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Emerald Ash Borer The Beginning of the End of Ash in North America? (Version 3, Revised February 2007) Ohio State University Extension Ohio Agricultural.

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Presentation on theme: "Emerald Ash Borer The Beginning of the End of Ash in North America? (Version 3, Revised February 2007) Ohio State University Extension Ohio Agricultural."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emerald Ash Borer The Beginning of the End of Ash in North America? (Version 3, Revised February 2007) Ohio State University Extension Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Ohio Department of Agriculture Ohio Department of Natural Resources

2 Authors Jane C. Martin, OSU Extension, Franklin County Amy K. Stone, OSU Extension, Lucas County Amy K. Stone, OSU Extension, Lucas County Daniel A. Herms, Department of Entomology, OSU/OARDC and OSU Extension Daniel A. Herms, Department of Entomology, OSU/OARDC and OSU Extension Joe F. Boggs, OSU Extension, Hamilton County and South Center Horticulture Specialist Joe F. Boggs, OSU Extension, Hamilton County and South Center Horticulture Specialist Curtis E. Young, OSU Extension, Allen County Curtis E. Young, OSU Extension, Allen County

3 Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Order: Coleoptera Family: Buprestidae

4 25 million dead ash trees... and counting

5 Emerald Ash Borer Where Did It Come From?

6 Emerald Ash Borer in North America Native to East Asia — N.E. China, E. Siberia, Korea and Japan.Native to East Asia — N.E. China, E. Siberia, Korea and Japan. Discovered in southeast Michigan in June 2002; probably had been established at least 15 years.Discovered in southeast Michigan in June 2002; probably had been established at least 15 years. We don’t know for sure, but emerald ash borer probably arrived in the U.S. in infested wood pallets, crating or dunnage. We don’t know for sure, but emerald ash borer probably arrived in the U.S. in infested wood pallets, crating or dunnage.

7 USDA Forest Service

8 Emerald Ash Borer in North America as of December 2006

9 Known EAB Infestations in Ohio as of December 2006

10 Economic and Ecological Impacts in Ohio

11 Natural Forests 3.8 billion white ash trees. Forest Products Industry 2.1 billion board feet of standing ash timber, worth $1 billion. Nursery Industry 27,000 ash trees sold in 1998 worth $2.3 million, wholesale value. $20 million standing nursery crop value, as of May Urban Forests Ash is one of the most common tree species in urban forests.

12 Emerald Ash Borer Life Stages and Life Cycle

13 Signs and Symptoms of Emerald Ash Borer Thinning canopy, epicormic sprouts from trunk and basal shoots. Thinning canopy, epicormic sprouts from trunk and basal shoots.

14 Thin, 2”-5” long bark splits caused by callus formation may be the only early symptom...

15 Signs and Symptoms of Emerald Ash Borer 1/16 to 1/8 inch diameter, D-shaped exit holes in bark. 1/16 to 1/8 inch diameter, D-shaped exit holes in bark.

16 Signs and Symptoms of Emerald Ash Borer Serpentine, frass-filled galleries. Serpentine, frass-filled galleries. Frass packed in the galleries Multiple, disorganized galleries A single mature gallery over numerous galleries of immature larvae

17 Woodpecker Injury to Trees

18 Summary of Signs and Symptoms Serpentine, frass- filled galleries Thinning canopy Epicormic sprouts from trunk D-shaped exit holes in bark Flat, tapeworm-like larva with bell-shaped segments

19 How Fast Can EAB Spread? Michigan State University research indicates that small, outlier infestations disperse less than a half mile per year.Michigan State University research indicates that small, outlier infestations disperse less than a half mile per year. Field analysis of Ohio infestations yields similar conclusions. Field analysis of Ohio infestations yields similar conclusions. The core infestation is probably spreading faster. The core infestation is probably spreading faster. Lab studies indicate emerald ash borer can fly several miles when forced repeatedly to fly to exhaustion.Lab studies indicate emerald ash borer can fly several miles when forced repeatedly to fly to exhaustion.

20 Other Ash Problems Native borersNative borers DiseasesDiseases - Ash decline - Ash yellows - Ash anthracnose -Verticillium wilt -Botryosphaeria canker, other cankers

21 Native Ash Borers Are Extremely Common Clearwing Borers ( Attack stressed trees ) Clearwing Borers ( Attack stressed trees ) - Banded ash clearwing borer - Ash/lilac borer Roundheaded Borers ( Attack dead and dying trees ) Roundheaded Borers ( Attack dead and dying trees ) - Redheaded ash borer - Banded ash borer - Ash and privet borer Bark Beetles ( Attack dead and dying trees ) Bark Beetles ( Attack dead and dying trees ) -Eastern ash bark beetle

22 Common Native Borers Banded ash clearwing borer Redheaded ash borer David G. Nielsen, Ohio State University/OARDC

23 Native Borers or Emerald Ash Borer? Clearwing Borers Round exit holes. Round exit holes. Emerald Ash Borer D-shaped exit hole. D-shaped exit hole. 1/8 to 1/4 inch in diameter1/16 to 1/8 inch in diameter

24 Native Borers or Emerald Ash Borer? Clearwing Borers Both clearwing and roundheaded borers feed in the tree’s xylem tissue.Both clearwing and roundheaded borers feed in the tree’s xylem tissue. Emerald Ash Borer Phloem feeder.Phloem feeder. Colorado State University

25 Native Borers or Emerald Ash Borer? Clearwing Borers Expel frass from tree.Expel frass from tree. Emerald Ash Borer Frass packed in larval galleries.Frass packed in larval galleries.

26 Native Borers or Emerald Ash Borer? Clearwing Borers Pupal case may protrude from exit hole.Pupal case may protrude from exit hole. Emerald Ash Borer No pupal case at all; clean exit hole.No pupal case at all; clean exit hole.

27 Native Borers or Emerald Ash Borer? Clearwing Borers Larvae are round in cross section with legs. Larvae are round in cross section with legs. Emerald Ash Borer Larvae are flat in cross section, no legs.Larvae are flat in cross section, no legs. David Shetlar, Ohio State University

28 Redheaded Ash Borer Adult Larval galleries in sapwood Exit holes

29 Native Borers or Emerald Ash Borer? Redheaded Ash Borer Larvae are round in cross section.Larvae are round in cross section. Emerald Ash Borer Larvae are flat in cross section, no legs.Larvae are flat in cross section, no legs.

30 Distinguishing Exit Holes of Ash Borers mm Emerald ash borer Shape: D-shaped Width: 3 mm (1/8”) Banded ash clearwing borer Shape: Round Width: 6 mm (1/4”) Redheaded ash borer Shape: Oval - round Width: 6 mm (1/4”)

31 Eastern Ash Bark Beetle Galleries on the sapwood surface Small exit holes Adult beetle All images by James Solomon

32 Summary of Diagnostic Features Native Borers Round or oval exit holes. Round or oval exit holes. Xylem feeders.Xylem feeders. Expel frass from trees (clearwings)Expel frass from trees (clearwings) Pupal case.Pupal case. Larvae are round in cross section, with legs. Larvae are round in cross section, with legs. Emerald Ash Borer D-shaped exit hole.D-shaped exit hole. Phloem feeder.Phloem feeder. Frass packed in galleries and not expelled.Frass packed in galleries and not expelled. No pupal case.No pupal case. Larvae are flat in cross section, legless.Larvae are flat in cross section, legless.

33 Common Ash Diseases Ash anthracnose Botryosphaeria canker Verticillium wilt symptoms on maple

34 What Is Being Done? The Cooperative EAB Project

35 Response to EAB: Lead Agencies USDA APHISUSDA APHIS State Departments of AgricultureState Departments of Agriculture USDA Forest ServiceUSDA Forest Service State Departments of Natural ResourcesState Departments of Natural Resources Universities and ExtensionUniversities and ExtensionOrganizations USDA ARSUSDA ARS

36 A common scene in the core zone

37 Beetles are attracted to volatiles released by wounded trees, where they are captured on sticky wrap. Trees are cut at the end of the season, and their bark removed to search for larvae. Research is underway to develop more efficient traps and lures. Survey Use of Trap Trees

38 Quarantines Federal and State

39 Penalties - Breaking Quarantine – A Case Study - Michigan Nursery violation - $12,300 fine hours of community service - $60,000 restitution to Maryland nursery -$$$ for control costs This was an Oakland County District Judgment, Michigan

40 Emerald Ash Borer Research

41 Life history Dispersal Distribution and sampling Population dynamics Natural enemies Trapping and lures Insecticides Survival in firewood/chips Host plant interactions Ecological impacts Life history Dispersal Distribution and sampling Population dynamics Natural enemies Trapping and lures Insecticides Survival in firewood/chips Host plant interactions Ecological impacts EAB Research Response

42 OSU’s Ash Alert ashalert.osu.edu Latest EAB news Latest EAB news Information for homeowners and industry Information for homeowners and industry Fact sheets Fact sheets Research Research FAQs FAQs Other contacts and links Other contacts and links

43 Photo Credits Daniel A. Herms, Department of Entomology, OSU/OARDC and OSU Extension. Ken Chamberlain, OARDC Photo Lab. Amy K. Stone, OSU Extension, Lucas Co. Jane C. Martin, OSU Extension, Franklin Co. Joe F. Boggs, OSU Extension, Hamilton Co. and South Center Horticulture Specialist. U.S. Forest Service. David G. Nielsen, Department of Entomology, OSU/OARDC. David J. Shetlar, Department of Entomology, OSU/OARDC and OSU Extension. David Cappaert, Michigan State University. Colorado State University.

44 This presentation is copyrighted; however, it may be used by those outside the University for educational purposes, providing the source is credited. Copyright © 2007, The Ohio State University


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