count as 3/5’s a person or 5 slaves = 3 peopleSlave Trade---was allowed for another 20 years (1808) then it was to be outlawed; this could be taxedThe nation’s new capitol was to be built in the South so the South would agree to the Constitution
39 IV. The Constitution Branches of the Government Executive Branch---President is chosen to serve for 4 years by the electoral collegeLegislative Brach (AKA Congress)---a) House of Representatives chosen for 2 years by people; b) Senate chosen for 6 years by state legislaturesJudicial Branch---serve for life, chosen by President and approved by Congress
40 Includes VP and Cabinet U.S. GovernmentConstitutional Principle?CongressConstitutional Principle?No Age RequiredIncludes VP and Cabinet
41 U.S. Government Article? Article? Branch? Branch? Purpose? Purpose? What was the underlying principle that ensured that no one branch would become too powerful?Branch?Branch?Purpose?Purpose?CongressTitle?What was the underlying principle for creating the three branches?House?House?# of members?Member Title?Member Title?No age required# of members?# of members?Length of term?Age Requirement?Age Requirement?Title of Leader?Length of term?Length of term?Title of Leader?Title of Leader?Article?Branch?Purpose?Leader Age Requirement?Leader Title?Leader length of term?Includes VP and Cabinet
42 Includes VP and Cabinet U.S. GovernmentArticle 1Article 3Legislative BranchJudicial BranchConstitutional Principle?Checks and BalancesInterprets the lawsMakes LawsCongressSupreme CourtConstitutional Principle?H. Of R.Senate9 on Supreme CourtRepresentativeSenatorSeparation of Powers435 members100 (2 from each state)No Age Required25 years old30 years oldServe for life2 yearsSupreme Court Justice (Judge)6 yearsSpeaker of the HouseVice PresidentExecutive BranchEnforce the lawsArticle #235 years +PresidentServes 4 years= 1 termIncludes VP and Cabinet
43 B. Reducing Tyranny Federalism— divides power between state and national government2. Checks and Balances-prevents any one branch from becoming too powerful
45 C. Ratification of the Constitution States would hold conventions to ratify or reject the Constitution; 9 out of 13 needed for it to go into effectThe country is split:a) Anti-federalists were against the ratificationb)Federalists wanted the Constitution ratified
46 2. Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans(Anti-Federalists) (1798) IssueFederalistsDemocratic-RepublicansEconomy?ManufacturingNational Bank?No Bank (too much federal power)Interpret Constitution?Broadly (is it expressly forbidden?)Balance of Power?States’ RightsForeign Policy?Pro-BritishRatification?Against- want Bill of RightsAlexander HamiltonJames MadisonJohn JayGeorge MasonPatrick Henry
48 C. Ratification of the Constitution (Cont.) 3. Federalist Papers: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote newspaper articles (anonymously) toexplain why constitution was needed4. Anti-federalists oppose ratification because they fear it takes to much power from the states and there isNo Bill of Rights
49 Comparing the Articles of Confederation & the U. S. Constitution Political ChallengeArticles of ConfederationU. S. ConstitutionMode of Verification or Amendment:13 out of 13 states needed to agree2/3 states Agree and 2/3 congressNumber of houses in the Legislature:OneTwo1)House of representatives2)SenateMode of Representation:Equal (one state, one vote)1) House is based on Population2) Senate Equal (2 Per State)Mode of Election & Term of OfficeLegislative:State Legislatures; One Year Term1) House of Reps. Picked by Voters and serve for 2 years2) Senators are picked by State Legislatures and serve for 6 yearsExecutive:(The President)NONEPicked by Electoral College and serve for 4 yearsJudiciary:(Supreme Court and other Courts)Picked By President (approved by Senate) Serve for LifeTaxation:NoneCan TaxRegulation of Commerce:Can Tax Imports not Exports
52 Amendments Changes to the Constitution Article V (of the U.S. Constitution)Provided a way to change the document when necessary to reflect the will of the peopleAmendments must be approved by 3/4 majority of both houses or ratified by 3/4 of state conventions
53 Bill of RightsDelegates took ideas from past grievances (abuses by the King)Created to protect citizens’ individual rights
54 Bill of Rights Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.Freedom of speech; right to protest/petition; disagree with the government; freedom to exercise religion
55 Bill of Rights Amendment II A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.Right to bear arms (weapons) in a household
56 Bill of Rights Amendment III No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.Citizens can not be forced to house soldiers
57 Bill of Rights Amendment IV The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.You nor your property can be searched or seized without a warrant issued by a court
58 Bill of Rights Protects the rights of the accused Amendment VNo person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.Protects the rights of the accusedPlead the fifth – do not have to be a witness against yourself Double jeopardy - can not be tried for the same crime twice
59 Bill of RightsAmendment VIIn all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.The accused has the right to a fair and speedy trial by a jury of his peers (impartial)
60 Bill of Rights Amendment VII In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.Common law – rules established by judges in past cases (precedent)If a lawsuit is being sought after for more than $20, there is the right to a jury trial
61 Bill of Rights Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.Bail – money the accused leaves with the court as a pledge to appear for trial. Excessive – too highForbids courts to set bail unreasonably high
62 Bill of Rights Amendment IX The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.People have rights not listed in the Constitution. This Bill of Rights does not limit the rights of people to just those listed.
63 Bill of Rights Amendment X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.Limits the power of the federal governmentPowers not specifically given to the federal government belong to the states (powers given to the state governments are not listed in the Constitution)