2What you will learnDescribe the origins and development of music in the art of filmIdentify three ways in which music enhances the dramatic action in a filmExplain how music gives continuity to a filmDescribe the process that is used to match music and sound to film
3Vocabulary Scoring Soundtrack Character themes Empathy Foreshadow Cue Music directorSpotClick-trackMag trackDubbing
4The History of Film The birth of filmmaking The beginnings Thomas Alva Edison is credited with developing movieKinetoscope invented in 1899 is the forerunner to the present day movie cameraThe birth of filmmakingEarly movies had little plotFocus was on the technologyLater films told storiesVoyage to the Moon (1902)The Great Train Robbery (1903)
5Music in Silent FilmsEarly movies were accompanied by live improvised music and sound effectsPerformers had to watch the screen and make the music match the actionEnro Rapee, a composer of silent film scores, published Motion Picture Moods for Pianists and OrganistsBirth of a Nation (1915) by D.W. Griffith was the first film to use a live orchestra as accompanimentSoon the symphony replaced the pianoBy the 1920’s the orchestra grew to nearly 100 musiciansScoring:Composing music expressly for a film
6Activity 1, p. 364 CD 10:11Hurry No. 2What makes this music appropriate for a firefighting scene?What evidence can be seen in the music that creates the sense of urgency the composer intends?What other film scenes could this music accompany?
7The “Talkies”Edison and others worked to synchronize sound with actionThe Jazz Singer (1927) – first talking film, featuring Al JolsonThe Vitaphone solved the problem of synchronization but was difficult to runSoundtrack:Perforated strip along the film’s edge containing coded representations of the sound
8Music in Modern Film Musical film – musical is central to the story Saturday Night Fever (1977)The story of aspiring disco dancersSongs were original disco tunes and many went on to become hitsAmadeus (1984)Tells of the rivalry between Salieri and MozartFeatures classical works as part of the plot and actionMusic establishes clearly the feeling of what the story is aboutActivity 2, p. 366 CD 10:12-14
9Music Enhances Drama How music enhances film drama Ennio MorriconeMusic Enhances DramaJohn WilliamsHow music enhances film dramaEstablishing characterCharacter themes:Melodies associated with a particular character that recur throughout the filmThe Untouchables – has a sinister underworld theme of Al Capone by composer Ennio MorriconeThe music usually exhibits a style or melody form that overtly suggests traits of the character in questionSuperman (1978) John Williams – Superman’s theme is majesticThe Red Violin (1998) John Corigliano“Anna’s Theme” played by Joshua BellJohn Corigliano
10Activity 3, p. 368 CD 10:15 & 16 “Superman Theme” – John Williams “Anna’s Theme” – John CoriglianoListen to the theme from Superman. Write down qualities of the melody, rhythm, and orchestration that convey the idea of the superhero.Listen to “Anna’s Theme” and follow the instructions from above.Compare “Anna’s theme with Superman’s. What are the differences that allow each theme to connect powerfully with the character it helps portray?What similarities can you identify?
11John Williams Most successful film composer Began writing film scores in the 1960’sEarned five Academy AwardsWrote music for:Star Wars seriesHarry Potter seriesSchindler’s ListIndiana Jones Series
12Providing psychological insight An effective score can give a glimpse inside a character’s mindSometimes the score captures the audience’s emotional reactionPlatoon (1986) Oliver StoneAdagio for Strings – Samuel BarberBeautiful music used during scenes of terrible violenceScored for string instrumentsUse of dissonance:Tones that conflict
13Activity 4, p. 371 CD 10:17 Adagio for Strings, Op. 11 Describe the characteristics of this music that make it an effective choice for the described scene.Is this melody conjunct or disjunct?How does the tempo add to the emotional effect?
14Intensifies the overall impact of the film Midnight Express (1978)Music by Howard Shore who won an Oscar for Best Original Score in 2004A relentless ostinato figure creates and supports the feeling of terror
15AssignmentThink about a movie you have seen recently. Describe how the music enhanced the drama in each of the following ways: establishing character, providing psychological insight, and intensifying the over impact of the film. (15 points)
16Music Give Film Continuity Music’s expressivity gives a film coherence and continuityForeshadow:Suggest actions or events before they happenCrouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000) Ang Lee, music by Tan DunBased on a Chinese martial arts novelActivity 6, p. 374 CD 10:18-20 & 11:1-4Cue:The specific music for a particular scene in a film or television production
17Yo-Yo Ma Plays cello Child prodigy – debuted at age 5 Born to Chinese parents living in ParisBegan to study when he was 4Eclectic musical interests – records many styles of musicPerformed music for Couching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
18The Process of Scoring a Film Music director:The professional responsible for selecting, commissioning, and/or writing the music track for a filmGetting startedThe final track is the result of along technical process and the work of manyBegins after the movie is completedThe music director a producer meet to spot:To determine which scene should have music
19The process continued Recording the music track After the film has been scored, the music is recordedThe composer conducts the recording sessionsThe sessions are usually done in front of a large screen depicting the movieClick-track:A series of clicks that allow the conductor to synchronize the orchestra’s playing to the filmBefore the digital age, the music was recorded on a magnetic track or mag track:Film similar to audiotape coated with an oxide surfaceThe final step is dubbing:Putting all the elements of sound – dialogue, sound effects, and music – onto one soundtrack
20Review - Terms To determine which scenes should have music SpottingThe specific music for a particular scene in a film or television productionsCueA perforated strip along the film’s edge containing coded representations of the soundSoundtrackThe professional responsible for selecting, commissioning, and/or writing the music track for a filmMusic director
21To suggest actions or events before they happen ForeshadowA series of clicks that allow the conductor to synchronize the orchestra’ playing to the filmClick-trackMelodies associated with a particular character that recur throughout the filmCharacter themesSharing of another person’s feelings or emotionsEmpathyPutting all the elements of sound – dialogue, sound effects, and music – onto one soundtrackDubbingA film similar to audio tape coated with an oxide surfaceMag track
22Description Film Title Music composed by Tan Dun “Anna’s theme” played by Joshua BellFirst talking film, featuring Al JolsonScore drew on Adagio for Strings by Samuel BarberHas a sinister underworld theme by composer Ennio MorriconeMusic composed by John CoriglianoFirst film to use a live orchestra accompanimentWon Oscars for Best Musical Score and Best Song in 2004A relentless ostinato figure creates and supports the feeling of terrorFeatures classical music as the plot relates to the bitter rivalry between composers Salieri and MozartCrouching Tiger, Hidden DragonThe Red ViolinThe Jazz SingerPlatoonThe UntouchablesBirth of a NationThe Lord of the Rings: Return of the KingMidnight ExpressAmadeus
23Yo Yo Ma Movie music of John Williams a Chinese American cello known for his eclectic musical interestsMovie music of John WilliamsStar WarsSschindler’s ListHarry Potter
24How is the role of music in today’s films different from the use of music in “silent” films? Today music is used toEstablish characterProvide insight into a character or eventGive a feeling of what the story is aboutConvey moodEvoke time and cultureProvide continuityIntensify the overall impact of the filmThe music is integrated in the film as opposed to being externalIn “silent” movies music is performed by live musiciansHelped establish the moodCovered the clattering sound of the projector and audience noise
25Describe the process of making film music Begins after the movies is completeView the edited filmDecide on genre/styleSpot – determine scenes to have musicScore musicRecord the musicDub the soundtrack