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华南农业大学资源环境学院农业昆虫学课程组制作

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Presentation on theme: "华南农业大学资源环境学院农业昆虫学课程组制作"— Presentation transcript:

1 华南农业大学资源环境学院农业昆虫学课程组制作
欢迎大家选修 《蔬菜害虫》 Self introduction 华南农业大学资源环境学院农业昆虫学课程组制作

2 果蔬害虫 蔬菜害虫

3 内 容 概述 详细讲解几种为害严重的蔬菜害虫 蔬菜害虫的无公害防治 中国南方主要蔬菜种类简介 中国南方主要蔬菜害虫种类简介
内 容 概述 中国南方主要蔬菜种类简介 中国南方主要蔬菜害虫种类简介 蔬菜地生态系统的特点 蔬菜害虫的发生特点及对防治的要求 详细讲解几种为害严重的蔬菜害虫 蔬菜害虫的无公害防治

4 Part 1 中国南方主要蔬菜种类

5 Group 1 Chinese Cabbage Group
Flowering Chinese Cabbage Pak-choi Chinese Cabbage etc. Family: Cruciferae Genus: Brassica

6 Group 2 Cole Crop Family: Cruciferae Genus: Brassica Chinese kale
Cauliflower Broccoli Cabbage Family: Cruciferae Genus: Brassica

7 Group 3 Green Vegetables
Water spinach Lettuce Celery Family: Convolvulaceae Compositae Chenopdiaceae

8 Group 4 Gourds Family: Chieh-qua Wax gourd Cucumber Sponge gourd
Pumpkin, etc. Family: Cucumbitaceae

9 Group 5 Vegetable legumes
Asparagus bean Kidney bean Vegetable pea Vegetable soybean. Family: Laguminosae

10 Group 6 Solanaceous Fruits
Tomato Egg plant Pepper, etc. Family: Solanaceous

11 Group 7 Root Vegetable Radish Carrot Table beet. Family:
Cruciferae Umbelliferae Chenopodiaceae

12 Group 8 Tuber Crops Taro Yam Yam bean Ginger Potato, etc. Family:
Araceae, Dioscoreaceae, Zingiberceae, Laguminosae

13 Group 9 Bulb Crops Onion Chinese chive Garlic Scallion, etc. Family:
Liliaceae

14 Group 10 Aquatic Vegetables
Watercress lotus root Chinese arrowhead Water bamboo, etc. Family: Cruciferae Nymphaeaceae Alismatacear Gramineae

15 一、中国南方蔬菜 主要害虫简介

16 害虫种类 十字花科蔬菜害虫 茄、瓜、豆类蔬菜害虫 鳞翅目 小菜蛾、 菜青虫 斜纹夜蛾、甜菜夜蛾、 粉纹夜蛾、 菜螟 同翅目 甘蓝蚜、萝卜蚜
桃蚜 鞘翅目 黄条曲跳甲 大、小猿叶甲 茄、瓜、豆类蔬菜害虫 鳞翅目 棉铃虫、烟青虫、玉米穗蛾 小地老虎、豇豆荚螟、 豆野螟 粉虱类 烟粉虱(A型、B型) 温室白粉虱、 纹翅粉虱 螨类 朱砂叶螨、截形叶螨、 二斑叶螨、侧多食跗线螨 其它 节瓜蓟马、瓜蚜、美洲斑潜蝇、 黄守瓜、黑守瓜

17 小菜蛾 Plutella xylostella (L.)
Diamondback moth

18 菜青虫 Pieris rapae (L.) Cabbage Butterfly
Eggs Adult 1. Its host include Brassica species. Cultivated and wild Cruciferae. It is widespread throughout Europe and much of Asia, North Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, Canada, USA and Mexico. 2. Damage:The larvae feed singly, usually deep in the cabbage heart, making holes in the leaves, even eat up all leaf blade, only the main veins are left, with frass accumulation. The caterpillars prefer to feed in the ‘heart’ of the cabbage and occasionally cause heavy infestations and partial defoliation. In Guangdong Province there may be 7-8 generations per year. 3. Identification Adult:Adult is a white butterfly with a wingspan about mm in the female. The wings bear several black markings. Eggs:The bulletin-like eggs are laid singly on low surface of the leaves. There are many vertical ridges on the surface of egg. Larva: Fully-grown larva is about 30 mm long, velvety green with a faint yellow dorsal strip, and a row of yellow spots along each side in line with the spiracles. Pupa:The pupa is shuttle-like form, sharply angled, attached usually to the underside of the leaf by a loop of silk. Larva Pupa

19 斜纹夜蛾Spodoptera litura (F.) Common Leafworm
Adult 1.It is a totally polyphagous pest and feed on a very wide range of crops including vegetables, cotton, rice, tomato and tobacco. Other host plants include Citrus, cacao, sweet potato, rubber legumes, sorghum, maize etc. 2.Distribution:It mainly distributes in South and Eastern Old World tropics, including Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, China, Korea, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia, Austral-Asia, Pacific islands, Hawaii and Fiji. 3.Damage:This caterpillar is basically a leaf-eater. Heavy infestations can seriously defoliate the crops, especially the young plants. Newly hatched larvae are gregarious and remain together and skeletonize the leaf on which they feed. Later they disperse and become more solitary and nocturnal in habits. One generation can be completed in as little as days, and in the humid tropics there may be 8 generations annually. 4. Identification: Adult : The adults are pale brownish moth, with the yellow-brown forewing having a distinctive pale band medially: wingspan is mm. Eggs:Eggs are spherical (0.3 mm) in diameter, and laid on the undersides of leaves in batches of and covered with yellow colored hair-scales.Each female lays about eggs, hatching requires 2-6 days. Larvae:The newly hatched larvae are pale green at first, and with a distinct black band on the first abdominal segment. Later they become brown with dark marking, with yellow lateral and dorsal stripes.The lateral yellow strip is bordered dorsally with a series of semi-lunar marks. Pupa :Pupation takes place in the soil in an earthen cell, just beneath the surface, The pupa is dark red, mm long. Eggs Larvae

20 甜菜夜蛾 Spodoptera exigua Beet Armyworm
Adult 1.It attacks more than 170 different species of host plants including cabbage, radish, lettuce, eggplant, pepper, tomatoes, potatoes, beans gourds, rice, cotton, sugar beet, tobacco, etc. 2.Distribution:Africa, Southeast Asia, Central and South Europe, Middle East, Australia, Southern USA, India, Southern China, Philippines, Indonesia, and Canada. 3.Damage:Young larvae eat foliage within webs underside of the leaves. The caterpillars are gregarious, moving in swarms, and destroying the young leaves and stems of the host plants. Young seedlings can be completely destroyed, but older plants often recover after an attack and may be still vigorously. Young larvae skeletonize the underside of the leaves, but later as they grow they eat the entire lamina. In South China there are usually eight generations. 4. Identification: Adult:The adult is a small brown moth of wingspan up to 25 mm, and the fore wing is grayish-brown with two yellow spots near the center. The hind wing is a translucent white with narrow brown borders, There are rather nondescript in appearance and not easy to recognize. Eggs:Eggs are laid on the leaves of the host plants, in clusters, several layers thick, and covered with hairs from the female abdomen. Each cluster contains eggs, one female can lay eggs (up to 1700). Eggs usually hatch after 2-4 days. Larvae: The larvae are very gregarious, at first green, later becoming variable green or brown usually with a lateral strip. Young larvae skeletonize the underside of the leaves, but as they grow they eat the entire lamina.Pupa:Pupation takes place in the soil and lasts about 6 days. Eggs Larvae

21 粉纹夜蛾 Trichoplusia ni Cabbage looper
Eggs Larvae

22 蔬菜蚜虫 Vegetable aphids Lipaphis erysimi Turnip Aphid
1. Cabbage aphid and turnip aphid mainly feed on cruciferae. Cabbage aphid prefers cabbage and other Brassica spp but turnip aphid likes Chinese cabbage and radish better. Green peach aphid is truly a polyphagous species; about 875 plants in 35 different families are recorded as its hosts. The main host is peach, the alternative hosts include potato, tomato, tobacco, beet, cereals and vegetables. All three species of aphids occur commonly and mixed on cruciferous vegetables in China. 2.Distribution Cabbage aphid: The aphid distributes throughout the world in temperate and subtropical climates. In China it occurs nearly all parts of the country besides Tibet . Turnip aphid: Mostly in temperate and subtropics regions. In China it is dominate species in Xinjiang autonomic distract. Green aphid: A completely cosmopolitan species with a worldwide distribution. All species of the aphids occur year around in South China. No eggs are found in the host plants during the winter. All stages of the pests can be found on the vegetable crops in winter season. They reproduce by parthenogenesis. The population increases very rapidly under favorite conditions. 3.Damage: Cabbage aphid: The aphid attacks many crucifers, especially cabbage, cauliflower. It is known to transmit a number of virus diseases in the host plants. Nymphs and adults suck plant sap, causing distortion, stunting. curling, wilting and often lead to death of these host plants when severely attack happened. 4. Identification Turnip Aphid: Turnip aphid is similar to the cabbage aphid in appearance, but has a more distinct green to yellow-green color with less noticeable powdery wax on the body, and it lacks the dark transverse marks on abdomen. Green Peach Aphid: Green peach aphid is rather slender in form, light green or yellow, with indefinitely darker stripes on the abdomen. Cabbage Aphid: Cabbage aphid is grayish-green in color and the body is covered with a fine powdery wax, which gives heavily infested plants a whitish appearance. 蔬菜蚜虫 Vegetable aphids Turnip Aphid 1 萝卜蚜 Lipaphis erysimi Turnip Aphid 2 桃蚜 Myzus pericae Green Peach Aphid 3 甘蓝蚜 Brevicoryne brassicae Cabbage Aphid Green Peach Aphid Cabbage Aphid

23 黄曲条跳甲 Phyllotreta striolata
Stripped Flea Beetles

24 大猿叶甲 Colaphellus bowringi Cabbage Leaf Beetle
1.Host:The two species are common pests on vegetable crops, especially on Brassicous. In South China, these pests mainly attack radish and cabbages. 2.Damage:Both the larvae and the adults feed on the foliage of the host plants. When heavily damage almost the whole foliage is eaten and just the veins are left. 3.Life history:In South China, Colaphellus bowringi can complete 5-6 generations per year, while Phaedon brassicae occurs 5 generations. Usually the two species are mixed occurrence in a same vegetable plantation. Adult female of Colaphellus bowringi lay eggs in cluster with several to 20 individuals, but eggs of Phaedon brassicae are laid separately on the surface of the host plants. Both the larvae of the two species undergo 4 instars. 4.Identification Colaphellus bowringi (Cabbage leaf beetle) (1)Adult Shape: Elliptical Size: 4.7 mm long Color: Blue to black Punctures on the elytra: Irregulars arrangement Scutum: Triangular (2)Larva Size: 7.5 mm long Color: head is black, thorax and abdomen are grayish yellow Spots: A pair of dark lateral-spots on each segment of thorax and abdomen Size: 6.0 mm long Phaedon brassicae(Daikon leaf beetle) Shape: Oval Size: 3.5 mm long Color: Blue to green Punctures on the elytra: Arrange in vertical lines. Scutum: Oval Spots: Four pair of dark lateral-spots on each segment beside the prothorax and the last segment of abdomen 大猿叶甲 Colaphellus bowringi Cabbage Leaf Beetle Adult 小猿叶甲Phaedon brassicae Daikon Leaf Beetle Adult Damage Larvae

25 烟粉虱A型 Bemisia tabaci Adult Sweetpotato Whitefly Eggs Pupa Nymph

26 烟粉虱B型(银叶粉虱) Bemisia tobacci Silverleaf whitefly
Tobacco Whitefly Adult Nymph Pupa

27 温室白粉虱 Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood)
Greenhouse Whitefly Adult Nymph Pupa

28 纹翅粉虱 Trialeurodes abutilonea (Haldeman)
Bandedwinged Whitefly

29 朱砂叶螨 Tetranychus cinnarinus Carmine Spider Mite
Damage 1.Host:It damages a very wide range of wild and cultivated plants including eggplant and gourds. Cotton is its main host plant 2.Distribution:Africa, Middle East, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Australia, USA, Japan, China, Central and South America. 3.Damage:It causes clusters of yellow spots on the upper side of the leaf especially between the main veins near the leaf stalk. Later the affected areas spread, the leaf reddens and finally withers and is shed. Red or greenish mites just visible to the unaided eye can be seen on the underside of the leaf. About generations occur per year in South China. 4.Identification Adult: The adult females are oval, red or greenish, and mm long. The males are slightly smaller. Fine strands of silk are spun by the adults and form an open web above the leaf surface. Egg: The eggs are spherical, whitish, about 0.1 mm on diameter. They are laid singly on the underside of leaves Larva: The larva is six-legged, pinkish, and slightly larger than the egg. They are four pairs of legs and are greenish or reddish. Eggs Male Adult Female Adult

30 二斑叶螨 Tetranychus urticae Koch Twospotted spider mites

31 侧多食跗线螨Polyphagotarsonemus latus Yellow Tea Mite
Damage egg plant 1.Hosts:Tomato, potato, beans, peppers, tea, cotton and many other plants. 2.Distribution:It is virtually cosmopolitan species, but records are sparse in some areas. Recorded from Europe, Africa , Asia, Australia, USA, and South America . 3.Damage:The blades of flush leaves are cupped or otherwise distorted, with corky brown areas between the main veins on the underside of the leaf. These corky areas are often bounded by two distinct brown lines parallel to the main vein, the edges of the leaf being undamaged. 4.Identification Adult: Females are elliptical-shaped, white to yellow, and about 0.2 mm in length, four pairs of legs. Males are slightly diamond-shaped, yellow, four pairs of legs, the fourth pair of legs are bigger than others. Egg: Eggs are laid singly on the undersides of flush leaves. They are oval in outline but flattened on the lower side. Larva: The larva are minute, white, and pear-shaped. Damage tomato Damage green pepper

32 棉铃虫 Heliothis armigera Cotton bollworm
1.It is a common species of pests on vegetables, and sometimes a dominant one on cotton, tobacco, tomato, bean, maize and sorghum as well.. This species is a sporadically very serious pest in many parts of the world. It is completely polyphagous , and very widespread. 2.Distribution:It distributes tropics, subtropics, and warmer temperate regions of the Old World, extending as far north as Germany and Japan. 3.Damage:Clean circular holes are bored in flower buds and balls of all sizes. The bracteoles of buds open out causing the condition known as ‘flared’ squares; these square then die and are shed. The caterpillar also feeds directly on foliage of vegetable crops. 4.Life history:Egg-laying starts about 4 days after emergence and may continue for a further 10 days. Each female may lay 1,000 or more eggs. Eggs are laid singly, stuck on to the host plant; hatching takes place after 2-4 days. Young caterpillars feed on small pods. Older caterpillars feed on small squares and terminal buds, and bean flowers and small bolls. They also burrow into large pods and eat the developing seeds. The caterpillars often feed with their head inside the boll or bean, but with the posterior part of the body outside. The full-grown larva burrows into the soil and pupates there. The shiny brown pupa is about 16 mm long; the pupal period usually lasts days. In the tropics there are usually 5-6 generations annually. 5. Identification Adult: The adult is a stout-bodied, brown moth, of wingspan mm; the hindwing is pale but with a broad dark border. Egg: The eggs are spherical, about 0.5 mm in diameter, yellow when laid but turning brown as the embryo develops. Eggs are laid singly, stuck on to the host plant. Larva: The larva is a stout caterpillar of variable color but often greenish or brownish. The body is marked with longitudinal bands alternatively dark and pale; the pale bands down the sides of the body are particularly noticeable. The full-grown larva is about 40 mm long. Pupa: The full-grown larva burrows into the soil and pupates there. The shiny brown pupa is about 16 mm long. Adult Damage Larva

33 烟青虫 Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) Tbacco budworm
Damage

34 玉米穗蛾(美国棉铃虫) Helicoverpa zea Corn earworm
Damage Larva

35 小地老虎Agrotis ipsilon Black Cutworm
1.This is a cosmopolitan pest of sporadic importance on many crops in different parts of the world. It can cause severe damage in many crops. 2.Hosts:A polyphagous cutworm attacking the seedlings of most crops, in particular on cotton, rice, potato, tomato, tobacco, cereals, and crucifers. 3.Distribution:Almost completely cosmopolitan, from northern Europe, Canada, Japan, down to New Zealand, South Africa, and South America. It has not been recorded to date from a few areas in the tropics. 4.Damage:The young larvae feed on the leaves of the host plants; the older caterpillars feed at the base of crop plants or on the roots or stems underground. Seedlings are typically cut through at the ground level; one caterpillar may destroy a number of seedlings in this manner in a single night, often working along the plant rows. 5. Life cycle:The life cycle from egg to adult takes 32 days at 30℃, 41 days at 26℃, and 67 days at 20 ℃, respectively. 6.Identification Adult: The adults are large, dark noctuids with wingspan of mm, with a gray body; and gray forewings are almost white basely but with a dark terminal fringe, paler in the males. Egg: The eggs are white, globular, and ribbed, 0.5 mm in diameter. Larva: The larvae are brownish above with a broad pale gray band alone the mid-line, and with gray-green sides with lateral blackish stripes. The head capsule is brownish-black with two white spots. The general appearance of the caterpillar is blackish, hence the common name of ‘black cutworm’. The mature caterpillar is mm long. Pupa: The pupa is dark brown, 20 mm long, with a posterior spine. 小地老虎Agrotis ipsilon Black Cutworm Adult Damage Seeding is cut through at the ground level. Larva

36 美洲斑潜蝇 Liriomyza sativae
幼虫潜入叶肉中,留下弯曲的蛀道 1.Distribution:It is almost cosmopolitan in distribution.It is an new imported pest. And has been found in several provinces in South China: Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi and Fujian. It has caused very serious damage in vegetable production in recent years in China. 2.Host:The host plants are included over 100 species of plants, with a preference for beans, cucumbers and tomatoes. 3:Damage:This pest is a polyphagous. It damages the host plants by adult feeding punctures, oviposition punctures and larval mines. The larvae feed within the leaf, making a long serpentine tunnel which is usually white with dampened black and dried brown, and irregular shapes, increasing in width as larval development. If many leaves are mined the yield may be reduced; In Brassica the damage affects saleability. Heavily infested leaves shrivel and wither. 4.Life history In South China the life history of this pest occurs throughout the year. It completes the life cycle in days in summer and in days in winter. There may be generations takes place per year. 5.Identification Egg: Egg is mm in length, with slightly translucent Larva: Larva is headless maggot, about 3 mm in length when full grown. 1stinstar larva colorless, but pale yellow-orange on hatching. Later instars yellow-orange. Larvae with a pair of posterior spiracles shaped like a triple cone. Each posterior spiracle opens by three pores, one pore located toward the apex of each cone. Pupa: Pupa oval, slightly flattened ventrally, pale yellow-orange but often darkening to golden brown. American Leaf Miner

37 节瓜蓟马Thrips palmi Palm Thrips
Adult 1.Distribution:Southeast Asia , Japan, South China. 2.Host:This insect is one of the most important pests on gourd and potato family in South China. 3.Damage:The larva and adult suck the juice of the plants on the young leaf, bud, and young fruit, leading to wither or dwarf of the young leaf. The hairs on the surface of the host plant darkened, the fruits dropped and the yield lost obvious when severe damage happens in the plantations. 4.Identification Adult: Adult is about 1 mm in length, golden, head slightly square. Eyes project, ocelli 3, reddish, ranging in triangle, antenna 7 segmented, wings narrow. Egg: Egg is 0.2 mm in length, elongated, white-yellowish. Nymph: Nymph yellow-whitish, eyes red in 3rd instar. 5.Life History:This insect can occur over 20 generations, with heavily overlapping between generations. It develops and reproduces all over the whole year in the plantations in South China. Usually damage gourds, beans and eggplant during the period of March to October, and forming 3 peaks of population dynamics in late May to mid-June, mid-July to early-August , and September, respectively. In autumn the population is so high that server damage is led. Nymph Damage

38 瓜蚜(棉蚜) Aphis gossypii Glover Melon aphids

39 豇豆荚螟 Maruca testulalis Pea Pod Borer
Adult 1.Host plants:The insect can attacks Pigeon pea, lima bean, green peas, cowpeas, and other Leguminosae. 2.Distribution:Almost completely pantropical regions in distribution, extending up into the subtropics and warmer temperate areas, but only a few record from Australia. 3.Damage:Early instar larvae feed inside the developing seeds, but later instars feed freely inside the pods. The immature caterpillar may leave the original pod and penetrate one or more fresh pods before reaching maturity.This is very common pest of pigeon pea and other legume crops in many parts of the world; sometimes recorded as a serious pest. 4.Identification Adult: The adult moth is brown, with a wingspan of mm. There are two white and transparent spots in the middle of the forewing. Egg: The eggs are oval, shiny white, 0.6 mm in length. They are laid singly or in small groups (up to 6) on immature pods. Larva: The caterpillar is blue with a yellow head, and mm long when mature. Caterpillar wriggles very violently if the pod is opened and it is disturbed. Pupa: When the larva is full-grown it leaves the pod, drops into the ground. And about 3 cm below soil level it spins a cocoon and here it turns into a yellowish-brown pupa with 6-10 mm long. Larva Damage

40 其它食叶甲虫 二十八星瓢虫 Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata
黑守瓜Aulacophora lewisii 黄守瓜Aulacophora femoralis

41 蔬菜害虫天敌种类 Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests

42 瓢虫 lady beetles

43 七星瓢虫 Coccinella septempunctata
Adult Seven spots lady beetle Larva

44 澳洲瓢虫 Rodolia cardinalis Vedalia Beetle

45 异色瓢虫 Leis axyridis Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle

46 虎甲科(Cicindelidae) 六斑虎甲 Cicindela sexpunctata Fabricius Six-Spotted Green Tiger Beetle

47 步甲科 Carabidae Lebia grandis
隐翅虫科 Staphylinidae Aleochara bilineata

48 盲蝽科 (Miridae) Deraeocoris nebulosus

49 花蝽科 (Anthocoridae) Orius tristicolor and O. insidiosus
Nnnn hhh Ll ll

50 长蝽科 (Lygaeidae)

51 普通草蛉 Chrysopa carnea

52 食蚜蝇 Hover Fly Adult Larva

53 螳螂 Mantis

54 蜘蛛 Spiders

55 智利小植绥蟎 Phytoseiulus persimilis

56 寄生蜂Parasitoids Egg-parasitoids Larva-parasitoids Pupa-parasitoids
Trichogramma Apanteles glomeratus Pteromulus puparum

57 姬蜂科 Ichneumonidae

58 岛弯尾姬蜂 Diadema insulare
K K k

59 茧蜂科 (Braconidae) 菜粉蝶绒茧蜂Apanteles glomeratus

60 跳小蜂科(Encyrtidae) Metaphycus alberti

61 蚜小蜂科Aphidiinae 丽蚜小蜂 Encarsia formosa

62 缨小蜂科(Mymaridae) Anaphes flavipes

63 赤眼蜂科(Trichogrammatidae) 玉米螟赤眼蜂Trichogramma ostriniae

64 寄蝇科 (Tachinidae)

65 因感染真菌而死的甜菜夜蛾幼虫。The larvae of beet armyworm are dead of a kind of fungus.

66 因感染真菌而死的小菜蛾幼虫。

67 entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus
因感染真菌而死的烟粉虱.

68 二、蔬菜地生态系统的特点 1、生长周期短、生态不稳定。 2、品种多样,季节性变化大。
一般十字花科蔬菜生长周期:30-50天。瓜豆类较长,但也不超过1个季节。不利于天敌的繁殖和存活。 管理精细,经济价值高。 2、品种多样,季节性变化大。 蔬菜品种的多样性,使得害虫种类多,组成变化大。 十字花科蔬菜的连续种植,为害虫提供了充足的食物来源,使一些害虫呈上升趋势。如小菜蛾和黄曲条跳甲。

69 蔬菜地生态系统的特点 3、复种指数高 多食性害虫如美洲斑潜蝇和斜纹夜蛾容易发生,多种害虫同时发 生,造成严重为害。
4、消费者对蔬菜的外观质量要求高,用药频繁。 天敌被大量杀伤,天敌群落单一。 5、许多蔬菜直接食用,有些除洗涤外不再加工。 在防治上要求高效、低毒。 平时采收频繁,天敌不易建立种群 。

70 三、蔬菜害虫的发生特点 多样性 严重性 可控性

71 对防治的要求 及时有效 安全


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