12Fertilization Occurs when a sperm penetrates the egg. May occur internally or externally.
13Answer is: All 2. Movement, Be able to Obtain food, Able to digest food,Adaptations, Reproduce1.2.
14Multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes Have more than one cell and must obtain food and energy by eating other organisms.
15Embryo development 1. Fertilization 2. Zygote 3. Cleavage- zygote divides4. Blastula - when the embryo becomes a hollow ball of cells.5. Gastrula - As the blastula continues to develop, certain cells move inward from the surface, forming a two - layered, cup- shaped embryo.
18The animals pictured below are probably ______. Sessile
19Areas of the gastrula A. Ectoderm - cells on the outer surface. B. Endoderm - Layer of cells lining the inner surface.C. Mesoderm - A layer some animals have that is located between the ectoderm and endoderm. Area where different organs and tissues develop.
21Protostome - proht uh stohm Animal with a mouth that develops from the opening in the gastrula.Snails, earthworms, and insects are examples of protostomes.
22Deuterostome – dew tihr uh stohm Animal in which the anus develops from cells elsewhere on the gastrula .Sea Cucumber
23Cell Differentiation in Animal Development Sperm cellsFertilizationEgg cellFormation of mesodermFirst cell divisionEndodermMesodermEctodermGastrulationAdditional cell divisionsFormation of a blastula
24LarvaIntermediate stage of development. Usually bears little resemblance to the adult animal.(Ex; butterfly)
25You have just discovered a new organism that you think is an animal You have just discovered a new organism that you think is an animal. In order to be classified an animal, what characteristics must it have?Movement, Reproduce, Adaptation, Able to digest food, Be able to obtain food
26If the animal described below is a sessile organism, write yes If the animal described below is a sessile organism, write yes. If not write NO A. Barnacles attached to a ship’s hull. B. A spider lying in wait in the center of its web. C. Coral larvae drifting in a tropical ocean. D. Sponges growing on the outside of crab’s shellA. YesB. NoC. NoD. Yes
27The animal’s digestive tract forms from the _________ layer. Endoderm
281. _____ animal with a mouth that develops from the opening in the gastrula. 2. _____ embryonic structure of an animal that consists of two cell layers .1. Protosome2. Gastrula
293. ______ describes organisms that don’t move from place to place. 4 3. ______ describes organisms that don’t move from place to place. 4. ______ layer of cells lining the inner surface of the gastrula. 5. _____ layer of cells on the outer surface of the gastrula.3. Sessile4. Endoderm5. Ectoderm
306. ______ single layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled space that forms during early development. 7. ____ third cell layer formed in the developing embryo.6. Blastula7. Mesoderm
32Section Objectives:Compare and contrast radial and bilateral symmetry with asymmetry.Trace the phylogeny of animal body plans.Distinguish among the body plans of acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate animals.
33Body PlansMost can be compared on the basis of symmetry and segmentation.
34Body symmetryArrangement of body parts around a central axis. Balance in proportions of an object.
36Radial symmetry Body parts radiating from a central axis. Can be divided along any plane, through a central axis.Ex: Sea star
37Bilateral symmetryBody parts arrange in pairs on either side of a central axis. Generally have more complex sense organs. Tend to be located in the anterior end. Animals can generally move faster.Can divide down it’s length into similar right and left halves.
38AsymmetryIrregular shaped body.Usually a sessile animal.Ex: sponge
511. Bilateral Symmetry (could divide into pairs) 2. Moves, legs, central axis3. Tree4. Asymmetry (No shape, irregular)5. Probably sessile6. Stew7. Radial Symmetry (Divide any place equal, or same)8. Not as complex, can’t move as fast9. Flower
52Exoskeleton Hard encasement on the surface of an animal. Ex: insects, crabs, snails and clams.
53EndoskeletonRigid framework inside of an animal. This skeleton in echinoderms may be made of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3); cartilage as in sharks or bones.Ex: human, vertebrates.
54VertebratesAnimals with a backbone. All are bilaterally symmetrical animals that have endoskeletons.
55InvertebratesAnimals without a backbone.JellyfishSea AnemoneCoral
56Animal fossils become abundant at the beginning of the Cambrian period. Scientist have traced evolution back in time to this period.
57FossilsOldest known fossils of animals are more than 600 million years old. Scientist theorize may be as early as million years ago.
64Question 2 A. jellyfish B. starfish C. octopus D. sea urchin Which of the following animals does NOT exhibit radial symmetry?A. jellyfishB. starfishC. octopusD. sea urchin
65The answer is C. An octopus exhibits bilateral symmetry.
66Question 3As you look at the cross sections of animals in the following figure, give the reason why animals with the basic cross section in the middle and on the far right will tend to be larger than animals with the far-left cross section.
68AnswerThe development of fluid-filled body cavities made it possible for animals to grow larger because it allowed for the efficient circulation and transport of fluids, and support for organs and organ systems.
69Question 4 A. eukaryotic B. multicellular C. heterotrophic Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of animals?A. eukaryoticB. multicellularC. heterotrophicD. prokaryoticThe answer is D.
70Question 5 A. live only underground B. are autotrophs Sessile animals _______.A. live only undergroundB. are autotrophsC. are permanently attached to a surfaceD. live only on land
71The answer is C. Sessile animals are permanently attached to a surface.
72Question 6 A. digestion B. physically responding to a light stimulus Ingestion is another word for _______.A. digestionB. physically responding to a light stimulusC. breathingD. eating
74Question 7 A. sponge – spicule B. mollusk – shell C. flatworm – coelom Which of the following pairs of terms is not related?A. sponge – spiculeB. mollusk – shellC. flatworm – coelomD. coral – larvaeThe answer is C.
75Question 8 A. endoskeleton B. backbone C. bilaterally symmetrical Which of the following is NOT a vertebrate feature?A. endoskeletonB. backboneC. bilaterally symmetricalD. pseudocoelomThe answer is D.