10Nematoda Ascarids Raccoon Primarily dangerous to human children - Baylisascaris procyonis- 70 to 90% infection rate- Eggs have long-term viability- Low infectious dose needed- Larval Migrans in humans
11Nematoda Ascarids Larval Migrans? Toxocariasis (TOX-o-kah-RYE-us-sis) Human ascarid infection from pets. 10,000 cases / yearAscaridsLarval Migrans?- Larva in wrong host - tries to complete its life cycle anyway- Larva starts to migrate – gets lost – often in the eye or brain- Larva dies - causing extreme inflammatory reaction
12Nematoda Ascarids Larval Migrans - Most victims are children – consuming worm eggs in soil- External Links: Cutaneous, visceral & ocular larva migrans (ex: Whipworm)Baylisascaris procyonis (roundworm from raccoons)Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm from dogs)Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm from dogs)
13Nematoda Ascarids - What protects it? Cuticle - Number infested? Scientific name of our dissection specimen?AscaridsAscaris lumbricoides- What protects it?Adult worms live in the small intestine. A female may produce approximately 200,000 eggs per day, which are passed with the feces . After infective eggs are swallowed, the larvae hatch, invade the intestinal mucosa. The larvae mature further in the lungs (10 to 14 days), penetrate the alveolar walls, ascend the bronchial tree to the throat, and are swallowed . Upon reaching the small intestine, they develop into adult worms . Between 2 and 3 months are required from ingestion of the infective eggs to oviposition by the adult female. Adult worms can live 1 to 2 years.Cuticle- Number infested?1 billion
17Nematoda Scientific name? Hookworms Life Cycle? Ancylostoma duodenale - Larva in warm soil enter feet- Skin “trails” & “ground itch”- To blood, to lungs, then swallowed- Larvae attach to intestine & mature- Adults mate & release eggs- Eggs leave with feces - hatch in soil
18Nematoda Hookworms Stray Facts & Vocab Terms - 10 – 15 mm Ancylostoma duodenale- 10 – 15 mm- Hook-shaped- Cutting plates- Anticoagulant- May live several years- Anemia if – 50 worms- 1, infestations
44How do I tell if I have a parasite? Abdominal pain, Allergies, Anemia Chronic fatigue, Constipation, Diarrhea Eating without feeling full Gas and bloating, Headaches Irritable bowel syndrome Itching (anus or other places) Joint and muscle aches and pains Lethargy, Loss of appetite Nervousness, Skin conditions Sleep disturbances Teeth grinding
45How can a parasite hurt me? Destroy cells faster than cells can be regenerated. Produce toxic substances and allergic reactions. Irritate and invade body tissue, including the skin and intestinal lining. Put pressure on body organs and cause organ obstructions. Depress immune system function while activating immune system response. Result in malabsorption of nutrients.