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PHYLUM ? NEMATODA Common Name ? Round Worms Biology: pg

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Presentation on theme: "PHYLUM ? NEMATODA Common Name ? Round Worms Biology: pg"— Presentation transcript:

1 PHYLUM ? NEMATODA Common Name ? Round Worms Biology: pg 406-407
BDOL: pg

2 Nematoda # of Species? 80,000+ Life Style? 50% parasitic
50 species infect humans alone. Where Are They Found? 90,000 in 1 apple 10 million / meter (ubiquitous)

3 Nematoda Features? One way tube The first “anus” No circular muscles
Eyespots (free-living) Dioecious (means?) - Separate male & females

4 Nematoda Body Cavities? (none) - Name? - Example Organism? Planarian
Mesoderm Endoderm Acoelomate Ectoderm

5 Nematoda Body Cavities? - Name? - Example Organism? Pseudocoelom
Ascaris

6 Nematoda Body Cavities? - Name? - Example Organism? Earthworm or Human
Coelom

7 Nematoda Pet Infections - Ascarids - Hookworms

8 Nematoda Ascarids - Toxocara cati Cats

9 Nematoda Ascarids - Toxocara canis Dogs

10 Nematoda Ascarids Raccoon Primarily dangerous to human children
- Baylisascaris procyonis - 70 to 90% infection rate - Eggs have long-term viability - Low infectious dose needed - Larval Migrans in humans

11 Nematoda Ascarids Larval Migrans?
Toxocariasis (TOX-o-kah-RYE-us-sis) Human ascarid infection from pets. 10,000 cases / year Ascarids Larval Migrans? - Larva in wrong host - tries to complete its life cycle anyway - Larva starts to migrate – gets lost – often in the eye or brain - Larva dies - causing extreme inflammatory reaction

12 Nematoda Ascarids Larval Migrans
- Most victims are children – consuming worm eggs in soil - External Links: Cutaneous, visceral & ocular larva migrans (ex: Whipworm) Baylisascaris procyonis (roundworm from raccoons) Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm from dogs) Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm from dogs)

13 Nematoda Ascarids - What protects it? Cuticle - Number infested?
Scientific name of our dissection specimen? Ascarids Ascaris lumbricoides - What protects it? Adult worms live in the small intestine.  A female may produce approximately 200,000 eggs per day, which are passed with the feces .  After infective eggs are swallowed, the larvae hatch, invade the intestinal mucosa.  The larvae mature further in the lungs (10 to 14 days), penetrate the alveolar walls, ascend the bronchial tree to the throat, and are swallowed .  Upon reaching the small intestine, they develop into adult worms .  Between 2 and 3 months are required from ingestion of the infective eggs to oviposition by the adult female.  Adult worms can live 1 to 2 years. Cuticle - Number infested? 1 billion

14 Nematoda Ascaris lumbricoides Life Cycle? Egg

15 Ascaris lumbricoides Nematoda - Bolus (fatal)

16 Nematoda Worm ID? Hookworms Note Pharynx

17 Nematoda Scientific name? Hookworms Life Cycle? Ancylostoma duodenale
- Larva in warm soil enter feet - Skin “trails” & “ground itch” - To blood, to lungs, then swallowed - Larvae attach to intestine & mature - Adults mate & release eggs - Eggs leave with feces - hatch in soil

18 Nematoda Hookworms Stray Facts & Vocab Terms - 10 – 15 mm
Ancylostoma duodenale - 10 – 15 mm - Hook-shaped - Cutting plates - Anticoagulant - May live several years - Anemia if – 50 worms - 1, infestations

19 Nematoda Hookworms Symptoms? Ancylostoma duodenale - Anemia
- Retarded mental & / or physical growth - Low energy (“shiftless & lazy”) - Lung cough

20 Nematoda Hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale Egg

21 Nematoda Hookworms Interrupt The Life Cycle By: Ancylostoma duodenale
- Don’t Go Barefoot - Avoid Warm, Moist, Soil - Improve Sanitation In Area

22 Nematoda Pinworms Scientific Name? - Size: 5 – 10 mm
Enterobius vermicularis - Size: 5 – 10 mm - Glow w/bright light - Female dies after laying eggs - 10,000 eggs - 1 month to mature - Scotch Tape Test - Symptoms: Itching & Nervousness - 400 million infested

23 Nematoda Pinworms Enterobius vermicularis Eggs

24 Nematoda Drancunculus mediensis Guinea Worms What Is It?

25 Nematoda Guinea Worms What is going on here?

26 Nematoda Guinea Worms Why mostly the feet & lower limbs?
Drancunculus mediensis Why mostly the feet & lower limbs?

27 Nematoda Guinea Worms Drancunculus mediensis

28 Nematoda Is There An Intermediat Host? Guinea Worms

29 Guinea Worms Nematoda YES !!! The Copepod (cyclops)
Drancunculus mediensis

30 Nematoda “Name That Disease !!!” I’m waiting.... I’m STILL waiting....
Too late, it’s....

31 Nematoda ELEPHANTIASIS ! Now, What Caused It?

32 Nematoda OK, So What IS It? The Filarial Worm ! This Did !!!

33 Nematoda Wuchereria bancrofti ELEPHANTIASIS
Scientific name of the Filarial Worm? Wuchereria bancrofti That’s a HEEL ELEPHANTIASIS

34 Nematoda - LYMPHOEDEMA - ELEPHANTIASIS Edema?

35 Nematoda - ELEPHANTIASIS The Filarial Worm The Filarial Worm

36 Is There A Vector? The Mosquito

37 ELEPHANTIASIS

38

39 River Blindness - Cause?
Mosquito transmitted racoon filarial worm  in human eye. (Larval Migrans) River Blindness - Cause? - 18 Million People - Blackfly Eggs in water

40 Nematoda What Are These? These are muscle fibers

41 Nematoda Trichina Worms This is your tongue. What are in the cysts?

42 Nematoda Trichina Worms Scientific Name? Trichinella spiralis

43 Nematoda Trichina Worms Trichinosis Bear Trichinella spiralis
Disease Name? Trichinosis Wild local host? Bear

44 How do I tell if I have a parasite?
Abdominal pain, Allergies, Anemia Chronic fatigue, Constipation, Diarrhea Eating without feeling full Gas and bloating, Headaches Irritable bowel syndrome Itching (anus or other places) Joint and muscle aches and pains Lethargy, Loss of appetite Nervousness, Skin conditions Sleep disturbances Teeth grinding

45 How can a parasite hurt me?
Destroy cells faster than cells can be regenerated. Produce toxic substances and allergic reactions. Irritate and invade body tissue, including the skin and intestinal lining. Put pressure on body organs and cause organ obstructions. Depress immune system function while activating immune system response. Result in malabsorption of nutrients.


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