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ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS CONTENTS RESOURCES Reproduction.

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Presentation on theme: "ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS CONTENTS RESOURCES Reproduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS CONTENTS RESOURCES Reproduction

2 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS CONTENTS Reproduction Types Advantages and disadvantages Asexual reproduction Vegetative Spore formation Artificial Fertilisation External Internal Sexual reproduction Mixed reproduction Reproduction in animals Reproduction in plants Embryonic development Viviparous Oviparous Ovoviparous Post-embryonic development Direct Indirect Sexual reproduction Stages Pollination Fertilisation Seed germination H ands on Make a detailed drawing Life cycle Life cycle of a plant Life cycle Life cycle of a bird Asexual reproduction Gemmation Fragmentation REPRODUCTION

3 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS RESOURCES Types of reproduction Advantages and disadvantages Fragmentation Gemmation Sexual reproduction in animals Mixed reproduction External fertilisation Internal fertilisation Oviparous development Viviparous development Post-embryonic development: direct The life cycle of a bird Ovoviparous development Post-embryonic development: indirect Spore formation The life cycle of plants Artificial asexual reproduction Vegetative reproduction Sexual reproduction in plants Pollination Seed germination Fertilisation Make a detailed drawing Links Animal reproduction

4 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Unicellular oganisms ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Only one parent New genetically identical living beings are produced. Some animals Some plants Types of reproduction Protozoa Fungi Algae NEXT

5 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Types of reproduction SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Two parents: a male and a female Descendants have genetic material from both parents. Multicellular oganisms

6 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Advantages and disadvantages Advantages requires only one parent faster and easier rapid population growth no travel is necessary Disadvantages no genetic diversity difficulty in adapting to environmental changes clone Asexual reproduction NEXT

7 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Advantages and disadvantages Advantages genetic diversity in species ability to adapt to environmental changes Disadvantages requires two parents requires time and energy to find a mate and reproduce requires travel Sexual reproduction

8 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Gemmation (budding) Asexual reproduction Fresh water hydra bud The bud separates from the parent and develops into a new individual. NEXT

9 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Gemmation (budding) Colony gemmation Coral Buds remain attached and form a colony.

10 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Fragmentation Regeneration regenerated arms Starfish NEXT

11 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Fragmentation new organisms fragments regenerate parent Planaria worm Asexual reproduction

12 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Snails Sexual reproduction in animals Hhermaphrodites have both male and female gonads. NEXT

13 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS ovum spermatozoa Sexual reproduction in animals Unisexual animals have only one type of gonad. male ( ♂ ) female( ♀ ) gonads (testicles) gonads (ovaries)

14 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Mixed reproduction Cnidaria sexual reproduction asexual reproduction larva polyps adult jellyfish or medusa

15 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS male( ♂ ) female( ♀ ) Fusion of the gametes occurs outside the female body. developing embryos ova spermatozoa External fertilisation Life cycle with external fertilisation

16 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Internal fertilisation Life cycle with internal fertilisation male (♂) female (♀) ovum spermatozoa zygote Fusion of the gametes occurs inside the female body.

17 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Viviparous development Mammals Embryonic development The embryo develops inside the female body. placenta umbilical cord uterus embryo

18 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS embryo Fish Birds Embryonic development Reptiles Reptile or bird egg shell chalaza albumin yolk germinal disc shell membrane Oviparous development The embryo develops inside an egg, mostly outside the female body. hatching

19 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS shark Embryonic development ray snake lizard The embryo develops inside an egg in the female body. embryo Ovoviparous development

20 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Life cycle of a bird embryonic development After fertilisation, the embryo begins to develop inside the egg. The egg is laid in a nest. The embryo continues to develop during incubation. Hatching The male and female bird mate. The new being leaves the egg.

21 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Some arthropods Oviparous birds Viviparous mammals Post-embryonic development: direct Oviparous reptiles

22 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Post-embryonic development: indirect Simple metamorphosis larva eggs adult continuous transformation (moulting) NEXT

23 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Post-embryonic development: indirect Complex metamorphosis pupa (dormant stage) larva eggs adult

24 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS The life cycle of plants FLOWERING PLANTS NON- FLOWERING PLANTS Angiosperms Gymnosperms Mosses Ferns VISIBLE PART gametophyte VISIBLE PART sporophyte NEXT VISIBLE PART sporophyte gametophyte

25 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS sporophyte gametophyte germination sporangium spores frond fertilisation ♀ ♂ male gametophyte ♂ female gametophyte ♀ prothallus The life cycle of plants The life cycle of mossesThe life cycle of ferns capsule sporophyte spores germination gametophyte male gametophyte female gametophyte fertilisation ♂ ♀ ♀ ♂

26 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS fern Spore formation spores moss spores spores mushroom FUNGI ARE NOT PLANTS.

27 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Vegetative reproduction white clover stolon bud Stolons Bulbs Stem tubers potato onion garlic

28 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Cuttings Artificial asexual reproduction in plants Grafting Layering Artificial methods

29 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Sexual reproduction in plants FLOWER gametophyte reproductive organs gametes anther pollen grains anther filament stamen sepals (calyx) stigma style ovary ovules pistil petals (corolla)

30 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Pollination Self-pollination Cross- pollination pollen pollen Wind pollination Insect pollination

31 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Fertilisation in plants Pollen grains land and a pollen tube develops. 1 pollen grains The ovule (female gamete) is fertilised and a zygote is formed. 2 ovule pollen tube male gamete embryo albumin seed cotyledons The ovary becomes the fruit and the ovule becomes a seed. 3 The seed germinates and an embryo develops. 4

32 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS cotyledons radicle plumule bud Seed germination OXYGEN TEMPERATURE MOISTURE seed water

33 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Make a detailed drawing: The flower sepal ovary style petal stigma anther Prepare the slide  Remove some petals.  Place the flower on a glass.  Tape the flower to the transparency.  Cut the transparency into a square.  Place it on a slide frame. Project the image.  Insert the slide into the projector.  Project the image onto the paper.  Move the projector in close so the entire image fits on the paper.  Draw over the projected image. Complete the drawing  Add the names of each part of the flower.

34 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 4 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Links Animal reproduction chapters/chap0031.html Plant Reproduction Tutorial ool_learning/junior/lessons/scien ce/plant_reproduction/flash/h- frame-ie.htm Growing plants ducation/bitesize/standard/biolo gy/world_of_plants/growing_pla nts_rev1.shtml ducation/bitesize/standard/biolo gy/world_of_plants/growing_pla nts_rev1.shtml How plants reproduce du/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/ BioBookflowers.html Flowers and reproduction ters/chap0041.html


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